The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Draper was originally a term for a retailer or wholesaler of cloth that was mainly for clothing. A draper may additionally operate as a merchant or a haberdasher. Drapers were an important trade guild during the period, when the sellers of cloth operated out of drapers shops. However the original meaning of the term has now fallen out of use. In 1724, Jonathan Swift wrote a series of pamphlets in the guise of a draper called the Drapiers Letters. A draper is now defined as a highly skilled role within the fashion industry and this is an alternative method to drafting, when the garment is initially worked out from measurements on paper. A fashion draper may be known as a first hand because they are often the most skilled creator in the workshop, however a first hand in a costume studio is often an assistant to the draper. They are responsible for cutting the fabric with the patterns and assisting in costume fittings, draper Drapery Haberdasher Millinery Kraków Cloth Hall, Renaissance landmark of Kraków, Poland Worshipful Company of Drapers
Richard II of England
Richard II, known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. Richard was the brother of Edward of Angoulême, upon whose death, Richard. Upon the death of Richards father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by primogeniture, with Edward IIIs death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten. During Richards first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils, most of the aristocracy preferred this to a regency led by the kings uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants Revolt in 1381, the young king played a major part in the successful suppression of this crisis. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled, the next two years have been described by historians as Richards tyranny.
In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunts son, Henry of Bolingbroke, Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Claiming initially that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity in February 1400, he is thought to have starved to death. Richard was said to have tall, good-looking and intelligent. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years War that Edward III had started, modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, Richard of Bordeaux was the younger son of Edward, the Black Prince, and Joan of Kent. Edward, heir to the throne of England, had distinguished himself as a commander in the early phases of the Hundred Years War.
After further military adventures, however, he contracted dysentery in Spain in 1370 and he never fully recovered and had to return to England the next year. Joan of Kent had been at the centre of a dispute between Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, and William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, from which Holland emerged victorious. Less than a year after Hollands death in 1360, Joan married Prince Edward, since she was a granddaughter of King Edward I and a first cousin of King Edward III, the marriage required papal approval
Worshipful Company of Drapers
The Worshipful Company of Drapers is one of the 110 livery companies of the City of London. It has the formal name The Master and Wardens and Brethren, more usually known simply as the Drapers Company, it is one of the historic Great Twelve Livery Companies and was founded during the Middle Ages. An informal association of drapers had organized as early as 1180, the organisation was formally founded in 1361, it received a Royal Charter three years later. It was incorporated as a company under a Royal Charter in 1438 and was the first corporate body to be granted a coat of arms, the charter gave the company perpetual succession and a common seal. Over the centuries the original privileges granted by Royal Charter have been confirmed and amended by successive monarchs, the acting charter of today is that granted by James I in 1607, amended by four supplemental charters, most recently in 2008. The majority of drapers lived in and around Cornhill, Candlewick Street, possibly it was for this reason that their allegiance was transferred to St Mary le Bow in Cheapside and to St Michael, where the company continues to worship today.
Despite these changes, the drapers retain the Blessed Virgin Mary as their patron saint, the organisation was a trade association of wool and cloth merchants. It has been one of the most powerful companies in London politics, over one hundred Lord Mayors have been members of the company, the first, Henry Fitz-Ailwyn, is thought to have been a draper. During the Plantation of Ulster, the company held land around Moneymore, the company operates as a charitable and educational institution. It administers three almshouses, Queen Elizabeth College Greenwich, Edmansons Close Tottenham and Walters Close Southwark and it provides the chairman and four other governors of Bancrofts School, who use the Drapers coat of arms and motto. It is the co-sponsor of Drapers Academy, which uses a similar logo, the Company founded two girls schools, in Llandaff and Denbigh, using the endowment of Welsh merchant Thomas Howell, who bequeathed a sum of money to the foundation. Both schools are independent and separate institutions but the Company still has a representative in the body of the former.
The company has links with some eighteen other educational establishments. It administers charitable trusts relating to relief of need and almshouses, it provides banqueting and catering services, the Court of Assistants is its governing body. The Drapers Company continues to play a role in the life of the City and its liverymen carry out important functions in the elections of the governance of the City and its offices. The Drapers Company is based at Drapers Hall located in Throgmorton Street, the company has owned the site since 1543, when it purchased the London mansion of Thomas Cromwell, of Austin Friars, from King Henry VIII. Cromwell had been attainted and executed in 1540, the building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London and rebuilt to designs by Edward Jarman. After another fire in 1772, it was rebuilt again and this time the architect was John Gorham
Philemon Holland was an English schoolmaster and translator. He is known for having produced the first English translations of works by Livy, Pliny the Elder, and Plutarch, and for his translation of William Camdens Britannia. Philemon Holland, born at Chelmsford, Essex, in 1552, was the son of John Holland, the Norfolk branch claimed kinship with the Hollands of Up Holland, but this is questionable. Hollands grandfather, Edward Holland, was of Glassthorpe, Hollands father, John Holland, was one of the Marian exiles with Miles Coverdale during the reign of Mary I, when Catholicism was reestablished. After the accession of Elizabeth I in November 1558 he returned to England and he was appointed rector of Great Dunmow, Essex, on 26 September 1564, where he died in 1578. Holland received a BA in 1571, and was elected a minor Fellow at Trinity on 28 September 1573 and his fellowship was terminated when he married in 1579. On 11 July 1585 Holland was incorporated MA at Oxford, Holland was admitted to the freedom of the city of Coventry on 30 September 1612, and when King James visited Coventry on 2 September 1617, was chosen to make a speech in the Kings honour.
He wore a suit of black satin for the occasion, and it was published as A learned and religious Speech delivered unto His. Maiestie, at. Coventry. In addition to his duties as usher of Coventry grammar school, Holland became tutor to George Berkeley, whose home was nearby at Caludon Castle. It appears the position was given to him at his advanced age out of respect for his talents and service to the city, however he retained it for only fourteen months, formally requesting to be relieved on 26 November 1628. On 24 October 1632 the mayor and alderman granted him a pension of £3 6s 8d for the three years, forasmuch as Dr. Holland, by reason of his age, is now grown weak. Hollands wife, who died in 1627 at the age of 72 is buried in Holy Trinity, Holland combined his teaching and medical practice with the translation of classical and contemporary works. His first published translation, The Romane Historie, was the first complete rendering of Livys Latin history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, into English.
According to John Considine, It was a work of importance, presented in a grand folio volume of 1458 pages. The translation set out to be lucid and unpretentious, and achieved its aim with marked success and it is accurate, and often lively, and although it does not attempt to imitate the terseness of Latin, it avoids prolixity. In 1601 Holland published, in two folios, an equally huge translation from Latin, Pliny the Elders The Historie of the World, dedicated to Sir Robert Cecil and this was perhaps the most popular of Hollands translations. Indeed, after four centuries, Holland is still the only translator of this work to attempt to evoke its literary richness, in 1603 Holland published The Philosophie, commonly called, the Morals, dedicating it to King James. This was the first English translation of Plutarchs Moralia, Holland followed the Greek of Plutarchs original, and made use as well of a Latin translation and of the French translation of 1572 by Jacques Amyot
Greenwich is an early-established district of todays London, centred 5.5 miles east south-east of Charing Cross. The town lends its name to the Royal Borough of Greenwich, Greenwich is generally described as being part of South-east London and sometimes as being part of East London. Greenwich is notable for its history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian. The town became the site of a palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor. These buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, and they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public, other buildings are used by University of Greenwich and Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. The town became a resort in the 18th century and many grand houses were built there, such as Vanbrugh Castle established on Maze Hill.
From the Georgian period estates of houses were constructed above the town centre, Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created. The place-name Greenwich is first attested in a Saxon charter of 918 and it is recorded as Grenewic in 964, and as Grenawic in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1013. It is Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, and Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291, the name means green wic or settlement. An article in The Times of 13 October 1967 stated, East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of Londons heavy industry. West Greenwich is a hybrid, the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development. Royal charters granted to English colonists in North America, often used the name of the manor of East Greenwich for describing the tenure as that of free socage, New England charters provided that the grantees should hold their lands as of his Majesty’s manor of East Greenwich.
Grants named the castle of Windsor, places in North America that have taken the name East Greenwich include a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, a hamlet in Washington County, New York, and a town in Kent County, Rhode Island. Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House, in Greenwich Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds, to the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman villa or temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot and it was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius and Honorius to the 5th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4 television programme Time Team in 1999, broadcast in 2000, the Roman road from London to Dover, Watling Street crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath
Beowulf is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative lines. It may be the oldest surviving poem in Old English and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English literature. A date of composition is a matter of contention among scholars, the only certain dating pertains to the manuscript, the author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the Beowulf poet. The poem is set in Scandinavia, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendels mother attacks the hall and is defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Geatland and king of the Geats. After a period of fifty years has passed, Beowulf defeats a dragon, after his death, his attendants cremate his body and erect a tower on a headland in his memory. The full poem survives in the known as the Nowell Codex. It has no title in the manuscript, but has become known by the name of the storys protagonist.
In 1731, the manuscript was damaged by a fire that swept through Ashburnham House in London that had a collection of medieval manuscripts assembled by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton. The Nowell Codex is currently housed in the British Library, the poem may have been brought to England by people of Geatish origins. Others have associated this poem with the court of King Alfred the Great or with the court of King Cnut the Great. The poem deals with legends, was composed for entertainment, though Beowulf himself is not mentioned in any other Anglo-Saxon manuscript, scholars generally agree that many of the other personalities of Beowulf appear in Scandinavian sources. This does not only people, but clans and some of the events. Three halls, each about 50 metres long, were found during the excavation, the majority view appears to be that people such as King Hroðgar and the Scyldings in Beowulf are based on real historical people from 6th-century Scandinavia. 19th-century archeological evidence may confirm elements of the Beowulf story, Eadgils was buried at Uppsala according to Snorri Sturluson.
When Eadgils mound was excavated in 1874, the finds supported Beowulf and they showed that a powerful man was buried in a large barrow, c 575, on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and he was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle
Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley
Thomas Egerton was born in 1540 in the parish of Dodleston, England. He was the son of Sir Richard Egerton and an unmarried woman named Alice Sparks. He was acknowledged by his fathers family, who paid for his education and he studied Liberal Arts at Brasenose College and received a bachelors degree in 1559. He studied law at Lincolns Inn and called a barrister by 1572 and he was a Roman Catholic, until a point in 1570 when his lack of conformity with the Church of England became an issue when his Inn passed on a complaint from the Privy Council. He built a respectable legal practice pleading cases in the Courts of Queens Bench, after Queen Elizabeth I saw him plead a case against the crown he was made Queens Counsel. In 1579 he was made a Master of the Bench of Lincolns Inn, on 28 June 1581 he was appointed Solicitor General. As Solicitor General, Egerton became a frequent legal advocate for the crown, briefly, he was MP for Cheshire, 1584-7. He was one of the prosecutors at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots and he was the prosecutor in the trial of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, for high treason.
He was made Attorney General on 2 June 1592, he was knighted the next year and he was made Master of the Rolls on 10 April 1594 where he excelled as an equity judge and became a patron of the young Francis Bacon. During this time his first wife died, and he married Elizabeth Wolley, the widow of Sir John Wolley and he bought Tatton Park, in 1598. It would stay in the family for more than three centuries, at this time –1597 or 1598 – he hired John Donne as secretary. This arrangement ended in some embarrassment, since Donne secretly married Ann More, Elizabeths niece, Elizabeth died around the beginning of 1600, and Egerton married Alice Spencer, whose first husband had been Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby. She survived him by two decades, and was an important patron of the arts, usually known as the Dowager Countess of Derby, ashridge House served the Egerton family as a residence until the 19th century. The Egertons had a chapel with burial vault in Little Gaddesden Church. Around 1596 he married for a time, a widow, Elizabeth Polsted, previously widowed to Sir John Wolley.
As Lord Keeper, Egertons judgements were admired, but Common-law judges often resented him reversing their decisions and he attempted to expand the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery to include the imposition of fines to enforce his injunctions. In the 9th Parliament of the reign of Elizabeth he supported legal reform, Sir Thomas was a friend of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and often interceded to mend relations between Essex and the Queen. After Essex returned from Ireland in disgrace he was placed in the Lord Keepers custody, under house arrest at York House and he was one of the judges at Essexs first trial, and tried to persuade him to apologise and beg mercy from the Queen
John Day (printer)
John Day was an English Protestant printer. He specialised in printing and distributing Protestant literature and pamphlets, and produced many small-format religious books, such as ABCs, Day rose to the top of his profession during the reign of Edward VI. During the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary I, many Protestant printers fled to the continent, in 1554, he was arrested and imprisoned, presumably for these illicit printing activities. With their support, he published the Book of Martyrs and was awarded monopolies for some of the most popular English books, such as The ABC with Little Catechism, whose technical skill matched his business acumen, has been called the master printer of the English Reformation. Days origins and the events of his life remain obscure. Scholars have assumed that Day was born and raised in Dunwich and he may have been in London by 1540, as his name is mentioned in a city deposition as being a former servant of the printer and physician Thomas Raynalde. In 1546, he was one of twenty men who were granted the freedom of the city by redemption to work for the Stringers Company of London.
The next year, he began printing with a partner, William Seres and Seres specialised in religious works, such as those by Robert Crowley, which were largely related to theological controversies of the time. The Protestant Reformation was advancing rapidly, and the laws against the publication of works were being relaxed. In 1548, ten of the twenty works that the two men published were devoted to criticizing the Catholic belief of transubstantiation, one of those publications, a satirical poem by Luke Shepherd titled Iohn Bon and Mast Person, almost landed Day in jail. Day and Seres translated important works of Continental Protestantism for the English market, notably Herman von Wieds A Simple, in 1549, Day opened a new shop in Cheapside, and the next year, he and Seres were successful enough to amicably separate their businesses. Day set up his new home and printing establishment at Aldersgate in the parish of St Anne and St Agnes, Day found Aldersgates foreigner-friendly attributes helpful in attracting skilled Dutch workers, whom he relied on throughout his career.
He soon established himself as a quality printer, and in 1551, the next year, he secured a valuable patent to print the works of John Ponet and Thomas Beccon. This enraged one of his competitors, Reginald Wolfe, who held a patent to print Ponets Catechism in Latin. Eventually, a patent was issued which allowed Wolfe to continue printing the Catechism in Latin. Day reaped more benefits from the deal than Wolfe, the English printings were used far more extensively than the Latin ones, and the ABC was eventually appended with Ponets Catechism. With a reputation for Protestant godliness and connections to people like John Dudley, William Cecil, and Catherine Willoughby, unfortunately for Day, Queen Mary ascended the throne in 1553 and the entire religious climate of the country changed. For years, it was thought that at the accession of Mary, the Michael Wood pamphlets included Protestant writings by Lady Jane Grey, John Hooper, and Stephen Gardiner, and attacks on Mary and her advisors
Common law is the body of law developed from the thirteenth century to the present day, as case law or precedent, by judges and tribunals. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, if a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. Resolution of the issue in one case becomes precedent that binds future courts, stare decisis, the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems. A common law system is a system that gives great precedential weight to common law. Common law systems originated during the Middle Ages in England, one third of the worlds population live in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law. The term common law has many connotations, the first three set out here are the most-common usages within the legal community. Other connotations from past centuries are seen, and are sometimes heard in everyday speech.
Blacks Law Dictionary, 10th Ed. gives as definition 1,1, the body of law derived from judicial decisions, rather than from statutes or constitutions, CASELAW, STATUTORY LAW. In this connotation, common law distinguishes the authority that promulgated a law. e, examples include most criminal law and procedural law before the 20th century, and even today, most contract law and the law of torts. Interstitial common law decisions that analyze and determine the fine boundaries. Publication of decisions, and indexing, is essential to the development of common law, while all decisions in common law jurisdictions are precedent, some become leading cases or landmark decisions that are cited especially often. Blacks 10th Ed. definition 2, differentiates common law jurisdictions, by contrast, in civil law jurisdictions, courts lack authority to act if there is no statute. Judicial precedent is given less weight, which means that a judge deciding a given case has more freedom to interpret the text of a statute independently.
For example, the Napoleonic code expressly forbade French judges to pronounce general principles of law. As a rule of thumb, common law systems trace their history to England, blacks 10th Ed. definition 4, differentiates common law from equity. This split propagated to many of the colonies, including the United States, for most purposes, most jurisdictions, including the U. S. federal system and most states, have merged the two courts. Additionally, even before the courts were merged, most courts were permitted to apply both law and equity, though under potentially different procedural law. In the United States, determining whether the Seventh Amendments right to a jury trial applies or whether the issue will be decided by a judge, the standard of review and degree of deference given by an appellate tribunal to the decision of the lower tribunal under review
His father Sampson Camden was a member of The Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. He attended Christs Hospital and St Pauls School, and in 1566 entered Oxford, at Christ Church, he became acquainted with Philip Sidney, who encouraged Camdens antiquarian interests. He returned to London in 1571 without a degree, in 1575, he became Usher of Westminster School, a position that gave him the freedom to travel and pursue his antiquarian researches during school vacations. In 1577, with the encouragement of Abraham Ortelius, Camden began his great work Britannia and his stated intention was to restore antiquity to Britaine, and Britain to his antiquity. The first edition, written in Latin, was published in 1586 and it proved very popular, and ran through five further editions, of 1587,1590,1594,1600 and 1607, each greatly enlarged from its predecessor in both textual content and illustrations. The 1607 edition included for the first time a set of English county maps, based on the surveys of Christopher Saxton and John Norden.
The first English language edition, translated by Philemon Holland, appeared in 1610, Britannia is a county-by-county description of Great Britain and Ireland. It is a work of chorography, a study that relates landscape, geography and history. Rather than write a history, Camden wanted to describe in detail the Great Britain of the present, by this method, he produced the first coherent picture of Roman Britain. He continued to collect materials and to revise and expand Britannia throughout his life and he drew on the published and unpublished work of John Leland and William Lambarde, among others, and received the assistance of a large network of correspondents with similar interests. His fieldwork and firsthand research set new standards for the time and he even learned Welsh and Old English for the task, his tutor in Old English was Laurence Nowell. In 1593 Camden became headmaster of Westminster School and he held the post for four years, but left when he was appointed Clarenceux King of Arms.
The College of Arms at that time was not only a centre of genealogical and heraldic study, the appointment, roused the jealousy of Ralph Brooke, York Herald, who, in retaliation, published an attack on Britannia, charging Camden with inaccuracy and plagiarism. Camden successfully defended himself against the charges in subsequent editions of the work, Britannia was recognised as an important work of Renaissance scholarship, not only in England, but across the European Republic of Letters. In 1612 parts were condemned by the Spanish Inquisition, an abridgement was published in Amsterdam in 1617 and reprinted in 1639, and versions of the text were included in Joan Blaeus Theatrum Orbis Terrarum and in Jan Janssoniuss Novus Atlas. In 1597, Lord Burghley suggested that Camden write a history of Queen Elizabeths reign, Camden began his work in 1607. The first part of the Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnate Elizabetha, covering the reign up to 1597, the second part was completed in 1617, but was not published until 1625, and 1627, following Camdens death.
The first translation into English appeared in 1625, the Annales were not written in a continuous narrative, but in the style of earlier annals, giving the events of each year in a separate entry
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker