William Henry Gleason
William Henry Gleason was an American politician from Florida. He was Florida's second Lieutenant Governor and was briefly, acting Governor. William Henry Gleason was born in 1829 in New York, he had an early interest in engineering, banking and politics. In 1855 he began to develop the town of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. In 1858 he married Sara Griffin from New York. Gleason moved into sales during the Civil War; the issue of slavery was an interest of Gleason's, having made a name for himself in this cause, he was appointed a special agent of the Freeman's Bureau in 1865. His mission was to scout the Florida peninsula as a possible site for a Negro colony; the idea of colonization did not appeal to Gleason. His recommendation against a Negro colony in Florida garnered local political support in future years. Having toured the state for several months, Gleason was one of the first post-war visitors to realize the great potential for business, he rented a schooner and moved his family to the old military post, Fort Dallas, in 1866.
This was a time of great transition in Florida. Gleason sought investment land under control of the state's Trustee's of the Internal Improvement Fund and proposed to ditch and drain land in exchange for bargain rates on nearby real estate; the board originated in Congress with the 1850 Internal Improvement Act that granted certain swamp and overflow lands to the states. Florida received millions of acres, not all was swamp; the mission of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund was to work with private companies to improve the state. Developers like Gleason were allowed to purchase 640 acres of state land for $40 in consideration for every 50,000 cubic feet of ditching completed; this amounted to just over six cents per acre and provided an 800% return on investment if the land could be resold at fifty cents per acre. In 1875 Gleason became interested in a canal project to connect Indian River with Lake Washington, he proposed to rechannel and deepen Eau Gallie's Elbow Creek and extend the waterway to Lake Washington.
The state's payment for this work was set at $4000 plus 4,000 acres for every mile of canal constructed. This project never materialized, however a drainage canal was cut along this route, named after its promoter George W. Hopkins. During the late 1860s and 1870s, Gleason traveled between his Fort Dallas residence and Tallahassee, seeking business and political connections; as a consequence of this and a few powerful Republican friends, on July 7, 1868, he was sworn in as the state's second lieutenant governor. During an attempted impeachment of Governor Harrison Reed, Gleason claimed the Governorship; the Senate had adjourned on November 1868 without deciding whether or not to impeach Reed. Reed's supporters, including the state's Adjutant General and the county Sheriff, kept him out of the Capitol, he signed documents as Governor. The Supreme Court sided with Governor Reed, the political struggle ended with his removal from office as Lieutenant Governor December 14, 1868. Traveling along Florida's coast, Gleason passed many charming harbors.
He liked one such area so much that he purchased most of it at $1.25 an acre and named it Eau Gallie. This was the site of Arlington, founded by John C. Houston. Gleason prepared a plat of his new land, which encompassed the entire area from Indian River Lagoon to Lake Washington thirty square miles. William Lee Apthorp's 1877 Standard Map of Florida shows Eau Gallie in large capital letters, incorrectly designating Gleason's land as the county seat of Brevard County. Part of Gleason's land became the city of Eau Gallie and north MelbourneDuring the contentious 1876 presidential election, Gleason held up the certification of Florida's results. Shortly after the election, it was determined that there was a tie in Florida but that the returns from Dade County had not been counted. After several attempts by the governor to obtain Dade County's returns, locals realized that Gleason had possession of them but had forgotten to mail them before going on a hunting expedition; the twenty-eight votes determined who Florida's electoral votes went for, though the final decision was made by a bipartisan commission who considered the returns from Florida and South Carolina.
In 1871 Gleason proposed the idea of the state's first Agricultural College to be located in the Eau Gallie section of Melbourne, Florida. Gleason offered a 2,320-acre donation of intermittent swamp lands east of Lake Washington to the Trustees of the Florida Agricultural College if they would select Eau Gallie as the school's campus. Records indicate that Gleason received $100 from the state for two Eau Gallie lots to be used as sites for college building; the site was approved and the two-story coquina building was completed in 1875, but it was never used for its intended purpose. Remnants of the old campus are located off of present day Pineapple Avenue, north of Eau Gallie Boulevard; the college reemerged in the north Florida town of Lake City under Democratic leadership during 1884. Sensing legal difficulties in Dade County, Gleason moved his wife and two teenage sons to the unused campus of Eau Gallie's Agricultural College during 1882 and 1883 and began a sawmill and boat building business.
The Gleasons' took control of the old college building and lived there until they became established. By 1884, Henry and Sara had recorded the village plat of Eau Gallie and began selling lots in their new town; the Florida State Agricultural College filed to foreclose on
Florida Institute of Technology
The Florida Institute of Technology is a private nonprofit doctoral/research university in Melbourne, Florida. The university comprises four academic colleges: Engineering & Science, Psychology & Liberal Arts, Business. Half of FIT's students are enrolled in the College of Engineering; the university's 130-acre primary residential campus is located near the Orlando Melbourne International Airport and the Florida Tech Research Park. It is about 50 miles 75 miles from Orlando; the university was founded in 1958 as Brevard Engineering College and has been known by its present name since 1966. In 2013, Florida Tech had an on-campus student body of 4,633 equally divided between graduate- and undergraduate-level students with the majority of them focusing their studies on engineering and the sciences. Florida Institute of Technology was founded in 1958 as Brevard Engineering College to support NASA by Dr. Jerome P. Keuper, who became the first president; the first concept for the school was developed under the name Brevard Engineering Institute.
Classes were held at the Melbourne Municipal Airport in buildings used by the Naval Air Station Melbourne. In 1961, the university moved to its current location in Florida. During the 1960s additional classroom and laboratory buildings, a library, the Denius Student Center, Hedgecock Gymnasium, Gleason Auditorium and several dormitories were constructed. In 1961, the first graduate received an associate degree; the university was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1964 and changed its name to Florida Institute of Technology in 1966. In 1966, Dr. Jack Morelock founded the Department of Oceanography. In 1967, the School of Aeronautics was created. Defense scientist and NASA would meet with students recruiting for the space program. In 1969, the Panther Battalion Army ROTC program was formed. In 1970, the college merged with Aerospace Technical Institute to form the School of Aeronautics. In 1972, the university launched its first off-campus program at the request of the United States Navy.
The Evans Library was completed in the early 1984. The following year the original library was renovated and dedicated as the Jerome P. Keuper Administration Building. In 1988, the Homer R. Denius Student Center was renovated, the student plaza completed, the applied research laboratory building acquired; the Claude Pepper Institute for Aging and Therapeutic Research and Skurla Hall, home of the School of Aeronautics, opened in 1990. In 1997, the university received a $50 million grant from the F. W. Olin Foundation. An engineering building and life sciences building were opened in 1999 in result of the grant. Seven new residence halls were completed in 2003; each resident hall was named after one of the seven fallen astronauts of the Shuttle Columbia disaster and dedicated to their memory. In 2004, Florida Tech obtained National Science Foundation funding to build a 24-inch telescope atop the newly completed F. W. Olin Physical Sciences Center. However, Melbourne Beach resident Jim Ortega, who had retired from the University of Virginia to Florida in 1998, stepped forward with the additional funds needed to secure a 32-inch telescope.
In gratitude to this donation, the telescope was named the Ortega Telescope. In 2005, the F. W. Olin Physical Sciences Center opened. Construction on the Emil Buehler Center for Aviation Training and Research at Melbourne International Airport began in 2008; the following year, the College of Business became the Nathan M. Bisk College of Business, the Ruth Funk Center for Textile Arts, the Emil Buehler Center for Aviation Training and Research at the Melbourne International Airport, the Scott Center for Autism Treatment, the Harris Center for Science and Engineering and the Harris Institute for Information Assurance were opened. In 2009, the college began offering online degrees. November 20, 2015, marked the unveiling of the Harris Student Design Center, an 11,500 square foot building on the south side of campus; this facility provides space for students completing design projects. In 2016, the Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Innovative Design and the Larsen Motorsports High Performance Vehicles & Research Development Center opened at the Research and Development Center on Palm Bay Road.
The university established its football program in 2010. The Panther Aquatic Center was opened a year later. In 2011, the university partnered with the Brevard Art Museum and established it as the Foosaner Art Museum; the Harry P. Weber University Archives opened in 2014, it was named after professor emeritus Harry Weber, who first joined the college in 1966 and was instrumental in establishing the archives. The archive collection serves to preserve the history of the institution and it is located in the Evans Library. Florida Institute of Technology's Jensen Beach Campus known as School of Marine and Environmental Technology or, was a specialized branch campus located on the former campus of Saint Joseph College of Florida on the Indian River Lagoon in Jensen Beach, Florida 50 miles south of the university's main campus; the campus attracted underwater technology and other assorted marine biology students. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration had more officers that are graduates of FIT in Jensen Beach than from any other campus or college in the country.
The SOMET was transferred to the main campus and became the Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences. The campus closed after the transition in 1986. In 2016, DMES was renamed Department of Ocean Engineering and Sciences to communicate the department's focus; the university's 1
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Brevard County, Florida
Brevard County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was the 10th most populated county in Florida; the official county seat has been located in Titusville since 1894. Brevard County comprises the FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. With an economy influenced by the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County is known as the Space Coast; as such, it was designated with the telephone area code 321, as in 3-2-1 liftoff. The county is named after Theodore Washington Brevard, an early Florida settler and state comptroller. A secondary center of county administrative offices was built beginning in 1989 in Viera, Florida, a master planned community in an unincorporated area; the county offices were developed to serve the more populous southern part of the long county. The history of Brevard County begins with the prehistory of native cultures living in the area for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century.
The Windover Archeological Site, discovered in 1982, was found during excavation to have the largest collection of human remains and artifacts of the early Archaic Period, or more than 8,000 years before present. It has been designated as a National Historic Landmark; the geographic boundaries of the county have changed since its founding by European Americans in the 19th century. The county is named for an early settler and state comptroller. In federal maps printed before 2012, nearly half of Brevard was classified as prone to flooding. Most of this was in the undeveloped low-lying areas, west of Interstate 95, on the banks of the St. Johns River. About 18,900 homes out of 164,000 single-family homes were in that area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,557 square miles, of which 1,016 square miles is land and 541 square miles is water. Most of the water is the St. Johns River and the Indian River Lagoon; the county is larger in area than the nation of Samoa and nearly the same size, population, as Cape Verde.
It is one-third the size of the state of Rhode Island. Located halfway between Jacksonville and Miami, Brevard County extends 72 miles from north to south, averages 26.5 miles wide. Marshes in the western part of this county are the source of the St. Johns River. Emphasizing its position as halfway down Florida are two roads that have been numbered halfway down Florida's numbering system, State Road 50 and State Road 500; the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway along the eastern edge of Brevard County is the major waterway route in Brevard County. It includes the Indian River. Additional waterways include Lake Washington, Lake Poinsett, Lake Winder, Sawgrass Lake, the St. Johns River, the Banana River. Dredging for the Intracoastal created 41 spoil islands in the Brevard portion of the Indian River. Brevard County is the sole county in the Palm Bay – Melbourne – Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. There is no major urban center; the county is unofficially divided into three sections: North County, comprising Titusville and Port St. John.
The South Beaches is a term that measures direction south from the dividing line of Patrick Air Force Base, includes South Patrick Shores, Satellite Beach, Indian Harbour Beach and Melbourne Beach. The county government has labeled the beach areas differently; the North Reach includes 9.4 miles in Cocoa Beach. The Patrick Air Force Base beach is 4.1 miles. The Mid Reach includes the 7.6 miles in Satellite Beach. The South Reach includes the 3.8 miles in Melbourne Beach. The South Beaches include 14.5 miles south of Melbourne Beach to Sebastian. The United States Board on Geographic Names is considering two proposals to name the barrier island extending from Port Canaveral to Sebastian Inlet; the 45-mile-long island includes the cities of Cape Canaveral, Cocoa Beach, Melbourne Beach, Patrick Air Force Base, Indian Harbour Beach, Satellite Beach. The American Indian Association of Florida submitted in October 2011 a proposal to name the island after the Ais people. In January 2012 the United Third Bridge and the Florida Puerto Rican/Hispanic Chamber of Commerce in Melbourne submitted a proposal to name the island after Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León.
The Board of Geographic Names takes at least eight months to decide on a new name for a geographical feature. There are 16 municipalities; the largest by population is the smallest Melbourne Village. The county has nine major canals; some of these, such as the C-1 and C-54, are 100 feet wide, giving them the capacity to handle excessive rainfall that may accompany tropical storms or hurricanes. The following are used for transportation and drainage: Canaveral Barge Canal, Courtenay – transportation Faulk Canal, Rockledge Grand Canal, Tropic Haulover Canal, Mims – transportation Melbourne Tillman Canal, Melbourne West – drainage Old Canal, Wilson C-1, maintained by the Melbourne-Tillman Water Control District C-54 Canal – on the south Brevard County Line – drainage L-15 Canal – Crane Creek Drainage District which has a watershed of about 12,000 acres (4,900
Indian Harbour Beach, Florida
Indian Harbour Beach is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 8,225 at the 2010 United States Census, it is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is 3 miles north of south of Satellite Beach, it is the first and only community in the United States to be a NOAA Tsunami Ready community along the nation's East Coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles. 2.1 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. Indian Harbour Beach is located in the region where temperate climatic zones interface. Daytime temperatures average 72 °F in the winter months. A study commissioned by NASA lends credence to the notion that Indian Harbour Beach is located in a portion of the North American Atlantic shoreline with a uniquely reduced incidence of catastrophic hurricanes. Threatened Atlantic loggerhead sea turtles nest on the city's ocean beaches at densities of one nest per 10 feet of shoreline per year.
Endangered green sea turtles deposit an average of tens of nests along the city's ocean beach each year. Endangered right whales calve off the city's shoreline. Endangered West Indian manatees the Banana River. Bald eagles forage over Samsons Island; the 12 acres of wetland created as mitigation by a local developer on Samsons Island provide nutrient-rich, sheltered aquatic habitat serving as finfish nursery and feeding ground for a diverse assemblage of birds and mammals. The city established Samsons Island Nature Park, the only gopher tortoise relocation recipient site on the barrier island, it is occupied by 42 relocated tortoises and three, living on the island when development began. The city has erected five osprey nesting platforms on Samsons Island Nature Park, from which young have been fledged. Efforts are now under way to create habitat for use by gopher tortoises and scrub jays; the city is working with faculty of the Florida Institute of Technology to promote graduate student research and class projects on Samsons Island Nature Park and to assist in devising and implementing maintenance programs to preserve and enhance desirable wildlife habitats.
There are plant species, both imported. Vegetated sand dunes are found along most of the beach's length and provide the major defense against storm events in the region. Native plant species found on the dunes include sea oats, Sabal palmetto, sea grape, railroad vine, dollar weed, coral bean, Spanish bayonet, wax myrtle, yaupon holly, several grass species. More salt-tolerant and wind-tolerant species, such as sea oats and railroad vine, are found predominantly on the ocean side of the dune, while other dune vegetation species do not show such zonation; these plants assist in building the dune by trapping windblown sand and in stabilizing the dune with extensive lateral root systems. There are 10 acres of coquina rock outcrops exposed along the low-tide line of Indian Harbour's ocean beach; the National Marine Fisheries Service has classified the rock as an Essential Fish Habitat-Habitat Area of Particular Concern. It found only in a few locations along the Eastern seaboard. On the Indian Harbour's ocean beach can be found fossil Atlantic ghost crabs, the remnants of a unique set of geological circumstances which preserved these creatures when they died in their burrows about 110,000 years ago.
There are significant deposits of sand, marl and phosphate within the limits of Indian Harbour Beach. Merritt Island; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,152 people, 3,762 households, 2,381 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,470.8/km². There were 4,315 housing units at an average density of 778.5/km². The racial makeup of the city was 95.40% White, 0.93% African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.57% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.28% of the population. There were 3,762 households out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.69. The population was distributed by age with 18.5% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 24.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,889, the median income for a family was $56,803. Males had a median income of $50,045 versus $29,697 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,986. About 2.3% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, the town had the highest percentage of people with undergraduate degrees of any municipality measured in the county, 41%, compared with an average of 26% countywide. Indian Harbour Beach was founded on June 6, 1955, by W. Lansing Gleason, John H. Neafie and Louis S. Henry. In 2013, along with Palm Beach and Sanibel, Indian Harbour Beach ranked among
Lieutenant Governor of Florida
The Lieutenant Governor of Florida is a statewide elected office in the government of the U. S. state of Florida. According to the Florida Constitution, the lieutenant governor is elected to a four-year term congruent with that of the Governor of Florida, succeeds to the office of governor if it becomes vacant; the incumbent is Jeanette Núñez, who took office on January 8, 2019. The position of lieutenant governor has been used in Florida's government twice in the state's history; the first period spanned from 1865, after the American Civil War, through 1889. During this time, the lieutenant governor was elected independently of the governor. In addition to being first in succession to the governor, the lieutenant governor was the ex officio president of the Florida Senate, could cast a vote in the case of a tie. William W. J. Kelly was the first person elected lieutenant governor after the position was created by the 1865 Constitution of Florida; the position was abolished by the post-Reconstruction Constitution of 1885, with the last lieutenant governor, Milton H. Mabry, serving out his term until 1889.
After this point the office of President of the Senate was given to an elected member of the Senate, who served as first in line of succession to the governor. The state constitution was again revised in 1968, the office of lieutenant governor was recreated. In the modern period, the lieutenant governor is elected directly along with the governor as his or her running mate; the lieutenant governor serves as first in the line of succession, but the office of President of the Senate remains with an elected senator. The lieutenant governor has a few prescribed duties and otherwise assists the governor with the duties of the executive branch; the first lieutenant governor in the modern period was Ray C. Osborne, who took office in 1969. Parties No party Democratic Republican Parties No party Democratic Republican As of January 2019, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Florida who are living, the oldest being Wayne Mixson; the former lieutenant governor of Florida who died most was J. H. Williams on December 16, 2016.
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