Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist and the founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, continued to build his business empire, he spent one two-year term as Governor of California after his election in 1861, eight years as a United States Senator. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California, he is considered a robber baron. Stanford was born in 1824 in what was Watervliet, New York, he was one of eight children of Elizabeth Phillips Stanford. Among his siblings were New York State Senator Charles Stanford and Australian businessman and spiritualist Thomas Welton Stanford, his immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Massachusetts, in the 17th century. Ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanford's father was a farmer of some means.
Stanford was raised on family farms in the Lisha Roessleville areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called Elm Grove; the Elm Grove home was razed in the 1940s. Stanford attended the common school until 1836 and was tutored at home until 1839, he attended Clinton Liberal Institute, in Clinton, New York, studied law at Cazenovia Seminary in Cazenovia, New York, in 1841–45. In 1845, he entered the law office of Wheaton and Hadley in Albany. After being admitted to the bar in 1848, Stanford moved with many other settlers to Port Washington, where he began law practice with Wesley Pierce, his father presented him with a law library said to be the finest north of Milwaukee. In 1850, Stanford was nominated by the Whig Party as Wisconsin district attorney. On September 30, 1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in New York, she was the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant of that city, Jane Anne Lathrop. The couple did not have any children for years, until their only child, a son, Leland DeWitt Stanford, was born in 1868 when his father was forty-four.
In 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. His wife, returned temporarily to Albany and her family, he went into business with his brothers and became the keeper of a general store for miners at Michigan City, California the name changed to Michigan Bluff in Placer County. He served as a justice of the peace and helped organize the Sacramento Library Association, which became the Sacramento Public Library. In 1855, he returned to Albany to join his wife but found the pace of Eastern life too slow after the excitement of developing California. In 1856, he and Jane moved to Sacramento. Stanford was one of the four merchants known popularly as "The Big Four" who were the key investors in Chief Engineer Theodore Dehone Judah's plan for the Central Pacific Railroad, which the five of them incorporated on June 28, 1861, of which Stanford was elected president; the other three associates were Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington.
The railroad's first locomotive, named "Gov. Stanford" in his honor, is on display today at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento. Stanford ran unsuccessfully for governor of California in 1859, he won the election. He served one term limited to two years. In May 1868, he joined Lloyd Tevis, Darius Ogden Mills, H. D. Bacon and Crocker in forming the Pacific Union Express Company, it merged in 1870 with Wells Company. Stanford was a director of Wells Fargo and Company from 1870 to January 1884. After a brief retirement from the board, he served again from February 1884 until his death in June 1893. In May 1868, he started the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company and served as its first president from 1868 to 1876. While the Central Pacific was under construction and his associates in 1868 acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Stanford was elected president of the Southern Pacific, a post he held until 1890 when he was ousted by Collis Huntington; as head of the railroad company that built the western portion of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" over the Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Utah, Stanford presided at the ceremonial driving of "Last Spike" in Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.
The grade of the CPRR met that of the Union Pacific Railroad, built west from its western terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska. He was given the honor of driving the final spike. Stanford moved with his family from Sacramento to San Francisco in 1874, where he assumed presidency of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, the steamship line to Japan and China associated with the Central Pacific; the Southern Pacific Company was organized in 1884 as a holding company for the Central Pacific-Southern Pacific system. Stanford was president of the Southern Pacific Company from 1885 until 1890 when he was forced out of that post by Collis Huntington; this was thought to be retaliation for Stanford's election to the United States Senate in 1885 over Huntington's friend, A. A. Sargent. Stanford was elected chairman of the Southern Pacific Railroad's executive committee in 18
Saint Mary's College of California
Saint Mary's College of California is a private, coeducational college located in Moraga, United States, a small suburban community about 10 miles east of Oakland and 20 miles east of San Francisco. It has a 420-acre campus in the Moraga hills, it is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church and administered by the De La Salle Christian Brothers. The college was ranked tied for 9th in the U. S. News & World Report's'Regional Universities' rankings for 2017. St. Mary's College began in 1863 as a diocesan college for boys established by the Most Rev. Joseph Alemany, a member of the Order of Preachers and the first archbishop of San Francisco. Unhappy with the archdiocese's operation of the college, Archbishop Alemany applied for assistance from Rome and in 1868 St. Mary's College was handed over to the De La Salle Christian Brothers. In 1889, the college moved east across San Francisco Bay to California; the location on the corner of 30th and Broadway became affectionately known as "The Brickpile" and Saint Mary's College would call Oakland home until 1928, when it moved further eastward to Moraga after a fire damaged the Brickpile.
The Oakland site is marked by a commemorative plaque. The former San Francisco site is now the site of the St. Mary's Park neighborhood; the college and high school sections separated not long after the move to Moraga and the high school is located in Albany. During its first years in Moraga, the college nearly went bankrupt, but managed to gain financial security when it was bought by Archbishop John Joseph Mitty, for whom a residence hall is now named. During World War II the college was used by the United States Navy for the training of pilots. Former President Gerald Ford was stationed at the school and served as a naval instructor; the navy erected many buildings, including the world's largest indoor pool, but only one, Assumption Hall, remains on the campus as the school had little use for most of the buildings after the war. Saint Mary's continued to be a male-only school until 1970. Since more women have come to the college and by 2011, 62% of the students were women. In the 1970s, the college was well known by secondary schools throughout the San Francisco Bay Area for producing the Saint Mary's Math Contest.
The popular contest was discontinued in 1978 but became the chief inspiration for the Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival which continues to this day. There are still two dozen Christian Brothers living and working at the school, the school presidents had always been Brothers until 2013. Recognizing the dwindling number of Christian Brothers, in 2003 the college's bylaws were changed to allow the election of a non-Christian Brother to the presidency if no qualified Brother exists or steps forward. James A. Donahue, a committed and engaged Roman Catholic, became the first non-Christian Brother to serve as president in the 150-year history of Saint Mary's on July 1, 2013. There are four schools at Saint Mary's: the School of Liberal Arts, the School of Science, the School of Economics and Business Administration, the Kalmanovitz School of Education. Saint Mary's College is a liberal arts institution, the majority of undergraduate students are in the School of Liberal Arts. However, the most popular major is Business Administration.
This is followed by Psychology, Communication and Accounting. The average class size is 19, with a student faculty ratio of 13:1. 91% of classes are taught by full-time faculty, of which 95% hold the highest degree in their fields. There are 40 academic majors, with an option to create your own major. Most Saint Mary's faculty are required to teach six courses per year; the School of Science has in the past few years grown as a result of a new science building, Brousseau Hall, which has made the college more appealing to students wishing to major in the life sciences. St Mary's LEAP program. LEAP is designed to offer professional dancers a track to a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree through an individualized and comprehensive liberal arts curriculum. In order to meet the needs of a broad community of arts professionals, classes are offered in San Francisco, New York, Los Angeles, Las Vegas; the school has graduate programs in fine arts, education and business. In addition to these general education courses, students must take four Collegiate Seminar or Great Books courses.
Although based on the academic programs at St. John's College, the Saint Mary's College program consists of only four courses required for all students regardless of major; the first course is offered in the spring of their first year, in the fall of their sophomore year, students have the choice of when they want to take the last two courses during their junior and senior years. There is a seminar course created for transfer students so that they can be just as prepared as their peers in the following seminar courses; the Integral Liberal Arts Program is a "college-within-a-college," distinct from a major, at Saint Mary's College that incorporates the Seminar method for all of its classes. It was modeled on St. John's College; the Integral Program is a complete four-year Great Books course of study, covering all mathematics, science and language requirements. Instead of taking four classes in addition to the general education, Integral students' entire curriculum, including subjects not traditionally related to the "classics," is in the Seminar style.
For example, math is taught through reading and discussing Euclid and Galileo, rather than completing numerical problem sets. Although the Se
Hetch Hetchy is the name of a valley, a reservoir and a water system in California in the United States. The glacial Hetch Hetchy Valley lies in the northwestern part of Yosemite National Park and is drained by the Tuolumne River. For thousands of years before the arrival of settlers from the United States in the 1850s, the valley was inhabited by Native Americans who practiced subsistence hunting-gathering. During the late 19th century, the valley was renowned for its natural beauty – compared to that of Yosemite Valley – but targeted for the development of water supply for irrigation and municipal interests. In 1923, the O'Shaughnessy Dam was completed on the Tuolumne River, flooding the entire valley under the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir; the dam and reservoir are the centerpiece of the Hetch Hetchy Project, which in 1934 began to deliver water 167 miles west to San Francisco and its client municipalities in the greater San Francisco Bay Area. Before damming, the high granite formations produced a valley with an average depth of 1,800 ft and a maximum depth of over 3,000 ft.
The valley floor consisted of 1,200 acres of meadows fringed by pine forest, through which meandered the Tuolumne River and numerous tributary streams. Kolana Rock, at 5,772 ft, is a massive rock spire on the south side of the Hetch Hetchy Valley. Hetch Hetchy Dome, at 6,197 ft, lies directly north of it; the locations of these two formations correspond with those of Cathedral Rocks and El Capitan seen from Tunnel View in Yosemite Valley. A broad, low rocky outcrop situated between Kolana Rock and Hetch Hetchy Dome divided the former meadow in two distinct sections; the valley is fed by the Tuolumne River, Falls Creek, Tiltill Creek, Rancheria Creek and numerous smaller streams which collectively drain a watershed of 459 sq mi. In its natural state, the valley floor was marshy and flooded in the spring when snow melt in the high Sierra cascaded down the Tuolumne River and backed up behind the narrow gorge, now spanned by O'Shaughnessy Dam; the entire valley is now flooded under an average 300 ft of water behind the dam, although it reemerges in droughts, as it did in 1955, 1977 and 1991.
Upstream from the valley lies the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, while the smaller Poopenaut Valley is directly downstream from O'Shaughnessy Dam. The Hetch Hetchy Road drops into the valley at the dam, but all points east of there are roadless, accessible only to hikers and equestrians; the O'Shaughnessy Dam is near Yosemite's western boundary, but the long, fingerlike reservoir stretches eastward for about 8 miles. Wapama Falls, at 1,080 ft, Tueeulala Falls, at 840 ft – both among the tallest waterfalls in North America – are both located in Hetch Hetchy Valley. Rancheria Falls is located farther southeast, on Rancheria Creek. A "small but noisy" waterfall and natural pool existed on the Tuolumne River marked the upper entrance to Hetch Hetchy Valley, informally known as Tuolumne Fall; the waterfall on the Tuolumne is now submerged under Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The Hetch Hetchy Valley began. About one million years ago, the extensive Sherwin glaciation widened and straightened river valleys along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, including Hetch Hetchy, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon farther to the south.
During the last glacial period, the Tioga Glacier formed from extensive icefields in the upper Tuolumne River watershed. At maximum extent, Tioga Glacier may have been 60 mi long and up to 4,000 ft thick, filling Hetch Hetchy Valley to the brim and spilling over the sides, carving out the present rugged plateau country to the north and southwest; when the glacier retreated for the final time, sediment-laden meltwater deposited thick layers of silt, forming the flat alluvial floodplain of the valley floor. Compared with Yosemite Valley, the walls of Hetch Hetchy are smoother and rounder because it was glaciated to a greater extent; this is because the Tuolumne catchment basin above Hetch Hetchy is three times as large as the catchment area of the Merced River above Yosemite, allowing a greater volume of ice to form. Hetch Hetchy is home to a diverse array of animals. Gray pine, incense-cedar, California black oak grow in abundance. Many examples of red-barked manzanita can be seen along the Hetch Hetchy Road.
Spring and early summer bring wildflowers including lupine, monkey flower, buttercup. Seventeen species of bats inhabit the Hetch Hetchy area, including the largest North American bat, the western mastiff. Before damming, the valley floor contained abundant stands of black oaks, live oak, Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, silver fir bordering the meadows, with alder, willow and dogwood in the riparian zone along the Tuolumne River; the valley's abundant plants provided nourishment for black bears and bighorn sheep. Due to large cataracts on the Tuolumne River upstream, Hetch Hetchy Valley may have been in the uppermost range for native rainbow trout in the river. Due to its abundant wetlands and stream pools, Hetch Hetchy was notorious among early travelers for becoming infested with mosquitoes in the summertime. Said San Francisco resident William De
Harper's Magazine is a monthly magazine of literature, culture and the arts. Launched in June 1850, it is the second-oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the U. S.. Harper's Magazine has won 22 National Magazine Awards. Harper's Magazine began as Harper's New Monthly Magazine in June 1850, by the New York City publisher Harper & Brothers; the company founded the magazines Harper's Weekly and Harper's Bazaar, grew to become HarperCollins Publishing. The first press run of Harper's Magazine—7,500 copies—sold out immediately. Circulation was some 50,000 issues six months later; the early issues reprinted material pirated from English authors such as Charles Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray, the Brontë sisters. The magazine soon was publishing the work of American artists and writers, in time commentary by the likes of Winston Churchill and Woodrow Wilson. Portions of Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick were first published in the October 1851 issue of Harper's under the title, "The Town-Ho's Story".
In 1962, Harper & Brothers merged with Peterson & Company, becoming Harper & Row. In 1965, the magazine was separately incorporated, became a division of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company, owned by the Cowles Media Company. In the 1970s, Harper's Magazine published Seymour Hersh's reporting of the My Lai Massacre by United States forces in Vietnam. In 1971 editor Willie Morris resigned under pressure from owner John Cowles, Jr. prompting resignations from many of the magazine's star contributors and staffers, including Norman Mailer, David Halberstam, Robert Kotlowitz, Marshall Frady and Larry L. King: Morris's departure jolted the literary world. Mailer, William Styron, Gay Talese, Bill Moyers, Tom Wicker declared that they would boycott Harper's as long as the Cowles family owned it, the four staff writers hired by Morris—Frady among them—resigned in solidarity with him. Robert Shnayerson, a senior editor at Time magazine, was hired to replace Morris as Harper's ninth editor, serving in that position from 1971 until 1976.
Lewis H. Lapham served as managing editor from 1976 until 1981. On June 17, 1980, the Star Tribune announced it would cease publishing Harper's Magazine after the August 1980 issue. But, on July 9, 1980, John R. MacArthur and his father, obtained pledges from the directorial boards of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Company, CEO Robert Orville Anderson to amass the $1.5 million needed to establish the Harper's Magazine Foundation. It now publishes the magazine. In 1984, Lapham and MacArthur—now publisher and president of the foundation—along with new executive editor Michael Pollan, redesigned Harper's and introduced the "Harper's Index", "Readings", the "Annotation" departments to complement its fiction, essays and reviews; as of the March 2011 issue, contributing editor Zadie Smith, a noted British author, writes the print edition's New Books column. Under the Lapham-MacArthur leadership, Harper's Magazine continued publishing literary fiction by John Updike, George Saunders, others.
Politically, Harper's was an vocal critic of U. S. domestic and foreign policies. Editor Lapham's monthly "Notebook" columns have lambasted the Clinton and the George W. Bush administrations. Since 2003, the magazine has concentrated on reportage about U. S. war in Iraq, with long articles about the battle for Fallujah, the cronyism of the American reconstruction of Iraq. Other reporting has covered abortion issues and global warming. In 2007, Harper's added the No Comment blog, by attorney Scott Horton, about legal controversies, Central Asian politics, German studies. In April 2006, Harper's began publishing the Washington Babylon blog on its website, written by Washington Editor Ken Silverstein about American politics. Since that time these two blogs have ceased publication. Another website feature, composed by a rotating set of authors, is the Weekly Review, single-sentence summaries of political and bizarre news. Editor Lewis H. Lapham was criticized for his reportage of the 2004 Republican National Convention, which had yet to occur, in his essay "Tentacles of Rage: The Republican Propaganda Mill, a Brief History," published in the September 2004 issue which implied that he had attended the convention.
He apologized in a note. Lapham left two years after 28 years as Harper's editor in chief, launched Lapham's Quarterly; the August 2004 issue contained a photo essay by noted photojournalist Peter Turnley, hired to do a series of photo essays for the magazine. The eight-page spread in August 2004 showed images of death and funerals from both sides of the U. S. war in Afghanistan. On the U. S. side, Turnley visited the funeral of an Oklahoma National Guard member, Spc. Kyle Brinlee, 21, killed when his vehicle ran over an improvised explosive device in Afghanistan. During his funeral, Turnley shot the open casket as it lay in the back of the high school auditorium where the funeral was held to accommodate 1,200 mourners, this photo was used in the photo essay. Subsequently, the family sued the magazine in federal court; the case ended in 2007 when the U. S. Supreme Court, although saying the unauthorized publication wa
Mountain View Cemetery (Oakland, California)
The Mountain View Cemetery is a 226-acre cemetery in Oakland, Alameda County, California. It was established in 1863 by a group of East Bay pioneers under the California Rural Cemetery Act of 1859; the association they formed still operates the cemetery today. Mountain View was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the landscape architect who designed New York City's Central Park and much of UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Many of California's important historical figures, drawn by Olmsted's reputation, are buried here, there are many grandiose crypts in tribute to the wealthy that one section is known as "Millionaires' Row." Because of this, its beautiful setting, the cemetery is a tourist draw and docents lead semi-monthly tours. Olmsted's intent was to create a space that would express a harmony between humankind and the natural setting. In the view of 19th century English and American romantics, park-like cemeteries, such as Mountain View, represented the peace of nature, to which humanity's soul returns.
Olmsted, drawing upon the concepts of American Transcendentalism, integrated Parisian grand monuments and broad avenues. Adjoining Mountain View Cemetery is Saint Mary Cemetery and the Chapel of the Chimes mausoleum and columbarium. There are many notable people interred in Mountain View, many are local figures in California history, but others have achieved wider fame. Washington Bartlett, Mayor of San Francisco, Governor of California Coles Bashford, Governor of Wisconsin and Arizona Territory politician Leonard W. Buck, California State Senator. Warren B. English, US Representative California John B. Felton, Mayor of Oakland William M. Gwin, one of California's first U. S. Senators Henry H. Haight, Governor of California William Knowland, U. S. Senator, Publisher - Oakland Tribune Adolphus Frederic St. Sure, Federal Judge Samuel Merritt, early Mayor of Oakland Romualdo Pacheco, Governor of California 1875 George Pardee, Governor of California 1903–1907 George C. Perkins, Governor of California 1880–1883.
S. Senator, 1893–1915. Warren A. Bechtel, founder of the Bechtel company Anthony Chabot, father of hydraulic mining and benefactor of Chabot Space & Science Center Charles Crocker, railroad magnate, banker William E. Dargie, Owner - Oakland Tribune Frederick Delger, German shoemaker and multimillionaire Freda Ehrmann, mother of the California ripe olive industry J. A. Folger, founder of Folgers Coffee Peter Folger, American coffee heir, socialite Domingo Ghirardelli, namesake of the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company A. K. P. Harmon and shipping magnate, secretary Oakland Tribune Publishing Company Austin H. Hills, with his brother, R. W. Hills, of Hills Bros. Coffee in San Francisco in 1878 Herbert Gray Hills, son of the co-founder of Hills Bros. Coffee, active in its expansion into a national brand Herbert G. Hills, Jr. grandson of the founder of Hills Bros. Coffee, sold in 1976 and purchased by Nestlé's, S. A. Henry J. Kaiser, father of modern American shipbuilding Ingemar Henry Lundquist, mechanical engineer, inventor of over the wire balloon angioplasty C.
O. G. Miller, head of Pacific Gas Lighting Corporation Isaac Requa, made fortune in the Comstock Lode and railroads Joe Shoong, Chinese immigrant and founder of the National Dollar Stores chain Francis Marion Smith, the "Borax King" Charles Miner Goodall, Co-Founder of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company Lewis Bradbury, a gold-mining millionaire who owned the Tajo Mine in Mexico, became a real estate developer Brigadier General Henry Brevard Davidson of the Confederate States Army John Coffee Hays, Texas Ranger and first sheriff of San Francisco Eli L. Huggins, Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Henry T. Johns, American Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Ralph Wilson Kirkham, Union Army general Oscar Fitzalan Long, Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Rossell O'Brien, American Civil War veteran who started the custom of standing and removing one's hat during the national anthem Jeremiah C. Sullivan, Union Army general and staff member of Ulysses S. Grant Adam Weissel, United States Navy sailor and Medal of Honor recipient Leandro Campanari, Italian-American violinist, conductor and music teacher.
Malonga Casquelord, Congolese dancer, drummer and founder of Fua Dia Congo. Herbert A. Collins and portrait artist Ina Coolbrith, California's first poet laureate Andre Hicks, Bay Area rapper, record label owner, producer Thomas Hill, artist William Keith, California landscape artist Bernard Maybeck, architect Julia Morgan, architect Frank Norris, author Floyd Salas, author Isabel Seal Stovel, organizers of the City of San Francisco Music Week Bella French Swisher, writer Douglas Tilden, sculptor Edson Adams, laid out the city of Oakland Rev. Benjamin Akerly, pioneer Episcopalian cleric of the Bay Area, performed the dedication of Mountain View Cemetery and officiated hundreds of its burials Moses Chase, believed to be the first American to settle in the East Bay area David D. Colton, vice president of the Southern Pacific Railroad, namesake of the city of Colton, California Alexander Dunsmuir, builder of the Dunsmuir House Rev. Henry Durant, first president of the University of California, Berkeley Joseph Stickney Emery, founder of Emeryville, California Anna Head, founder of the Head-Royce School Nannie S. Brown Kramer, organizer and membership director of the Oakland Women's City Club.
The orchard he established in Alameda County, Fruit Vale, is the namesake of the present Fruit
A suffragette was a member of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections, known as women's suffrage. The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union, a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience. In 1906 a reporter writing in the Daily Mail coined the term suffragette for the WSPU, from suffragist, in an attempt to belittle the women advocating women's suffrage; the militants embraced the new name adopting it for use as the title of the newspaper published by the WSPU. Women had won the right to vote in several countries by the end of the 19th century; when by 1903 women in Britain had not been enfranchised, Pankhurst decided that women had to "do the work ourselves". The suffragettes heckled politicians, tried to storm parliament, were attacked and sexually assaulted during battles with the police, chained themselves to railings, smashed windows, set fire to postboxes and empty buildings, set bombs in order to damage churches and property, faced anger and ridicule in the media.
When imprisoned they went on hunger strike. The death of one suffragette, Emily Davison, when she ran in front of the king's horse at the 1913 Epsom Derby, made headlines around the world; the WSPU campaign had varying levels of support from within the suffragette movement. The suffragette campaign was suspended when World War I broke out in 1914. After the war, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to women over the age of 30 who met certain property qualifications. Ten years women gained electoral equality with men when the Representation of the People Act 1928 gave all women the vote at age 21. Although the Isle of Man had enfranchised women who owned property to vote in parliamentary elections in 1881, New Zealand was the first self-governing country to grant all women the right to vote in 1893 when women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in parliamentary elections. Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895.
In the United States, white women over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the western territories of Wyoming from 1869 and in Utah from 1870. In 1865 John Stuart Mill was elected to be a feminist on a platform that included votes for women, in 1869 he published his essay in favour of equality of the sexes The Subjection of Women. In 1865 a discussion group was formed to promote higher education for women, named the Kensington Society. Following discussions on the subject of women's suffrage, the society formed a committee to draft a petition and gather signatures, which Mill agreed to present to Parliament once they had gathered 100 signatures. In October 1866 amateur scientist, Lydia Becker, attended a meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science held in Manchester and heard one of the organisors of the petition, Barbara Bodichon, read a paper entitled Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women. Becker was inspired to help gather signatures around Manchester and to join the newly formed Manchester committee.
Mill presented the petition to Parliament in 1866 by which time the supporters had gathered 1499 signatures, including those of Florence Nightingale, Harriet Martineau, Josephine Butler and Mary Somerville. In March 1867, Becker wrote an article for the Contemporary Review, in which she said: It will not be denied that women have, ought to have, opinions of their own on subjects of public interest, on the events which arise as the world wends on its way, but if it be granted that women may, without offence, hold political opinions, on what ground can the right be withheld of giving the same expression or effect to their opinions as that enjoyed by their male neighbours? Two further petitions were presented to parliament in May 1867 and Mill proposed an amendment to the 1867 Reform Act to give women the same political rights as men but the amendment was treated with derision and defeated by 196 votes to 73; the first public meeting on the subject of women's suffrage in UK was held in Manchester's Free Trade Hall in 1868.
Amongst the audience was the 15-year-old Emmeline Goulden, to become an ardent campaigner for women's rights, married Dr. Pankhurst and adopted his surname as was customary, becoming known as Emmeline Pankhurst. During the summer of 1880, Lydia Becker visited the Isle of Man to address five public meetings on the subject of women's suffrage to audiences composed of women; these speeches instilled in the Manx women a determination to secure the franchise, on 31 January 1881, women on the island who owned property in their own right were given the vote. In Manchester the Women's Suffrage Committee had been formed in 1867 to work with the Independent Labour Party to secure votes for women, but although the local ILP were supportive, nationally the party were more interested in securing the franchise for working class men and refused to make women's suffrage a priority. In 1897 the Manchester Women's Suffrage committee had merged with the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies but Emmeline Pankhurst, a member of the original Manchester committee, her eldest daughter Christabel had become impatient with the ILP
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles long and 3000–3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome and El Capitan, densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, is a big attraction in the spring when the water flow is at its peak; the valley is renowned for its natural environment, is regarded as the centerpiece of Yosemite National Park, attracting visitors from around the world. The Valley is the main attraction in the park for the majority of visitors, a bustling hub of activity during tourist season in the summer months. Most visitors pass through the Tunnel View entrance. Visitor facilities are located in the center of the valley. There are both hiking trail loops that stay within the valley and trailheads that lead to higher elevations, all of which afford glimpses of the park's many scenic wonders.
Yosemite Valley is located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 150 miles due east of San Francisco. It stretches for 7.5 miles in a east–west direction, with an average width of about 1 mile. Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. More than half a dozen creeks tumble from hanging valleys at the top of granite cliffs that can rise 3000–3500 feet above the valley floor, which itself is 4000 ft above sea level; these streams combine into the Merced River, which flows out from the western end of the valley, down the rest of its canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. The flat floor of Yosemite Valley holds both forest and large open meadows, which have views of the surrounding crests and waterfalls. Below is a description of these features, looking first at the walls above, moving west to east as a visitor does when entering the valley visiting the waterfalls and other water features, returning east to west with the flow of water.
The first view of Yosemite Valley many visitors see is the Tunnel View. So many paintings were made from a viewpoint nearby that the National Park Service named that viewpoint Artist Point; the view from the lower end of the Valley contains the great granite monolith El Capitan on the left, Cathedral Rocks on the right with Bridalveil Fall. Just past this spot the Valley widens with the Cathedral Spires the pointed obelisk of Sentinel Rock to the south. Across the Valley on the northern side are the Three Brothers, rising one above the other like gables built on the same angle – the highest crest is Eagle Peak, with the two below known as the Middle and Lower Brothers. To this point the Valley has been curving to the left. Now a grand curve back to the right begins, with Yosemite Falls on the north, followed by the Royal Arches, topped by North Dome. Opposite, to the south, is Glacier Point, 3,200 feet above the Valley floor. At this point the Valley splits in two, one section slanting northeast, with the other curving from south to southeast.
Between them, at the eastern end of the valley, is Half Dome, among the most prominent natural features in the Sierra Nevada. Above and to the northeast of Half Dome is Clouds Rest. Snow melting in the Sierra forms lakes. In the surrounding region, these creeks flow to the edge of the Valley to form cataracts and waterfalls. A fan of creeks and forks of the Merced River take drainage from the Sierra crest and combine at Merced Lake; the Merced flows down to the end of its canyon, where it begins what is called the Giant Staircase. The first drop is Nevada Fall. Below is one of the most picturesque waterfalls in the Valley; the Merced descends rapids to meet Illilouette Creek, which drops from the valley rim to form Illilouette Fall. They combine at the base of the gorges that contain each stream, flow around the Happy Isles to meet Tenaya Creek at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley proper. Tenaya Creek flows southwest from Tenaya Lake and down Tenaya Canyon flowing between Half Dome and North Dome before joining the Merced River.
The following falls tumble from the Valley rim to join it at various points: Yosemite Falls 2,425 feet Upper Yosemite Fall 1,430 feet, the middle cascades 670 feet, Lower Yosemite Fall 320 feet. Snow Creek Falls 2,140 feet Sentinel Falls 1,920 feet Ribbon Fall 1,612 feet Royal Arch Cascade 1,250 feet Lehamite Falls 1,180 feet Staircase Falls 1,020 feet Bridalveil Fall 620 feet. Nevada Fall 594 feet Silver Strand Falls 574 feet Vernal Fall 318 feet The features in Yosemite Valley are made of granitic rock emplaced as plutons miles deep during the late Cretaceous. Over time the Sierra Nevada was uplifted; the oldest of these granitic rocks, at 114 million years, occur along the Merced River Gorge west of the valley. The El Capitan pluton intruded the valley, forming most of the granitic rock that makes up much of the central part of the valley, including Cathedral Rocks, Three Brothers, El Capitan; the youngest Yosemite Valley pluton is the 87-million-year-old Half Dome granodiorite, which makes up most of the rock at