Uxbridge is a town in west London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. 15.4 miles west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, was a significant local commercial centre from an early time; as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1955, has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University; the town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, locally the River Colne. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I and the Parliamentary Army during the English Civil War; the public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands.
Uxbridge houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was used during the D-Day landings. The wards of Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes; the 2011 Census recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South. The name of the town is derived from "Wixan's Bridge", sited near the bottom of Oxford Road where a modern road bridge now stands, beside the Swan and Bottle public house; the Wixan were a 7th-century Saxon tribe from Lincolnshire who began to settle in what became Middlesex. Anglo-Saxons began to settle and farm in the area of Uxbridge in the 5th century, clearing the dense woodland and remaining there for around 500 years. Two other places in Middlesex bore the name of the Wixan: Uxendon, a name now preserved only in the street names of Uxendon Hill and Crescent in Harrow, Waxlow near Southall.
Archaeologists found Bronze Age remains and medieval remains during the construction of The Chimes shopping centre. Uxbridge is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of the 11th century, but a hundred years the existing church, St Margaret's, was built; the town appears in records from 1107 as "Woxbrigge", became part of the Elthorne Hundred with other settlements in the area. The Parliamentary Army garrisoned the town upon the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642 and established their headquarters there in June 1647 on a line from Staines to Watford, although the king passed through Uxbridge in April 1646, resting at the Red Lion public house for several hours. Charles I met with representatives of Parliament at the Crown Inn in Uxbridge in 1645, but negotiations for the end of hostilities were unsuccessful due in part to the king's stubborn attitude; the town had been chosen as it was located between the Royal headquarters at Oxford and the Parliamentary stronghold of London. The covered market was built in 1788, replacing a building constructed in 1561.
In the early 19th century, Uxbridge had an unsavoury reputation. I know it from experience." For about 200 years most of London's flour was produced in the Uxbridge area. The Grand Junction Canal opened in 1794. By 1800 Uxbridge had become one of the most important market towns in Middlesex, helped by its status as the first stopping point for stagecoaches travelling from London to Oxford; the development of Uxbridge declined after the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1838, which passed through West Drayton. A branch line to Uxbridge was not built until 1904. Harman's Brewery was established in Uxbridge by George Harman in 1763, moved into its new headquarters in Uxbridge High Street in 1875; the eventual owners of the brewery, closed the headquarters in 1964. It was demolished and replaced by a Budgen's supermarket, which in turn was demolished with the construction of The Chimes shopping centre; the brewery building in George Street remained in place until it was demolished in 1967. The office building Harman House was built on the site in 1985, named after the brewery.
The enclosure of Hillingdon Parish in 1819 saw the reduction in size of Uxbridge Common, which at its largest had been 4 miles in circumference. The common covered both sides of Park Road to the north of the town centre but now covers 15 acres. In 1871 the town's first purpose-built police station was built in Windsor Street; the building included three stables. The Metropolitan Police continued to use the building until 1988, when operations moved to a new site in Harefield Road; the building subsequently became the Old Bill public house in 1996, renamed the Fig Tree in 2006. In the early 1900s the Uxbridge and District Electricity Supply Company had been established in Waterloo Road, much of the town was connected by 1902, although some houses still had gas lighting in 1912. A water tower on Uxbridge Common was built in 1906, resembling a church tower, to improve the supply to the town. Wood panelling from a room in the Crown & Treaty public house was sold in 1924 to an American businessman, who installed it in his office in the Empire State Building in New York.
It was returned in 1953 as a gift to the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II and returned to the house
Elstree is a village in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire, England. It is about 13 miles northwest of central London on the former A5 road, that follows the course of Watling Street. In 2011, its population was 5,110, it forms part of the civil parish of Elstree and Borehamwood known as Elstree. The village lends its shorter name to businesses and amenities in the adjacent town of Borehamwood, the names of Elstree and Borehamwood are used interchangeably. Elstree is best known for the Elstree Film Studios, where a number of famous British films were made, the BBC Elstree Centre, where the TV soap opera EastEnders is made; the local newspaper is the Elstree Times. Together with Borehamwood, the village is twinned with Offenburg in Germany, Fontenay-aux-Roses in France, Huainan in China. Elstree & Borehamwood railway station is on the Thameslink line between London St Pancras and Bedford, it was built by the Midland Railway in 1868, is located just north of the 1,072-yard-long Elstree Tunnels.
The area of Borehamwood to the west of the railway line, formally Deacon's Hill, is colloquially called Elstree though it is not contiguous with the village. Elstree South Underground station was due to be an extension of the Northern line, planned in the 1930s, but never completed; the old A5 road goes through Elstree village. Through the village, the road is called High Street and Elstree Hill North; the 18th century Grade II listed building, Elstree Hill House, is still on Elstree Hill South, used to be the home of the old Elstree School. In the early 1900s, it was noted that: ".. The hill roads are remarkably direct and curve to avoid the steep pitch, it has been suggested that the roads were slides for the timber which used to be sent to London for fuel." Elstree Aerodrome is licensed by the CAA and has a 2,150-foot paved runway, suitable most for light aircraft and turbine powered G A aircraft. It is one of the main helicopter centres for North London and is extending its provision in this area.
In the early 1930s it was a grass landing strip for the local Aldenham House country club. A concrete runway was put down during World War II, Wellington Bombers were modified here. On 29 November 1975, retired F1 race car driver and Embassy Hill car owner Graham Hill and his racing driver Tony Brise were piloting a twin-engine six-seat Piper PA-23-250 Aztec from France to London with four additional team members aboard. All six were killed when it crashed and burned in heavy fog on Arkley Golf Course, 3 miles short of the runway. London Transport's Aldenham Works was sited on the edge of Elstree close to the A41, it is now a large business park. A 19th-century steam ship owned by the Houlder Brothers, the town lends its name to a series of ships called the Elstree Grange, at one time sunk during the Second World War. Elstree is home to a number of Grade II listed buildings, including some at Grade II*, such as: Holly Bush public house Aldenham House and stable block The Leys, built in 1901 by Scottish architect and designer, George Henry Walton.
Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel known as the Edgwarebury Hotel, is located on Barnet Lane, operated by Corus Hotels. The Tudor-style building dates back to 1540, was converted into a hotel in the 1960s, has featured in many TV and film productions, such as the 1968 Hammer Horror classic, The Devil Rides Out. Notable guests have included Tom Cruise, John Cleese and Stanley Kubrick, it was the country home of First Baronet Sir Trevor Dawson. A house in Elstree designed by architect Edward John May was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887. St Nicholas Parish Church was designed by English architect Philip Charles Hardwick. Elstree is home to Aldenham School, Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, both independent public schools, Haberdashers' Aske's School for Girls, St Nicholas Church of England V. A Primary School. Since the 1780s, a private school has been located in Elstree. Elstree School, a boys' preparatory school, was located in Elstree from 1848 until 1938 before moving to Woolhampton, Berkshire before the outbreak of the Second World War.
Hillside School was located in Elstree between 1874 and 1886, before becoming Dorset House School in 1905, Elstree Cricket Club was formed in 1878, but no longer play in the Herts Saracens League. 18-hole Radlett Park Golf Club was founded in 1984, having being renamed from Elstree Golf & Country Club. It is closer to Elstree than Radlett. Hatch End Cricket Club play in Elstree, they participate in the Herts Saracens League. Section 15 of the London Outer Orbital Path goes through Elstree, before continuing as Section 16, a 10-mile walk from Elstree to Cockfosters. Elstree was home to Ohr Yisrael Synagogue, an Orthodox synagogue with affiliation to the Federation of Synagogues. However, the synagogue's present location is just within Borehamwood; the village sports two synagogues: The Shtiebel, an ultra-orthodox synagogue, The Liberal Synagogue Elstree, just south of St. Nicholas' Church. According to census data, Elstree's population, including the Deacon's Hill area, was 36.0% Jewish, making it the only settlement with a Jewish plurality in the UK.
Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games: freestyle and Greco-Roman. Both styles are under the supervision of United World Wrestling. A similar style called collegiate, is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat. In February 2013, the International Olympic Committee voted to remove the sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics onwards. On 8 September 2013, the IOC announced that wrestling would return to the Summer Olympics in 2020; the rapid rise in the popularity of the combat sport mixed martial arts has increased interest in amateur wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport and it is considered a core discipline. Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways: Takedown: A wrestler gaining control over their opponent from a neutral position.
Reversal: A wrestler gaining control over their opponent from a defensive position. Exposure or the Danger Position: A wrestler exposing their opponent's back to the mat awarded if one's back is to the mat but the wrestler is not pinned. Penalty: Various infractions. Any wrestler stepping out of bounds while standing in the neutral position during a match is penalized by giving their opponent a point; as in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for reversals. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner in which infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling awards points for: Near Fall: This is similar to the exposure points given in Greco-Roman and freestyle. A wrestler scores points for holding their opponent's shoulders or scapulae to the mat for several seconds while their opponent is still not pinned.
Time Advantage or Riding Time: On the college level, the wrestler who controlled their opponent on the mat for the most time is awarded a point. Escape: A wrestler getting from a defensive position to a neutral position; this is no longer a way to score in Greco-Roman. In the international styles, the format is now two three-minute periods. A wrestler wins the match when they were able to get more points than their opponent or 10 points lead in two rounds. For example, if one competitor get 10-0 lead in first the period, they will win by superiority of points. Only a fall, disqualification terminates the match; this format replaced. One side effect of the old format was that it was possible for the losing wrestler to outscore the winner. For example, periods may be scored 3–2, 0–4, 1–0, leading to a total score of 4–6 but a win for the wrestler scoring fewer points. In collegiate wrestling, the period structure is different. A college match consists of one three-minute period, followed by two two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary.
A high school match consists of three two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary. Under the standard rules for collegiate wrestling, draws are not possible. A match can be won in the following ways: Fall: A fall known as a pin, occurs when one wrestler holds both of their opponents' shoulders on the mat simultaneously. Technical superiority: A form of mercy rule where the match is declared over when a point differential is achieved. In American folkstyle wrestling the point difference is 15 points, in freestyle it is 10 points, in Greco-Roman it is 8 points. Folkstyle terms this a technical fall and freestyle and Greco-Roman refer to it a technical superiority. Decision Default: If one wrestler is unable to continue participating for any reason or fails to show up on the mat after their name is called three times before the match begins, their opponent is declared the winner of the match by default, forfeit, or withdrawal. Injury: If one wrestler is injured and unable to continue, the other wrestler is declared the winner.
This is referred to as a medical forfeit or injury default. The term encompasses situations where wrestlers become ill, take too many injury time-outs, or bleed uncontrollably. If a wrestler is injured by their opponent's illegal maneuver and cannot continue, the wrestler at fault is disqualified. Disqualification: Normally, if a wrestler is assessed three Cautions for breaking the rules, they are disqualified. Under other circumstances, such as flagrant brutality, the match may be ended and the wrestler disqualified and removed from the tournament. While having similar victory conditions with Greco-Roman and freestyle, such as wins by fall, decision and disqualification, victory conditions in collegiate wrestling differ