Wath upon Dearne
Wath upon Dearne is a small town on the south side of the Dearne Valley in the historic county of the West Riding of Yorkshire and the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, South Yorkshire, lying 5 miles north of Rotherham midway between Barnsley and Doncaster. It had a population of 11,816 at the 2011 census, it is twinned in France. Wath can trace its existence back to Norman times. For hundreds of years it remained a quiet rural settlement astride the junction of the old Doncaster–Barnsley and Rotherham–Pontefract roads, the latter a branch of Ryknield Street. North of the town was the ford of the River Dearne by this road that gave the town its name: the origin of its name has been linked to the Latin vadum and the Old Norse vath; the town received its Royal Charter in 1312–13. Entitling it to hold a weekly Tuesday market and an annual two-day fair, but these were soon discontinued; the market was revived in 1814. Until the mid-19th century the town was home to a racecourse of regional importance, linked to the estate at nearby Wentworth.
There was a pottery at Newhill, close to deposits of clay, although this was overshadowed the nearby Rockingham Pottery in Swinton. Around the turn of the 19th century, the poet and newspaper editor James Montgomery, resident in Wath at that time, described it as "the Queen of villages"; this rural character was to change in the 19th and 20th centuries with the development of the deep mining industry. The town lies within the South Yorkshire Coalfield and high-quality bituminous coal was dug out of outcrops and near-surface seams in primitive bell pits for many hundreds of years. Several high-grade coal seams are close to the surface in this area of South Yorkshire, including the prolific Barnsley and Parkgate seams; the industrial revolution and consequent expansion in demand for coal led to rapid industrialisation of the area in the 19th and early 20th century. The population swelled and the local infrastructure was developed for the coal industry; the over-reliance of the local economy on this single industry stored up problems for the future.
The Dearne and Dove Canal, opened in stages from 1798 to 1804 to access the local collieries on the southern side of the Dearne Valley, passed through the town just to the north of the High Street on a large embankment, turned north into the valley. This wide section was known locally as the "Bay of Biscay"; the canal closed in 1961 after many years of disuse and poor repair. Much of the canal line in the town has since been used for new roads, one called Biscay Way. By the 20th century, heavy industry was evident in the area with many large, busy collieries operating. Wath Main and Manvers Main were the two associated with Wath. After the Second World War, the collieries clustered around Manvers were developed into a large colliery complex, including coal preparation, coal products and coking plant, which were not only visible, but detectable in the air for miles around. Rail took over from the canal as a means of transporting coal out of the area, Wath-upon-Dearne became a rail-freight centre of national importance.
Wath marshalling yard, built north of the town in 1907, was one of the biggest, for its time, most modern railway marshalling yards in the country. It was one of the eastern ends of the trans-Pennine Manchester–Sheffield–Wath electrified railway, a project which spanned the Second World War, was in part justified by the need to transport large amounts of coal mined in the Wath area to customers in North-West England. Wath once had three railway stations: Wath Central on Moor Road and Wath North both on Station Road, in order of distance from the town centre; this most distant station was the last to close under the Beeching Axe. The town no longer has a direct rail link, although there has been talk of opening a station on the Sheffield–Wakefield–Leeds line at Manvers a mile from the town centre; the local coal industry was in the forefront of the dramatic decline of the British coal mining industry, precipitated by a change in government economic policy in the early 1980s. This caused much local hardship.
The 1985 miners' strike was sparked by the impending closure of Cortonwood Colliery in Brampton Bierlow, a neighbouring village considered part of Wath. Along with the whole of the Dearne Valley, Wath was classified as an impoverished area and received much public money, including European funds; these were put into regenerating the area from the mid-1990s onwards causing a certain amount of economic revival, changing the character of the area to be more rural, as large areas of ex-industrial land to the north of the town, once used by collieries and marshalling yards, were turned back into scrubland and countryside, dotted with light industrial and commercial office parks. This regeneration of what was still classified as brownfield land has involved building it over with various industrial and commercial parks, large housing developments have been started. Wath upon Dearne is centred on Montgomery Square, where the town's main shops and bus station are located. To the west is the substantial Norman All Saints Church, on a small leafy green with the Town Hall, the Montgomery Hall and a campus of the Dearne Valley College.
There are several busy high-street pubs in the town centre, including a branch of Wetherspoons and Wath Tap, Rotherham's
Woodbury is a village and civil parish in East Devon in the English county of Devon, 7 miles south east of the city of Exeter. It is a commuter village and is residential, since the majority of the workforce commute to Exeter. At the 2011 Census the village had a population of 1,605, the parish had a population of 3,466, it lies on the east bank of the Exe Estuary, has borders – clockwise from the estuary – with the district of Exeter and the parishes of Clyst St George, Clyst St Mary, Colaton Raleigh and Lympstone. Woodbury is part of the electoral ward of Woodbury and Lympstone whose population at the 2011 Census was 5,260; the village itself lies about four miles north of the centre of Exmouth on the B3179 road between Clyst St George and Budleigh Salterton. About two miles to the north lies the east-west A3052 road and about 1.5 miles to the west of the village the A376 road that follows the Exe Estuary from Exeter down to Exmouth passes through the parish. The small settlements of Ebford and Exton are on this road.
Woodbury Castle is an Iron Age fort on Woodbury Common. The ancient manor of Nutwell was in the west of the parish, adjacent to the Exe Estuary; the present house, Nutwell Court was built in 1810. The railway line which follows the estuary between Exeter and Exmouth was opened in 1861. Now known as the Avocet Line, the nearest station to Woodbury is at Exton; the clergyman and botanist W. Keble Martin lived in Woodbury in retirement; the village centre has two antiques shops and a garage. There are two pubs, "The Maltsters Arms" and "The White Hart" and a Chinese takeaway/fish and chip shop. A restaurant, The Green Door, closed in 2015. Woodbury Church of England Primary School now has over 140 pupils after the building of new classroom facilities in 2010; the parish church, dedicated to Saint Swithun is early 15th century: the Perpendicular style is mixed with elements of the older Decorated. Interesting features include the woodwork of the screen, the 15th-century font, Elizabethan altar rails, Jacobean pulpit, an early 17th-century monument to a man and his wife.
Woodbury is twinned with Bretteville sur Odon in Normandy. Village website GENUKI page
Radley is a village and civil parish about 2 miles northeast of the centre of Abingdon, Oxfordshire. The parish includes the hamlet of Lower Radley on the River Thames, it was part of Berkshire. The village is home to Radley College, a famous boarding independent school for boys from the age of thirteen; the Church of England parish church of Saint James the Great was built in about 1290. The church is built of stone, but unusually its roof is supported by wooden pillars installed by a medieval Abbot of Abingdon, told in a vision to "seek in the forest"; the present south aisle dates from the 14th century but the chancel and bell tower were rebuilt in the 15th century. The windows contain Royal heraldic stained glass from the latter part of the 15th century and from the Tudor period. In the tower is a stained-glass portrait believed to represent King Henry VII; the church is missing its north transept, which were destroyed during the Civil War. The south doorway is 15th century but an inscription on the present door states that it was made in 1656.
In the chancel is a Renaissance style monument to the lord of the manor, Sir William Stonhouse, made by Nicholas Stone. The canopy over the pulpit is said to have stood behind the Speaker's chair in the House of Commons and was given to the church by local man, Speaker William Lenthall, in 1643. If so, it is the canopy from under which Parliamentarian soldiers dragged Lenthall at the end of the Long Parliament. St. James' is a Grade II* listed building; the tower has a ring of six bells. Abel Rudhall of Gloucester cast five of them including the tenor in 1754. Mears and Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast the present treble bell in 1952. St. James' has a Sanctus bell that Henry I Knight of Reading cast in 1617; the former vicarage next to the church was built in the 15th century. Past incumbents of the parish have included the future bishops James Nash. Abingdon Abbey held the manor of Radley until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, George Stonhouse built a house in Radley Park, but in 1727 the Stonhouse family replaced this with a new mansion, Radley Hall.
Early in the 19th century the house was leased for a time as a Nonconformist school, from 1847 it was leased to William Sewell who founded Saint Peter's College, Radley. The school is now referred to as Radley College. In 1844 the Great Western Railway opened an extension from Didcot to Oxford, passing through Radley parish. In 1873 the GWR opened Radley railway station 0.5 miles southwest of the village. It is now served by First Great Western trains. South of the village are former gravel pits; the disused pits have flooded. In 1985 the Central Electricity Generating Board began filling some of these lakes with waste ash from Didcot Power Station. In June 2005 RWE npower applied for permission to fill in two more lakes. RWE npower soon withdrew Bullfield Lake from its proposal, but continued with its proposal for the larger Thrupp Lake. Local opposition formed into a protest campaign called Save Radley Lakes. In December 2008 RWE npower announced that it "no longer needed" Thrupp Lake and withdrew its application.
Radley has a Church of England primary school, a village hall and a Women's Institute. There is the Bowyer Arms, controlled by Greene King Brewery. Radley Cricket Club plays in Oxfordshire Cricket Association Division Three. Included among Radley's former residents are: Dr. Gary Botting, now an extradition lawyer in Canada, who attended the Church of England Primary School and began collecting moths in Radley in 1948. Barclay, Alistair. Excavations at Barrow Hills, Oxfordshire: Volume 1 The Neolithic and Bronze Age Monument Complex. Thames Valley Landscape Series. 11. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology. ISBN 0-947816-89-5. Chambers, Richard. Excavations at Radley Barrow Hills, Oxfordshire: Volume 2 The Romano-British Cemetery and Anglo-Saxon Settlement. Thames Valley Landscape Series. 25. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology. ISBN 978-0-947816-73-5. Page, W. H.. H. eds.. A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume 4. Victoria County History. Pp. 410–416. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Berkshire.
The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 196–197. Media related to Radley at Wikimedia Commons
Great Torrington is a small market town in the north of Devon, England. Parts of it are sited on high ground with steep drops down to the River Torridge below, with the lower-lying parts of the town prone to occasional flooding. Torrington is in the centre of Tarka Country, a landscape captured by Henry Williamson in his novel Tarka the Otter in 1927. Great Torrington has one of the most active volunteering communities in the United Kingdom. There were medieval castles and forts in Torrington, located on the Castle Hill. Great Torrington had strategic significance in the English Civil War. In the Battle of Torrington, the Parliamentarians, led by Sir Thomas Fairfax, swept into the town and defeated Lord Hopton's forces; this marked the end of Royalist resistance in the West Country. Today the town is recognised as an important heritage centre for the history of the 17th century, its people can be seen dressed in costume for historical re-enactments and celebrations. An interactive Civil War Experience, "Torrington 1646", marks the town's important role.
The Torrington jail was not big enough for more than one man so the Royalists kept all the Parliamentarian prisoners in the church. 70 barrels of gunpowder exploded and killed everyone held captive and many of their captors. The branch line from Barnstaple to Bideford was extended to Great Torrington in July 1872 by the London and South Western Railway, which built a railway station and locomotive depot in the town; the station was always named'Torrington', not'Great Torrington'. The locomotive depot was closed in 1959 and the line was closed to passenger traffic as part of the Beeching Axe, it was closed to goods traffic in 1984. At the site of the old station there is still in 2015 a pub named The Puffing Billy. A few small sections of track remain, but most has been removed and replaced with a combined foot and cycle path as part of the Tarka Trail; the Tarka Trail continues to Bideford, Barnstaple and on to Braunton in one direction, to Meeth in the other, making 32 miles of traffic free trail.
Mayfair is an annual folk festival believed to date back to 1554 in which the children of Torrington dance around a maypole set up in the town square. The event takes place on the first Thursday in May; the junior school children elect a May Queen and she is crowned in the town square after a procession with attendants. There is Maypole dancing after which the children go off to the fair; the manor of Great Torrington was granted by Queen Mary to James Basset, MP, a younger son of Sir John Bassett of Umberleigh. James's son Philip Bassett sold it to Sir John Fortescue of Ponsbourne, near Hatfield, the eldest son of Sir Adrian Fortescue, descended from Richard Fortescue, younger brother of Sir Henry Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland and of Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. Denys Rolle of nearby Stevenstone in the parish of St Giles in the Wood, acquired the lordship of the manor of Great Torrington from his descendant Sir William Fortescue.
Denys Rolle founded the Bluecoat School in Torrington The fountain and clock in the square were given in 1870 by Mark Rolle A number of family portraits were given to the town by the heirs of Mark Rolle, some of which remain on display in the Guildhall, some of the more valuable ones having been sold, including a portrait of John Rolle Walter by Pompeo Batoni. Torrington Common is an area of common land; the common is administered by a body called "The Commons Conservators". The Common has over 20 miles of public rights of way; the landscape features a variety of habitats and fauna. An "area of waste called the Common" was donated to the town in 1194 by the feudal baron of Great Torrington. In 1889, the rights to this land were transferred by an act of parliament to an elected "Committee of Conservators"; the bill was subject of a local poll, as the document now at Devon Record Office evidences: Poll of inhabitants on "A Bill for Vesting the Management of Great Torrington Common, Castle Hill Common and other lands in the Borough of Great Torrington in the County of Devon in a Body of Conservators and to settle questions between the Commoners of Great Torrington and the Owners of the Rolle Estate and for other purposes".
The Rolle Estate was the largest landowner in Devon, having been built up by the Rolle family of Stevenstone. Since 2 October 1889 the Conservators have met to fulfil their remit to manage the land. Early activity was concerned with control over the grazing and quarrying of the common, but since 1980 grazing has stopped and instead various techniques have taken its place to prevent the common from reverting to scrub and woodland. There has been building development on the commons. Taddiport Bridge and Rothern Bridge: Prior to the opening of the Town Mills Bridge, these were the only local crossings of the River Torridge. Rolle Road: This is the site of the Rolle Canal which opened in 1827 to help transport clay and other commodities between the boats on the tidal river at Landcross and the lime kilns, clay pits and farms around Torrington, it ran through common land, but was closed in 1871. It was filled in to create a toll road across the Common. Waterloo Monument: A stone obelisk erected in 1818 by "the ladies of Great Torrington" to commemorate the Battle of Waterloo.
Some residents feel that the existence of the common has prot
Bishop of Salisbury
The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers much of the counties of Dorset; the see is in the City of Salisbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The current bishop is Nick Holtam, the 78th Bishop of Salisbury, consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 22 July 2011 and enthroned in Salisbury Cathedral on 15 October 2011; the Diocese of Sherborne was the origin of the present diocese. Ramsbury's diocese was created from the northwestern territory of the bishop of Winchester in 909. In about 705 the vast diocese of Wessex at Winchester was divided in two with the creation of a new diocese of Sherborne under Bishop Aldhelm, covering Devon and Dorset. Cornwall was added to the diocese at the end of the ninth century, but in about 909 the diocese was divided in three with the creation of the bishoprics of Wells, covering Somerset, Crediton, covering Devon and Cornwall, leaving Sherborne with Dorset.
In 1058, the Sherborne chapter elected Herman, Bishop of Ramsbury to be Bishop of Sherborne. Following the Norman conquest, the 1075 Council of London united his two sees as a single diocese and translated them to the then-larger settlement around the royal castle at Old Sarum. Disputes between Bishops Herbert and Richard Poore and the sheriffs of Wiltshire led to the removal of the see in the 1220s to New Sarum; this was chartered as the city of New Sarum by King Henry III in 1227, but it wasn't until the 14th century that the office was described as the bishop of Sarum. The diocese, like the city it administers, is now known as Salisbury; the archdeaconry around Salisbury, retains the name of Sarum. Reforms within the Church of England led to the annexation of Dorset from the abolished diocese of Bristol in 1836. In 1925 and 1974, new suffragan bishops were appointed to assist the Bishop of Salisbury; until 2009 the bishops operated under an episcopal area scheme established in 1981, with each suffragan bishop having a formal geographical area of responsibility, being known as "area bishops".
The Bishop of Ramsbury had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Wiltshire, while the Bishop of Sherborne had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Dorset. This scheme was replaced to reflect the increased working across the whole diocese by all three bishops; the two suffragans may now function anywhere in the diocese, the Bishop of Salisbury may delegate any of his functions to them. The Bishop of Salisbury's residence is now the South Canonry, near the Cathedral. Official website
Milber is a housing estate at grid reference SX8770 considered part of the town of Newton Abbot in south Devon. It is on the opposite side of the A380 road from the town centre. Milber contains houses, but a trading estate and some shops; the estate is part of the electoral ward termed Milber. The population at the 2011 census was 7,089, its unusual 20th-century church of St Luke was built as a result of a dream experienced by William Keble Martin in 1931. It is circular in form with three naves and was completed in 1942; some of the roads in Milber are named after trees - Hazel Close, Beechwood Avenue and Chestnut Drive being examples of this. The narrow, kilometre-long, strip of Ben Stedham's Wood separates Milber from the suburbs of Aller and Newtake: the Iron Age hill fort of Milber Down is at the top of this wood; the Anglican Parish
University of Exeter
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, South West England, United Kingdom. It was founded and received its Royal Charter in 1955, although its predecessor institutions, St Luke's College, Exeter School of Science, Exeter School of Art, the Camborne School of Mines were established in 1838, 1855, 1863, 1888 respectively. In post-nominals, the University of Exeter is abbreviated as Exon. and is the suffix given to honorary and academic degrees from the university. The university has four campuses: St Luke's; the university is located in the city of Exeter, where it is the principal higher education institution. Streatham is the largest campus containing many of the university's administrative buildings, is regarded as the most beautiful in the country; the Penryn campus is maintained in conjunction with Falmouth University under the Combined Universities in Cornwall initiative. The Exeter Streatham Campus Library holds more than 1.2 million physical library resources, including historical journals and special collections.
Exeter was named the Sunday Times University of the Year in 2013 and was the Times Higher Education University of the Year in 2007. It has maintained a top ten position in the National Student Survey since the survey was launched in 2005; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £415.5 million of which £76.1 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £414.2 million. Exeter is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive UK universities and is a member of Universities UK, the European University Association, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and an accredited institution of the Association of MBAs; the university's origins can be traced back to three separate educational institutions that existed in the city of Exeter and in Cornwall in the middle of the nineteenth century. To celebrate the educational and scientific work of Prince Albert, inspired by the Great Exhibition of 1851, Exeter School of Art in 1855 and the Exeter School of Science in 1863 were founded.
In 1868, the Schools of Art and Science relocated to Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Queen Street, Exeter and, with support from the University of Cambridge, became the Exeter Technical and University Extension College in 1893. In 1900 its official title was changed to the Royal Albert Memorial College and the college moved to Bradninch Place in Gandy Street; the college was again renamed to the University College of the South West of England in 1922 after the college was incorporated under the Companies Act and included on the list of institutions eligible to receive funds from the University Grants Committee. As was customary for new university institutions in England in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the college prepared students for external degrees of the University of London. Alderman W H Reed, a former mayor of Exeter, donated Streatham Hall on the Streatham Estate to the new University College in 1922. Streatham Hall was renamed to Reed Hall after its benefactor. At the same time, the first principal of the University College Sir Hector Hetherington, persuaded the Council of the College to buy a major portion of the Streatham Estate.
A slow move to the Streatham Estate from the centre of the city occurred over time. The first new building erected on the Streatham Estate was the Washington Singer building; the building was opened in 1931. The first of the purpose-built halls of residence, Mardon Hall, opened in 1933; the second academic building on the estate was the Roborough Library named in recognition of the interest taken in the development of the college by the first Lord Roborough, one of its early benefactors. Roborough Library was completed around 1939; the University College of the South West of England became the University of Exeter and received its Royal Charter in 1955 one hundred years after the formation of the original Exeter School of Art. Queen Elizabeth II presented the Charter to the university on a visit to Streatham the following year; the university underwent a period of considerable expansion in the 1960s. Between 1963 and 1968, a period when the number of students at Exeter doubled, no fewer than ten major buildings were completed on the Streatham estate as well as halls of residence for around 1,000 students.
These included homes for the Chemistry and Physics departments, the Newman and Engineering Buildings and Streatham Court. Queen's Building had been opened for the Arts Faculty in 1959 and the Amory Building, housing Law and Social Sciences, followed in 1974. In the following two decades, considerable investment was made in developing new self-catering accommodation for students. Gifts from the Gulf States made it possible to build a new university library in 1983 and more have allowed for the creation of a new Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies. A further major donation enabled the completion of the Xfi Centre for Investment. Since 2009, significant further investment has been made into new student accommodation, new buildings in The Exeter Business School, the Forum: a new development for the centre of Streatham Campus. In 1838, the Exeter Diocesan Board of Education resolved to found an institution for the education and training of schoolmasters, the first such initiative in England; as a result, a year the Exeter Diocesan Training College was created in Cathedral Close, Exeter at the former house of the Archdeacon of Totnes, adjacent to Exeter Cathedral.