USS Holt (DE-706)
USS Holt was a Rudderow-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy. She was named after William Mack Holt. Holt's keel was laid down on 28 November 1943 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company of Bay City, Michigan, as one of a series of Buckley-class destroyer escorts ordered from Defoe. After completing 13 ships, Defoe received a contract modification to complete the rest with 5-inch guns, which became known as the Rudderow class. Launched on 15 February 1944, she was sponsored by mother of Lt. Holt, she was commissioned at New Orleans, Louisiana on 9 June 1944, with Lieutenant Commander Victor Blue commanding. Holt conducted her shakedown cruise off Bermuda, after a short stay in Boston, reported to Norfolk, Virginia, on 8 August 1944; until 19 August, she helped carry out shallow water tests in the Patuxent River and joined Escort Division 74 at Norfolk. Holt screened the escort carriers Wake Island and Mission Bay from Norfolk to Newport, Rhode Island, departed on 5 September 1944 on anti-submarine operations along the Eastern seaboard.
She came upon the torpedoed SS George Ade on 12 September, joined in the search for the U-boat which had attacked her. The search had to be called however, as a hurricane approached the next day. Holt returned to Norfolk, after escorting coastal convoys to Boston and New York, she sailed from Norfolk for the Pacific; the escort and her division transited the Panama Canal on 23 October, arrived at Hollandia, New Guinea via the Galapagos and Society Islands on 21 November. The ship became a unit of the 7th Fleet, departed on 28 November to join carrier forces in Leyte Gulf providing protection for the vital military operations ashore, she completed this duty on 11 December, steamed with a convoy toward Mindoro for the establishment of a motor torpedo boat base on that island. During this invasion, an important step in the retaking of the Philippines, Holt's gunfire protected her supply convoy and shot down several planes attempting to attack the invasion forces during the landings on 15 December.
The destroyer escort returned to Leyte with a convoy on 17 December, remained in San Pedro Bay until 22 December 1944. Holt's next duty was guarding supply ships on the voyage to Hollandia, after a stop at Manus Island, she got underway once more from Hollandia on 8 January 1945 with the resupply convoy for Lingayen Gulf. Steaming by way of San Pedro Bay, the task group reached Lingayen on 21 January, Holt began anti-submarine patrol in support of troop movements ashore, she remained in the gulf until 27 January, downing a suicide plane which nearly crashed her on 23 January, provided protection for the convoys off the beaches. Departing Lingayen on 27 January, Holt arrived at San Pedro Bay on 1 February, after escorting another convoy to Lingayen Gulf, she entered the liberated Subic Bay on 12 February 1945. Holt served as an escort to and from the harbor entrance until she steamed from Subic Bay on 27 March to aid in one of the final operations for the securing of Luzon. Arriving off Legaspi on 1 April, Holt provided fire support during the landing that day, returned to Subic Bay to convoy supporting forces back to Legaspi for the landings on 7–8 April.
Possession of this area allowed American forces to control the shores of San Bernardino Strait, thus shortening the supply routes from Leyte Gulf to the assault areas on the western shores of the Philippines. Returning to San Pedro Bay, Holt next steamed to Morotai to join a convoy in support of the assault on Tarakan Island, Borneo; the first target in the series of Borneo landings, Tarakan was taken by Australian forces under Marine and Navy air support on 1 May, Holt arrived with supply ships five days later. The ship was forced to remain on the alert for suicide swimmers and limpet mines while in the area, but departed Borneo safely on 9 May for San Pedro Bay. After repairs in a floating drydock, Holt was assigned to weather patrol, cruised the eastern South China Sea, sending reports to help guide movements of the vast fleets operating in the Pacific. On this duty until 18 December 1945, she departed that date with 75 persons on board for San Francisco via the Marshalls and Pearl Harbor, arriving on 9 January 1946.
Decommissioned on 2 July 1946, Holt was assigned to San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet, until December 1962, when she began preparations for transfer to a foreign country. Loaned to the Republic of Korea on 19 June 1963 under the Military Assistance Program, she served as Chung Nam. Purchased outright by South Korea on 15 November 1974, Chung Nam's hull number was changed to DE-821 in 1980, she was stricken on 31 January 1984. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entries can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Holt at NavSource Naval History ussholt.com: USS Holt
Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, United States. The 2017 census estimate put the population at 58,638; the population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County and has a population of 82,278. Great Falls was the largest city in Montana from 1950 to 1970. Great Falls remained the second largest city in Montana until 2000. Since Great Falls has been the third largest city in the state. Great Falls takes its name from the series of five waterfalls in close proximity along the upper Missouri River basin that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had to portage around over a ten-mile stretch; each falls sports a hydroelectric dam today, hence Great Falls is nicknamed "the Electric City". There are two undeveloped parts of their portage route; the city is home to the C. M. Russell Museum Complex, the University of Providence, Great Falls College Montana State University, Giant Springs, the Roe River, the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Great Falls Voyagers minor league baseball team, is adjacent to Malmstrom Air Force Base.
The local newspaper is the Great Falls Tribune. The first human beings to live in the Great Falls area were Paleo-Indians who migrated into the region between 9,500 BCE and 8,270 BCE; the earliest inhabitants of North America entered Montana east of the Continental Divide between the mountains and the Laurentide ice sheet. The area remained only sparsely inhabited, however. Salish Indians would hunt bison in the region on a seasonal basis, but no permanent settlements existed at or near Great Falls for much of prehistory. Around 1600, Piegan Blackfeet Indians, migrating west, entered the area, pushing the Salish back into the Rocky Mountains and claiming the site now known as Great Falls as their own; the Great Falls location remained the tribal territory of the Blackfeet until long after the United States claimed the region in 1803. Meriwether Lewis was the first white person to visit the area, which he did on June 13, 1805, as part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. York, an African American slave owned by William Clark and who had participated in the Expedition, was the first black American to visit the site of the future city.
Following the return passage of Lewis and Clark in 1806, there is no record of any white person visiting the site of the city of Great Falls until explorer and trapper Jim Bridger reached the area in 1822. Bridger and Major Andrew Henry led a fur-trading expedition to the future city location in April 1823. British explorer Alexander Ross trapped around Great Falls in 1824. In 1838, a mapping expedition sent by the U. S. federal government and guided by Bridger spent four years in the area. Margaret Harkness Woodman became the first white woman to visit the Great Falls area in 1862; the Great Falls of the Missouri River marked the limit of the navigable section of the Missouri River for non-portagable watercraft, the non-navigability of the falls was noted by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 2012 ruling against the State of Montana on the question of streambed ownership beneath several dams situated at the site of the falls; the first steamboat arrived at future site of the city in 1859. Politically, the future site of Great Falls passed through numerous hands in the 19th century.
It was part of the unincorporated frontier until May 30, 1854, when Congress established the Nebraska Territory. Indian attacks on white explorers and settlers dropped after Isaac Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Hellgate in 1855, white settlement in the area began to occur. On March 2, 1861, the site became part of the Dakota Territory; the Great Falls area was incorporated into the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, into the Montana Territory on May 28, 1864. It became part of the state of Montana upon that territory's admission to statehood on November 8, 1889. Great Falls was founded in 1883. Businessman Paris Gibson visited the Great Falls of the Missouri River in 1880, was impressed by the possibilities for building a major industrial city near the falls with power provided by hydroelectricity, he returned in 1883 with friend Robert Vaughn and some surveyors and platted a permanent settlement the south side of the river. The city's first citizen, Silas Beachley, arrived that year. With investments from railroad owner James J. Hill and Helena businessman Charles Arthur Broadwater, houses, a store, a flour mill were established in 1884.
The Great Falls post office was established on July 10, 1884, Paris Gibson was named the first postmaster. A planing mill, lumber yard, bank and newspaper were established in 1885. By 1887 the town had 1,200 citizens, in October of that year the Great Northern Railway arrived in the city. Great Falls was incorporated on November 28, 1888. Great Falls became a thriving industrial and supply center. In 1894, naturalist Vernon Bailey passed through and described Great Falls as "a good town, appears prosperous and booming & I should judge contains 15000 inhabitants." By the early 1900s, Great Falls was en route to becoming one of Montana's largest cities. The rustic studio of famed Western artist Charles Marion Russell was a popular attraction, as were the famed "Great Falls of the Missouri", after which the city was named. James Jerome Hill, primary stockhold
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. Naval aviation is projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be sturdy enough to withstand demanding carrier operations, they must be able to launch in a short distance and be sturdy and flexible enough to come to a sudden stop on a pitching flight deck. These aircraft are designed for many purposes, including air-to-air combat, surface attack, submarine attack and rescue, matériel transport, weather observation and wide area command and control duties. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty. Samuel Franklin Cody demonstrated the capabilities of his 8 foot long black kite and it was proposed for use as either a mechanism to hold up wires for wireless communications or as a manned reconnaissance device that would give the viewer the advantage of considerable height.
In 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence" to investigate the potential for naval aviation. In 1909 this body accepted the proposal of Captain Reginald Bacon made to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that rigid airships should be constructed for the Royal Navy to be used for reconnaissance; this resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, the genesis of modern naval aviation. The first pilots for the Royal Navy were transferred from the Royal Aero Club in June 1910 along with two aircraft with which to train new pilots, an airfield at Eastchurch became the Naval Flying School, the first such facility in the world. Two hundred applications were received, four were accepted: Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI; the French established a naval aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique and the first flight training schools.
U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the United States Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from and land aboard ships at sea. One of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the cruiser USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, proving the concept of shipboard operations. However, the platforms erected on; the U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911. On 27 January, Curtiss flew the first seaplane from the water at San Diego Bay and the next day U. S. Navy Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, a student at the nearby Curtiss School, took off in a Curtiss "grass cutter" plane to become the first naval aviator. $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a primitive landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis, Maryland.
The group expanded with the addition of six aviators in 1912 and five in 1913, from both the Navy and Marine Corps, conducted maneuvers with the Fleet from the battleship USS Mississippi, designated as the Navy's aviation ship. Meanwhile, Captain Henry C. Mustin tested the concept of the catapult launch in August 1912, in 1915 made the first catapult launching from a ship underway; the first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914 with Mustin as its commanding officer. On April 24 of that year, for a period of 45 days afterward, five floatplanes and flying boats flown by ten aviators operated from Mississippi and the cruiser Birmingham off Veracruz and Tampico, Mexico conducting reconnaissance for troops ashore in the wake of the Tampico Affair. In January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness, she was fitted for flying off aircraft with a 100-foot downward-sloping runway, installed on her foredeck, running over her forward 12-inch gun turret from her forebridge to her bow and equipped with rails to guide the aircraft.
The Gnome-engined Short Improved S.27 "S.38", pusher seaplane piloted by Lieutenant Charles Samson become the first British aircraft to take-off from a ship while at anchor in the River Medway, on 10 January 1912. Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia. In May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the "S.38", the first instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship, under way occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in England. Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. Based on these experiments, the Royal Navy concluded that aircraft were useful aboard ship for spotting and other purposes, but that interference with the firing of guns caused by the runway built over the foredeck and the danger and impracticality of recovering seaplanes that alighted in the water in anything but calm weather more than offset the desirability of having airplanes aboard. In 1912, the nascent naval air detachment in the United Kingdom was amalgamated to form the Royal Flying Corps and in 1913 a seaplane base on the Isle of Grain, an airship base at Kingsnorth and eight new airfields were approved for construction.
The first aircraft participation in naval manoeu
A beachhead is a temporary line created when a military unit reaches a landing beach by sea and begins to defend the area while other reinforcements help out until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with lodgement. Beachheads were important in operations such as Operation Neptune during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, among many other examples. Although many references state that Operation Neptune refers to the naval operations in support of Operation Overlord, the most reliable references make it clear that Overlord refers to the establishment of a large-scale lodgement in Normandy, that Neptune refers to the landing phase which created the beachhead. According to the D-Day Museum: The armed forces use codenames to refer to the planning and execution of specific military operations. Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of north-west Europe; the assault phase of Operation Overlord was known as Operation Neptune.
Operation Neptune began on D-Day and ended on 30 June 1944. By this time, the Allies had established a firm foothold in Normandy. Operation Overlord began on D-Day, continued until Allied forces crossed the River Seine on 19 August 1944. Once an amphibious assault starts, victory tends to go to the side which can reinforce the beachhead most quickly. There are exceptions to this rule where the amphibious forces have not expanded from their beachheads enough to create a lodgement area before the defenders can reinforce their positions. Two famous examples in which the attackers failed to expand their beachheads before the defending side could bring up reinforcements occurred during the landing at Suvla Bay in the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I and the amphibious landing at Anzio during the Italian Campaign of World War II. Airhead Bridgehead Lodgement