Museo Nazionale di San Marco
Museo Nazionale di San Marco is an art museum housed in the monumental section of the medieval Dominican friary dedicated to St Mark, situated on the present-day Piazza San Marco, in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. The museum, a masterpiece in its own right by the fifteenth-century architect Michelozzo, is a building of first historical importance for the city, contains the most extensive collection in the world of the works of Fra Angelico, who spent several years of his life as a member of the Dominican community here; the works are both paintings on wood and frescoes. The museum contains other works by artists such as Fra Bartolomeo, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Alesso Baldovinetti, Jacopo Vignali, Bernardino Poccetti and Giovanni Antonio Sogliani. San Marco is famous as the seat of Girolamo Savonarola's discourses during his short spiritual rule in Florence in the late 15th century; the Museum is situated in the oldest part of the monastery occupying about half the total space. The building has expanded over time, now taking up a whole block, part of it is still occupied by friars today.
The oldest section of the building, built over the medieval Sylvestrian monastery, was constructed by the architect Michelozzo at the specific request of Cosimo il Vecchio de' Medici and his expense, to house the reformed Dominicans of Fiesole, an order at that time led by Antonino Pierozzi. Over about ten years Michelozzo completed an modern and functional monasterial building project which contributed to the glorification of Medicean patronage. Michelozzo made use of the pre-existent wall structures of the Sylvestrian monastery complex which date back to the end of 13th century. Michelozzo ably linked together the ground floor rooms around a harmoniously-proportionated cloister and raised the levels of these buildings to create the dormitories on the first floor with a large number of cells to suit an expanding monastery; the cloister is behind the church and it introduces the visitor to the sight of the splendidly poised architecture of the monastery, a typical example of a measured and orderly Florentine Renaissance architecture.
The sight of St. Dominic worship the Crucifix, painted by Fra Angelico opposite the entrance is uplifting; this was the only painted image decorating the white cloister. The appearance of the cloister was changed during the 17th century, when the monks of San Marco decided to celebrate the figure of St. Antonino by commissioning the most famous Florentine painters of the time to paint a cycle of lunettes depicting Scenes from the life of St. Antonino; the large room, which can be entered from the right side of the cloister, occupies all the part of the building onto Piazza San Marco and existed in the Middle Ages when the monastery was inhabited by the Sylvestrian monks. When the monastery was rebuilt in the 15th century, Michelozzo covered the whole area with cross vaults and raised the building to construct the second friars' dormitory. Inside there was a Pilgrims'Hospice, alluded to in the fresco painted by Fra Angelico on the second door, Christ the pilgrim welcomed by Dominicans. Today it is the home of all of Angelico's panel painting, coming from the churches and monasteries of Florence.
This room, known as the “Lavabo” Room due to the ancient function for which it was equipped, is accessible from the cloister and is in front of the Large Refectory, next to the kitchen. Monastery rules imposed the ritual purification of the hands before eating. Above the entrance door is a badly deteriorated fresco by Fra Angelico depicting Christ in Pietà, alluding to the Resurrection awaiting those who nourished by him. Today the room contains works presenting the artistic activity of the second great painter who lived in San Marco at the beginning of the 16th century: Fra Bartolomeo, he kept a painting studio in San Marco until his death in 1517. Basing his work on the preliminaries of rational 15th century classicism, Fra Bartolomeo developed a style of art, freer in its use of colour space and design and inspired the young Raphael. Another door into a room used in the past as the monastery’s kitchen, located in an area containing all of the service rooms, in the vicinity of the “Spesa” Cloister.
Today it contains an important collection of painting by Fra Bartolomeo. The external appearance, with exposed stone walls and a doorway flanked by large windows, reveals that it belongs to the 14th century part of the monastery; the room is dominated by Fra Angelico’s large Crucifixion. This fresco has a rather unreal appearance, due to the state of repair of the background painted blue and now grey and red, because the pigment has fallen and it can be seen in its preparatory state, As if in a collective reflection on the event of the Crucifixion, there appear in the painting not only historical figures but the founders of the religious orders. On the upper floor are the friars'Dormitories, they consist of three corridors surrounding the cloister on three sides, overlooked by 44 cells frescoed by Fra Angelico between 1439 and 1443. The Annunciation is one of the three frescoes painted outside the cells by Fra Angelico before which the friars recited a common prayer at the times and in the ways prescribed by the Dominican Rule.
In each cell is a fresco concerning the ‘’Life and Passion of Christ’’, for the exclusive contemplation of the friar occupying the cell. Savonarola’s cells were not frescoed because they held clothing; this cycle of frescoes, unique in the world, is considered to be the work of Fran Angelico, although he was helped by assistants. First Corridors Cells To the left of the Annunciation is the
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. High intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon lasted for several days. Thousands of homes were dismantled; as a result, up to 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed. The events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest earthquakes in the history of the United States; the death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high in the lists of American disasters. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; the strike-slip fault is characterized by lateral motion in a dextral sense, where the western plate moves northward relative to the eastern plate.
This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, a distance of about 810 miles. The maximum observed; the 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the modern moment magnitude scale is 7.9. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earth's crust took place both before and after the earthquake's impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the supposed cause of the damage along the 450-kilometer-long segment of the San Andreas plate boundary; the 1906 rupture propagated both southward for a total of 296 miles. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as central Nevada. A strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds; the strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. There were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake.
Interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and have been postulated to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by hydraulic mining in the years of the California Gold Rush. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate; the most recent analyses support an offshore location for the epicenter, although significant uncertainty remains. An offshore epicenter is supported by the occurrence of a local tsunami recorded by a tide gauge at the San Francisco Presidio. Analysis of triangulation data before and after the earthquake suggest that the rupture along the San Andreas Fault was about 500 km in length, in agreement with observed intensity data.
The available seismological data support a shorter rupture length, but these observations can be reconciled by allowing propagation at speeds above the S-wave velocity. Supershear propagation has now been recognized for many earthquakes associated with strike-slip faulting. Using old photographs and eyewitness accounts, researchers were able to estimate the location of hypocenter of the earthquake as offshore from San Francisco or near the city of San Juan Bautista, confirming previous estimates. At the time, 375 deaths were reported; the total number of deaths is still uncertain, but various reports presented a range of 700–3,000+. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area. In Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina. Between 227,000 and 300,000 people were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000.
Newspapers described Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, the Panhandle and the beaches between Ingleside and North Beach as covered with makeshift tents. More than two years many of these refugee camps were still in operation; the earthquake and fire left long-standing and significant pressures on the development of California. At the time of the disaster, San Francisco had been the ninth-largest city in the United States and the largest on the West Coast, with a population of about 410,000. Over a period of 60 years, the city had become the financial and cultural center of the West. S. economic and military power was projected into the Asia. Over 80 % of the city was destroyed by the fire. Though San Francisco rebuilt the disaster diverted trade and populati
Panic of 1893
The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897. It affected every sector of the economy, produced political upheaval that led to the realigning election of 1896 and the presidency of William McKinley. One of the causes for the Panic of 1893 can be traced back to Argentina. Investment was encouraged by Baring Brothers. However, the 1890 wheat crop failure and a coup in Buenos Aires ended further investments. In addition, speculations collapsed in South African and Australian properties; because European investors were concerned that these problems might spread, they started a run on gold in the U. S. Treasury. Specie was considered more valuable than paper money. During the Gilded Age of the 1870s and 1880s, the United States had experienced economic growth and expansion, but much of this expansion depended on high international commodity prices. To exacerbate the problems with international investments, wheat prices crashed in 1893. One of the first clear signs of trouble came on February 20, 1893, twelve days before the inauguration of U.
S. President Grover Cleveland, with the appointment of receivers for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, which had overextended itself. Upon taking office, Cleveland dealt directly with the Treasury crisis and convinced Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which he felt was responsible for the economic crisis; as concern for the state of the economy deepened, people rushed to withdraw their money from banks, caused bank runs. The credit crunch rippled through the economy. A financial panic in London combined with a drop in continental European trade caused foreign investors to sell American stocks to obtain American funds backed by gold; the People's Party known as the'Populists', was an agrarian-populist political party in the United States. From 1892 to 1896, it played a major role as a left-wing force in American politics, it drew support from angry farmers in the South. It was critical of capitalism banks and railroads, allied itself with the labor movement. Established in 1891 as a result of the Populist movement, the People's Party reached its zenith in the 1892 presidential election, when its ticket, composed of James B. Weaver and James G. Field, won 8.5% of the popular vote and carried five states, the 1894 House of Representatives elections, when it won nine seats.
Built on a coalition of poor, white cotton farmers in the South and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states, the Populists represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to elites, banks and gold. The Free Silver movement arose from a synergy of mining interests. Farmers sought to invigorate the economy and thereby end deflation, forcing them to repay loans with valuable dollars. Mining interests sought the right to turn silver directly into money without a central minting institution; the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, while falling short of the Free Silver movement's goals, required the U. S. government to buy millions of ounces of silver above what was required by the 1878 Bland–Allison Act. People attempted to redeem silver notes for gold; the statutory limit for the minimum amount of gold in federal reserves was reached and U. S. notes could no longer be redeemed for gold. Investments during the time of the panic were financed through bond issues with high interest payments.
Rumors regarding the National Cordage Company's financial distress caused its lenders to call in their loans and NCC went into bankruptcy receivership as a result. The company, a rope manufacturer, had tried to corner the market for imported hemp; as demand for silver and silver notes fell, the price and value of silver dropped. Holders worried about a loss of face value of bonds, many became worthless. A series of bank failures followed, the Northern Pacific Railway, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad failed; this was followed by the bankruptcy of many other companies. According to high estimates, about 17%–19% of the workforce was unemployed at the panic's peak; the huge spike in unemployment, combined with the loss of life savings kept in failed banks, meant that a once-secure middle-class could not meet their mortgage obligations. Many walked away from built homes as a result; as a result of the panic, stock prices declined. Five hundred banks closed, fifteen thousand businesses failed, numerous farms ceased operation.
The unemployment rate hit 25% in Pennsylvania, 35% in New York, 43% in Michigan. Soup kitchens were opened to help feed the destitute. Facing starvation, people chopped wood, broke rocks, sewed by hand with needle and thread in exchange for food. In some cases, women resorted to prostitution to feed their families. To help the people of Detroit, Mayor Hazen S. Pingree launched "Pingree's Potato Patch," which were community gardens for farming; the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 along with the protectionist McKinley Tariff of that year, has been blamed for the panic. Passed in response to a large overproduction of silver by western mines, the Sherman Act required the U. S. Treasury to purchase silver using notes backed by either gold. President Grover Cleveland
Piedmont is a small residential, semi-suburban city located in Alameda County, United States. Piedmont is surrounded by the city of Oakland, its residential population was 10,667 at the 2010 census. The name comes after the region of Piedmont in Italy, means foothill. Piedmont was incorporated in 1907, was developed in the 1920s and 1930s; the Piedmont Unified School District includes three elementary schools, one middle school, two high schools. The original neighborhood of Piedmont was larger than the current municipality of Piedmont, with the Mountain View Cemetery considered full part of the Piedmont neighborhood. Residents sought incorporation in 1907. Two elections were held among the citizens of Piedmont in 1907, both of which narrowly upheld the decision for Piedmont to become a separate city, rather than become a neighborhood within the city of Oakland. According to the city's Web page, "In the Roaring Twenties, Piedmont was known as the'City of Millionaires' because there were more millionaires per square mile than in any city in the United States."
Many of these millionaires built mansions that still stand, notably on Sea View Avenue and Sotelo Avenue/Glen Alpine Road in'Alta' Piedmont. Piedmont became a charter city under the laws of the state of California on December 18, 1922. On February 27, 1923, voters adopted the charter, which can only be changed by another vote of the people. Piedmont celebrated the year 2007 as its Centennial Anniversary since incorporation; the Centennial Committee hosted celebratory events along a trail that runs through downtown Piedmont and denoted historical landmarks in the city. The Committee created a float for the city's Fourth of July parade; the historical exhibit "A Deluxe Autonomy: Piedmont’s First 100 Years" was on display in the Oakland Public Library from January 5 to March 31, 2007. In August 2017, the mayor of Piedmont, Jeffrey Wieler, resigned after it was revealed he had made disparaging Facebook posts about Black Lives Matter and transgender people. Piedmont is located at 37°49′19″N 122°13′53″W.
It is located near a geological fault line that runs through the East Bay region. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all land. Piedmont is surrounded on all sides by the city of Oakland. Piedmont's northwestern border is adjacent to Oakland's Piedmont Ave commercial district. Piedmont borders Oakland's historic Grand Lake District to the southwest, the quaint and rustic Montclair District to the northeast, the Crocker Highlands and Glenview Districts to the south. Piedmont's major streets include Oakland Avenue, which runs east–west through Piedmont's small city center. Lots in upper Piedmont are, on average, larger than lots in lower Piedmont. A nearby shopping district on Piedmont Avenue is located in Oakland, not Piedmont. A small shopping hamlet had been located on Highland Avenue near the Excedra at Piedmont Park for many years, but in the last few decades has dwindled in number to a small, local grocer-deli, a service station and three banks.
No major highways run within Piedmont's borders but entrances to scenic* CA Highway 13 and CA I-580 are quite near. * A'scenic' designation means no advertisements are permitted. Piedmont is entirely zoned for single-family dwelling residential use. Piedmont has minimal commerce compared with statistically similar cities, relies on property taxes and fees for public revenues to support public services; the city has few multi-family or second units. The city has a small number of businesses in its commercial district on Highland Avenue and a small number of businesses on Grand Avenue near Piedmont's western border with Oakland. Piedmont provides its own fire, police and recreational services but does not have its own public library nor federal post office. Special, incremental property tax assessments on Piedmont real estate for schools and some public services are not shared with Oakland; the city is served by two local weekly newspapers: the Piedmont Post and the Piedmonter, a neighborhood newspaper organized under the Contra Costa Times news organization.
Piedmont has a City Hall, a Community Hall, a Veterans' Memorial Building, a Recreation Center, Aquatics Center, Center for the Arts. Public parks include Piedmont Park, Dracena Park, Crocker Park, Hampton Park, Linda Ave Tot Lot and Dog Run, Kennelly Skate Park, Blair Park. Playfields include Coaches Playfield, Linda Playfield, Piedmont Sports Field. Regular town events include the July 4th Parade, Movies in the Park, Harvest Festival, Haunted House, Thanksgiving Turkey Trot, Christmas Tree Lighting. Piedmont High School's annual Bird Calling Contest was featured on "The Tonight Show" with Johnny Carson and "The Late Show With David Letterman." Active charities and community groups include the Piedmont Education Foundation, the Piedmont Historical Society, the Piedmont Center for the Arts, the Piedmont Beautification Foundation, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Piedmont League of Women Voters, Dress Best for Less, the Piedmont Highlanders Drums & Pipes, the Piedmont Civic Association, the Piedmont Community Church, the Piedmont East Bay Children's Choir, the Piedmont-Montclair Rotary Club, the
The Essequibo River is the largest river in Guyana, the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. Rising in the Acarai Mountains near the Brazil-Guyana border, the Essequibo flows to the north for 1,014 kilometres through forest and savanna into the Atlantic Ocean. With a total drainage basin of 69,300 sq.km with average discharge of 74,303 cu ft/s. The river runs through the Guianan moist forests ecoregion. There are many rapids and waterfalls along the route of the Essequibo, its 20-kilometre wide estuary is dotted with numerous small islands, it enters the Atlantic 21 kilometres from the capital city of Guyana. The river features Murrays Fall, Pot Falls, Kumaka Falls, its many tributaries include the Rupununi, Mazaruni, Kiyuwini and Cuyuni rivers. For over 30 kilometres from its mouth, the river's channel is divided by the large flat and fertile islands of Leguan, about 28 square kilometres, about 44 square kilometres, Hog Island, about 60 square kilometres. Fort Island is off the eastern side of Hog Island.
Fort Island was the seat of government of the country during the Dutch colonial era. The river has a rich fauna. More than 300 fish species are known from the Essequibo basin, including 60 endemics; this may be an underestimate of the true diversity. For example, surveys of the upper Mazaruni River found 36–39 species, of which 13–25% still were undescribed in 2013. At least 24 fish species are resticted to Mazaruni River alone. During floods the headwaters of the Branco River and those of the Essequibo are connected, allowing a level of exchange in the aquatic fauna such as fish between the two systems; the first European discovery was by the ships of Juan de Esquivel, deputy of Don Diego Columbus, son of Christopher Columbus. The Essequibo River is named after Esquivel. In 1499 Alonso de Ojeda explored the mouths of the Orinoco and was the first European to explore the Essequibo. Capuchin missionaries established missions in the territory before the Dutch settled along Esquivel's River. In 1596 Lawrence Kemys, serving as second-in-command of Walter Raleigh's British expedition to Guiana, led a force inland along the banks of the Essequibo River, reaching what he wrongly believed to be Lake Parime.
The next year Kemys, in command of the Darling, continued the exploration of the Guiana coast and the Essequibo river. The first European settlement in Guyana was built by the Dutch along the lower part of the Essequibo in 1615; the colonists remained on friendly terms with the Native American peoples of the area, establishing riverside sugar and cacao plantations. In a document detailing instructions for the Dutch Postholder in Cuyuni, it was mentioned that Indians trading in Chinese slaves to sell to people who lived along the Essequibo river were to be allowed to conduct their business; the Independence war of Venezuela beginning in the 19th century ended the missionary settlements. At this time, Britain needed to have a colony, besides Trinidad, to serve the large trade sailboats on their large travel trading route around South America. Venezuela claims that the Essequibo is the true border between it and Guyana, claiming all territory west of it; the boundary was set between Venezuela and Guyana's colonial power, Great Britain in 1899 through an arbitration proceeding.
A letter written by Venezuela's legal counsel, named partner Severo Mallet-Prevost of New York City law firm Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle alleged that the Russian and British judges on the tribunal had acted improperly and granted the lion's share of the dispute territory to Britain due to a political deal between Russia and the United Kingdom. As a result, Venezuela has revived its claim to the disputed territory. Essequibo is the name of a former Dutch colony founded in 1616 and located in the region of the Essequibo River that became part of British Guiana. In August 1995 there was an acid spill in the river by the Canadian mining company Cambior. An estimated 4 million cubic metres of waste laced with cyanide was released into the river causing much destruction. Sponsored by the Royal Geographical Society the German researcher Robert Hermann Schomburgk investigated the river Essequibo and followed its course to the south-west, while Sipu River flows to a westerly direction, he specified the coordinates of the source at 0 ° 41 ` northern latitude.
In 1908 the German-American ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann traveled on river Essequibo and confluent Potaro, he described 336 fish species in these rivers. As part of a British Technical Assistance project "Operation El Dorado" geologists Dr Jevan P. Berrangé and Dr Richard L. Johnson made the first topographic and geological maps of Guyana south of latitude 4 degrees North, they examined 1:60,000 scale panchromatic aerial photos with a stereoscope to interpret the physical features and the geology of the region prior to making four expeditions into the field to check their observations. On Expedition III they explored the entire Essequibo basin, they travelled separately in two outboard powered canoes, each team comprising a geologist and five Amerindians. Starting at Kanashen, they canoed up all the major eastward flowing tributaries: the Kuyuwini, Kassikaityu and Sipu rivers, as well as the Chadikar River which on the basis of its north-south trend and larger flow of water is considered to be the source of the Essiquibo rather than the eastward flowing Sipu River.
In his memoirs Richard Johnson re
Alphonse Legros was a French painter, etcher and medallist. Legros was born in Dijon. While young, Legros visited the farms of his relatives, the peasants and landscapes of that part of France are the subjects of many of his works, he was sent to the art school at Dijon with a view to qualifying for a trade, was apprenticed to Maître Nicolardo, house decorator and painter of images. In 1851, Legros left for Paris to take another situation. In Paris, Legros studied with scene-painter and decorator of theatres, he attended the drawing-school of Lecoq de Boisbaudran where he found himself in sympathy with Jules Dalou and Auguste Rodin. In 1855, he attended the evening classes of the École des Beaux Arts. Legros sent two portraits to the Paris Salon of 1857: one was rejected, formed part of the exhibition of protest organized by François Bonvin in his studio; this work was presented to the museum at Tours by the artist when his friend Jean-Charles Cazin was curator. Champfleury saw the work in the Salon, sought out the artist to enlist him in the "Realists," a group round Gustave Courbet.
In 1859, Legros's L'Angelus was exhibited, the first of the church interiors for which he was best known. Two years Ex Voto was exhibited, but only obtained a mention at the Salon, he moved to England in 1864 married Frances Rosetta Hodgson. At first he lived by his teaching, he became teacher of etching at the South Kensington School of Art, in 1876 Slade Professor at University College London in succession to Edward Poynter. Whilst teaching at the Slade School Legros taught a large contingent of women, who came to be known as the Slade Girls. Through his field of sculpture he encouraged the design of medals based upon the Italian renaissance style of portrait, illustrating the character, profession or life of the individual portrayed; the Slade Girls attracted commissions from a range of societies and organisations due to the beauty and skill of their work. Pupils of note include the Casella sisters, Fedora Gleichen, Lilian Swainson and Elinor Hallé. Legros was naturalized as a British citizen in 1881, remained at University College for 17 years.
He would paint a torso or a head for the students in an hour or less. Legros picked up the art of etching by watching a college in Paris working at a commercial engraving, taught himself the making of medals, he considered the traditional journey to Italy an important part of artistic training, he gave part of his salary to augment the income available for a travelling studentship. He died in Watford. Works, after Legros resigned his professorship in 1892, returned to the manner of his early days—imaginative landscapes, castles in Spain, farms in Burgundy, etchings such the series of The Triumph of Death, the sculptured fountains for the gardens of the Duke of Portland at Welbeck Abbey. Pictures and etchings by Legros, went to the following galleries and museums: "Amende Honorable", "Dead Christ", bronzes and twenty-two drawings, in the Luxembourg, Paris "Landscape," "Study of a Head," and portraits of Browning, Burne-Jones, Cassel and Marshall, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Kensington "Femmes en prière" "The Tinker" and six other works from the lonides Collection, bequeathed to South Kensington "Christening", "Barricade", "The Poor at Meat", two portraits and several drawings and etchings, collection of Lord Carlisle "Two Priests at the Organ", "Landscape" and etchings, collection of Rev. Stopford Brooke "Head of a Priest", collection of Mr Vereker Hamilton "The Weed-burner", some sculpture and a large collection of etchings and drawings, Mr Guy Knowles "Psyche," collection of Mr L W Hudson "Snow Scene," collection of George Frederic Watts RA Thirty-five drawings and etchings, the Print Room, British Museum "Jacob's Dream" and twelve drawings of the antique, Cambridge "St Jerome", two studies of heads and some drawings, Manchester "The Pilgrimage" and "Study made before the Class" "Study of Heads," Peel Pan Museum, Salford.
"Portrait of Cardinal With Patron Saint", Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame University "Communion" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Legros, Alphonse". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Holroyd, Charles. "Legros, Alphonse". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Dr Hans W Singer, "Alphonse Legros," Die graphischen Künste. Edward Twohig R. E. Print REbels: Haden - Palmer - Whistler and the origins of the RE ISBN 978-1-5272-1775-1. Published by the Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers in London, in 2018; the Boston Public Library's Alphonse Legros set on Flickr.com Alphonse Legros exhibition catalogs Alphonse Legros in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Vickery, Atkins & Torrey
Vickery, Atkins & Torrey was an interior design firm and art gallery in San Francisco, that helped introduce California to Impressionism. It opened in 1888 on Grant Avenue at Morton Street, where it was destroyed in the 1906 fire, after a few years reopened at 550 Sutter Street, where it stayed in business until 1933. William Kingston Vickery founded an interior design firm and art gallery in San Francisco in 1888 with his nephew Henry Atkins. In about 1891 they were joined by Frederick C. Torrey, a specialist in prints and Chinese porcelains. In 1900 the company became Atkins & Torrey. During the 1890s William Vickery supervised a series of loan exhibitions that helped introduce Impressionism to California in the form of paintings by Monet, Eugène Boudin, Paul Cézanne, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas; these pictures were lent by Californian impressionist Lucy Bacon, who studied in France under Camille Pissarro and met Paul Cézanne, Mrs. William H. Crocker, the leading California patron of French Impressionist art at the time.
In its gallery, the company exhibited European and Japanese prints, Pictorialist photography and sculpture. Some of the prominent California artists who had one-person exhibitions there were Anne Bremer, Maynard Dixon, William Keith, Xavier Martinez, Francis McComas, Arthur Putnam, Mary Curtis Richardson. Vickery, Atkins & Torrey designed interiors for mansions and universities; the firm sold furniture, decorative objects and jewelry, including many works designed by Henry Atkins. The firm published art books. Vickery, Atkins & Torrey moved to several locations within San Francisco during its existence: 22 Montgomery Street 126 Kearny Street 631 Market Street 108 Grant Street 236 Post Street 1774 California Street 550 Sutter Street, San Francisco