Minnesota State Capitol
The Minnesota State Capitol is the seat of government for the U. S. state of Minnesota, in its capital city of Saint Paul. It houses the Minnesota Senate, Minnesota House of Representatives, the office of the Attorney General and the office of the Governor; the building includes a chamber for the Minnesota Supreme Court, although court activities take place in the neighboring Minnesota Judicial Center. The building is set in a landscaped campus. Various monuments are to its sides and front. Behind, a bridge spans University Avenue, in front others were added over the sunken roadway of Interstate 94, thus preserving the sight lines. Set near the crest of a hill, from the Capitol steps a panoramic view of downtown Saint Paul is presented; the building was built by Butler-Ryan Construction and designed by Cass Gilbert and modeled after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome—the unsupported marble dome is the second largest in the world, after Saint Peter's. However, like all capitols with domes in the US it is inspired by the idea of domed capitols originating with the United States Capitol dome.
Work began on the capitol in 1896, its corner-stone laid July 27, 1898, construction was completed in 1905. It is the third building to serve this purpose: the first capitol was destroyed by fire in 1881, the second was completed in 1883, but was considered to be too small immediately. Above the southern entrance to the building is a gilded quadriga called The Progress of the State, sculpted by Daniel Chester French and Edward Clark Potter, it was completed and raised to the roof of the capitol in 1906. The four horses represent the power of nature: earth, wind and water; the women leading the horses symbolize civilization, the man on the chariot represents prosperity. In 1994 and 1995, the statues underwent a restoration procedure which included replacing the gold leaf on the figures. A sphere perched above the capitol dome had similar treatment. Any classical dome built since Michelangelo's must expect to be compared to it, Gilbert's dome is a frank homage, with interesting differences, his drawings show that he planned a wider drum and, correspondingly, a more massive dome.
The smaller dome as built is smaller than St. Peter's and has a simplified design: single columns round the upper lantern instead of double ones, for instance; the ribs on the capitol dome are less pronounced than those on St. Peter's, but they are still visually apparent. Gilbert knew that St. Peter's dome was on the edge of being unstable: it had cracked and had to be reinforced, his engineer for this project, Gunvald Aus, bound the brick dome in reinforcing steel bands, Gilbert crowned the paired columns round the drum with additional stone. Other than St. Peter's, additional buildings with marble domes include the Taj Mahal in India, the Rhode Island State House in the city of Providence; the central block under the dome needed three entrances, Gilbert avoided creating visual references to a triumphal arch, which would have been inappropriate in its position. He managed to avoid any reference to a palace block that would have been offensive to Minnesotans. However, Gilbert drew ire for choosing stone from Georgia rather than native Minnesota stone.
A compromise was made where the base of the building and interior spaces used varieties of native stone, including Kasota stone, the rare Minnesota Pipestone used by Native Americans for their peace pipes. Upon completion, the exterior and interior of the building drew praise, leading to requests for Gilbert to design capitol buildings for other states such as West Virginia and Arkansas and other notable structures; the capitol cost US$4.5 million at the beginning of the 20th century. It opened its doors to the public for the first time on January 2, 1905. A hundred years the building's estimated value was $400 million. Most days of the week the building is open for individual visits, organized tours are given, including a stair climb to the roof behind the Quadriga. Upon entering the building by the south door, one is below the central dome. A large star, symbolizing Minnesota's motto, "The Star of the North", is directly beneath the apex. Various portraits of state governors, flags captured by Minnesota's regiments during the American Civil War, are on display.
Paintings showing some of the related battles can be seen in the governor's outer office. Much of the building is open to the public, although one interesting sight is only accessible; this is the cloak room behind the House of Representatives chamber. The walls are painted to simulate a north woods forest, but in one corner is a tiny four leaf clover; this was added by an Irish artist to remember his home island. The structure was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972; the Minnesota State Capitol underwent a comprehensive restoration project from 2013 to 2017, the first major renovation since the building first opened. Work began in 2013, with the project estimated at that time to cost $241 million, funded via a series of appropriations made by the Minnesota legislature; the project repaired and modernized deteriorating building systems, restored the building to Cass Gilbert's original architectural vision, increased public meeting space, updated life safety systems and improved accessibility for people with disabilities.
During renovation, more than 30,000 pieces of marble were replaced. The amount of public space in the building was doubled to nearly 40,000 square feet, with a number of new public spaces opened to the public for reservation and use year round; the pro
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Dazzle camouflage known as razzle dazzle or dazzle painting, was a family of ship camouflage used extensively in World War I, to a lesser extent in World War II and afterwards. Credited to the British marine artist Norman Wilkinson, though with a rejected prior claim by the zoologist John Graham Kerr, it consisted of complex patterns of geometric shapes in contrasting colours and intersecting each other. Unlike other forms of camouflage, the intention of dazzle is not to conceal but to make it difficult to estimate a target's range and heading. Norman Wilkinson explained in 1919 that he had intended dazzle to mislead the enemy about a ship's course and so to take up a poor firing position. Dazzle was adopted by the Admiralty in the UK, by the United States Navy; each ship's dazzle pattern was unique to avoid making classes of ships recognisable to the enemy. The result was that a profusion of dazzle schemes was tried, the evidence for their success was at best mixed. So many factors were involved that it was impossible to determine which were important, whether any of the colour schemes were effective.
Dazzle attracted the notice of artists such as Picasso, who claimed that Cubists like himself had invented it. Edward Wadsworth, who supervised the camouflaging of over 2,000 ships during the First World War, painted a series of canvases of dazzle ships after the war, based on his wartime work. Arthur Lismer painted a series of dazzle ship canvases. At first glance, dazzle seems an unlikely form of camouflage, drawing attention to the ship rather than hiding it; the approach was developed after Allied navies were unable to develop effective means to hide ships in all weather conditions. The British zoologist John Graham Kerr proposed the application of camouflage to British warships in the First World War, outlining what he believed to be the applicable principle, disruptive camouflage, in a letter to Winston Churchill in 1914 explaining the goal was to confuse, not to conceal, by disrupting a ship's outline. Kerr compared the effect to that created by the patterns on a series of land animals, the giraffe and jaguar.
Taking up the zebra example, Kerr proposed that the vertical lines of ships' masts be disrupted with irregular white bands. Hiding these would make ships less conspicuous, would "greatly increase the difficulty of accurate range finding". However, in the same letter, Kerr called for countershading, the use of paint to obliterate self-shading and thus to flatten out the appearance of solid, recognisable shapes. For example, he proposed painting ships' guns grey on top, grading to white below, so the guns would disappear against a grey background, he advised painting shaded parts of the ship white, brightly lit parts in grey, again with smooth grading between them, making shapes and structures invisible. Kerr was thus hoping to achieve both a measure of invisibility and a degree of confusion for the enemy using a rangefinder. Whether through this mixing of goals, or the Admiralty's skepticism about "any theory based upon the analogy of animals", the Admiralty claimed in July 1915 to have conducted "various trials" and decided to paint its ships in monotone grey, not adopting any of Kerr's suggestions.
It had made up its mind, all Kerr's subsequent letters achieved nothing. The American artist Abbott Handerson Thayer had developed a theory of camouflage based on countershading and disruptive coloration, which he had published in the controversial 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom. Seeing the opportunity to put his theory into service, Thayer wrote to Churchill in February 1915, proposing to camouflage submarines by countershading them like fish such as mackerel, advocating painting ships white to make them invisible, his ideas were considered by the Admiralty, but rejected along with Kerr's proposals as being "freak methods of painting ships... of academic interest but not of practical advantage". The Admiralty noted that the required camouflage would vary depending on the light, the changing colours of sea and sky, the time of day, the angle of the sun. Thayer made repeated and desperate efforts to persuade the authorities, in November 1915 travelled to England where he gave demonstrations of his theory around the country.
He had a warm welcome from Kerr in Glasgow, was so enthused by this show of support that he avoided meeting the War Office, who he had been intending to win over, instead sailed home, continuing to write ineffective letters to the British and American authorities. The marine artist and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve officer Norman Wilkinson, agreed with Kerr that dazzle's aim was confusion rather than concealment, but disagreed about the type of confusion to be sown in the enemy's mind. What Wilkinson wanted to do was to make it difficult for an enemy to estimate a ship's type, size and heading, thereby confuse enemy ship commanders into taking mistaken or poor firing positions. An observer would find it difficult to know whether the stern or the bow was in view. Wilkinson advocated "masses of contrasted colour" to confuse the enemy about a ship's heading. Thus, while dazzle, in some lighting conditions or at close ranges, might increase a ship's visibility, the conspicuous patterns would obscure the outlines of the ship's hull, disguising the ship's correct heading and making it harder to hit.
Dazzle was created in response to an extreme need, hosted by an organisation, the Admiralty, which had rejected an approach supported by scientific theory: Kerr's proposal to use "
American Academy in Rome
The American Academy in Rome is a research and arts institution located on the Gianicolo in Rome. The academy is a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers. In 1893, a group of American architects and sculptors met while planning the fine arts section of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago; the group discussed the idea of forming an American school for artists in Europe as a place for American artists to study and further their skills. Led by Charles F. McKim of architectural practice McKim, Mead & White, they decided that Rome, which they considered a veritable museum of masterpieces of painting and architecture throughout the ages, would be the best location for the school; the program began with institutions such as Columbia University and University of Pennsylvania, who would provide scholarships to artists to fund their travel to Rome. In October 1894 the American School of Architecture opened temporarily at the Palazzo Torlonia. In July 1895, the program moved into the larger Villa Aurora.
Renting space out to the American School of Classical Studies and the British & American Archeological Society Library, financial contributions from McKim, allowed for the school to remain open. In 1895, the American School of Architecture in Rome was incorporated in New York state and 10 shares of capital stock were issued. Despite fund-raising efforts and the American School of Classical Studies pulling out of Villa Aurora, the organization struggled financially. McKim made up for the financial loss with his personal funds; these struggles would cause the American School of Architecture to restructure and base their program on the French Academy. In June 1897, the institution formed the American Academy in Rome. Among its incorporators was Charles Moore; the Academy introduced bills to the U. S. Congress to make it a "national institution,", successful. In 1904, the Academy moved into Villa Mirafiore, soon purchased and renovated, they formed an endowment, which raised over a million dollars, designating those having donated over $100,000 as founders.
These founders included: McKim, Harvard College, The Carnegie Foundation, J. P. Morgan, J. P. Morgan, Jr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr; the Rockefeller Foundation, William K. Vanderbilt, Henry Walters, others. Since, the American Academy has always been privately financed. Today, financing comes from private donations as well as grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities. In 1912, the American School of Classical Studies in Rome merged with the Academy, giving the Academy two wings: one that focuses on fine art and one, classical studies. Women were a part of the School of Classical Studies, but were not permitted participation in the School of Fine Arts until after World War II. Since 1914, Joseph Brodsky, Aaron Copland, Nadine Gordimer, Mary McCarthy, Philip Guston, Frank Stella, William Styron, Michael Graves, Robert Venturi, Robert Penn Warren, Oscar Hijuelos and Elizabeth Murray, among others, have come to the Academy for inspiration; the Centennial Directory of the American Academy in Rome documented the lives and careers of nearly 1,400 Fellows and Residents of the Academy from the Academy's founding in 1894 to its centenary in 1994.
From 1970 to 1973, art historian Bartlett H. Hayes Jr. was director of the Academy. Classicist John H. D'Arms was both the resident director of the American Academy and a professor in its School of Classical Studies from 1977 to 1980. Between 1980 and 1984, director Sophie Consagra strengthened the Academy's ties with the Roman community and the Italian Government. In her tenure as president from 1988 and 2013, Adele Chatfield-Taylor, helped restore the Academy’s McKim, Mead & White building at a cost of $8.2 million and oversaw a capital campaign in which the institution’s endowment grew to $100 million. She brought on Alice Waters to create the Rome Sustainable Food Project, which brings chefs from the United States to explore Italian sustainable food traditions and to cook for the Academy guests. From 2010 to 2014, Christopher Celenza was director of the Academy, he was succeeded by Kimberly Bowes. Mark Robbins became president and CEO of the Academy in January 2014; the Academy serves as a "home" to visiting U.
S. scholars and artists having been awarded the Rome Prize. Given each year to up to 30 of more than 1,000 applicants, the Rome Prize is awarded for work in the following fields: classical studies, ancient studies, medieval studies, modern Italian studies, design, historic preservation, art conservation, landscape architecture, musical composition, visual art, literature; the Rome Prize includes terms. In addition to Rome Prize Fellows, visiting scholars and artists live and/or work at the Academy for varying periods; the Academy is housed in several buildings. The main building was designed by the firm of McKim and White and opened in 1914. Located under the floor of the basement of the main building lies a segment of the Aqua Traiana, discovered in 1912-1913; the courtyard has a fountain designed by sculptor Paul Manship. Architect Michael Graves designed the rare books library in 1996; the Academy owns the Villa Aurelia, a country estate built for Cardinal Girolamo Farnese in 1650. The building served as Giuseppe Garibaldi's headquarters during the French siege of Rome in 1849.
The villa was damaged during the assault, but it was restored. It was t
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate; the majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid; some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of changing their skin pattern and colours, whether for camouflage or for signalling.
It is possible. Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. In particular the replacement of the inaccurate musket with the rifle made personal concealment in battle a survival skill. In the 20th century, military camouflage developed especially during the First World War. On land, artists such as André Mare designed camouflage schemes and observation posts disguised as trees. At sea, merchant ships and troop carriers were painted in dazzle patterns that were visible, but designed to confuse enemy submarines as to the target's speed and heading. During and after the Second World War, a variety of camouflage schemes were used for aircraft and for ground vehicles in different theatres of war; the use of radar since the mid-20th century has made camouflage for fixed-wing military aircraft obsolete. Non-military use of camouflage includes making cell telephone towers less obtrusive and helping hunters to approach wary game animals. Patterns derived from military camouflage are used in fashion clothing, exploiting their strong designs and sometimes their symbolism.
Camouflage themes recur in modern art, both figuratively and in science fiction and works of literature. In ancient Greece, Aristotle commented on the colour-changing abilities, both for camouflage and for signalling, of cephalopods including the octopus, in his Historia animalium: The octopus... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it. Camouflage has been a topic of research in zoology for well over a century. According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as camouflage evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage, enabling them to leave more offspring, on average, than other members of the same species. In his Origin of Species, Darwin wrote: When we see leaf-eating insects green, bark-feeders mottled-grey. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, in keeping that colour, when once acquired and constant.
The English zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton studied animal coloration camouflage. In his 1890 book The Colours of Animals, he classified different types such as "special protective resemblance", or "general aggressive resemblance", his experiments showed that swallowtailed moth pupae were camouflaged to match the backgrounds on which they were reared as larvae. Poulton's "general protective resemblance" was at that time considered to be the main method of camouflage, as when Frank Evers Beddard wrote in 1892 that "tree-frequenting animals are green in colour. Among vertebrates numerous species of parrots, tree-frogs, the green tree-snake are examples". Beddard did however mention other methods, including the "alluring coloration" of the flower mantis and the possibility of a different mechanism in the orange tip butterfly, he wrote that "the scattered green spots upon the under surface of the wings might have been intended for a rough sketch of the small flowerets of the plant, so close is their mutual resemblance."
He explained the coloration of sea fish such as the mackerel: "Among pelagic fish it is common to find the upper surface dark-coloured and the lower surface white, so that the animal is inconspicuous when seen either from above or below." The artist Abbott Handerson Thayer formulated what is sometimes called Thayer's Law, the principle of countershading. However, he overstated the case in the 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, arguing that "All patterns and colors whatsoever of all animals that preyed or are preyed on are under certain normal circumstances obliterative", that "Not one'mimicry' mark, not one'warning color'... nor any'sexually selected' color, exists anywhere in the world where there is not every reason to belie