India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Arthur Hobhouse, 1st Baron Hobhouse
Arthur Hobhouse, 1st Baron Hobhouse was an English lawyer and judge. Born at Hadspen House, Hobhouse was the fourth and youngest son of Henry Hobhouse, permanent under-secretary of state in the Home Office, by his wife Harriet, sixth daughter of John Turton of Sugnall Hall, Stafford. Edmund Hobhouse, Bishop of Nelson, Reginald Hobhouse, Archdeacon of Bodmin, were elder brothers. Passing at eleven from a private school to Eton, he remained there seven years. In 1837 he went to Balliol College, graduated B. A. in 1840 with a first class in classics, proceeded M. A. in 1844. Entering at Lincoln's Inn on 22 April 1841, he was called to the bar on 6 May 1845, soon acquired a large chancery and conveyancing practice. In 1862 he became a Queen's Counsel and a bencher of his inn, serving the office of treasurer in 1880–1 and practised in the Rolls Court. A severe illness in 1866 led him to retire from practice and accept the appointment of charity commissioner. Hobhouse threw himself into the work with energy.
He was not only active in administration but advocated a reform of the law governing charitable endowments. The Endowed Schools Act, 1869, was a first step in that direction, under that act Lord Lyttelton and Canon H. G. Robinson were appointed commissioners with large powers of reorganising endowed schools. Much was accomplished in regard to endowed schools, but the efforts of Hobhouse and his fellow commissioners received a check in 1871, when the House of Lords rejected their scheme for remodelling the Emanuel Hospital, Westminster. There followed a controversy, distasteful to Hobhouse, with little regret he retired in 1872 in order to succeed Sir James Fitzjames Stephen as law member of the council of the Governor-General of India. Hobhouse had meanwhile served on the royal commission on the operation of the Land Transfer Act in 1869. Hobhouse, "on his departure for India received strong hints that it would be desirable for him to slacken the pace of the legislative machine", quickened by the consolidating and codifying activities of Fitzjames Stephen and of Stephen's immediate predecessor, Sir Henry Sumner Maine.
That suggestion he approved. Whitley Stokes, secretary in the legislative department, was responsible for the measures passed during Hobhouse's term of office, with the important exception of the Specific Relief Act, 1877, in which Hobhouse as an equity lawyer took an especial interest, a revision of the law relating to the transfer of property, which became a statute after he left India. Of strong liberal sentiment, Hobhouse had small sympathy with the general policy of the government of India during the opening of Lord Lytton's viceroyalty; the attitude to Afghanistan was repugnant. He served from 1875 to 1877 as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. On the conclusion of his term of office in 1877 he was made a K. C. S. I. and returning to England soon engaged in party politics as a thoroughgoing opponent of the Afghan policy of the conservative government. In 1880 he and John Morley unsuccessfully contested Westminster in the liberal interest against Sir Charles Russell, W. H. Smith.
Hobhouse was at the bottom of the poll. In 1878 Hobhouse was made arbitrator under the Epping Forest Act and in 1881 he succeeded Sir Joseph Napier on the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. There without salary he did useful judicial work for twenty years, he delivered the decision of the committee in 200 appeals, of which 120 were from India. Several cases were of grave moment. In Merriman v. Williams, an action between the bishop and dean of Grahamstown, Hobhouse set forth the history of the relationship of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa with the Church of England, decided that the South African Church is independent of it. In the consolidated appeals in 1887 by several Canadian banks against the decisions of the Court of Queen's Bench for Quebec, which involved the respective limits of the power of the dominion and provincial legislatures to regulate banks, Hobhouse's judgment upheld the right of the province to tax banks and insurance companies constituted by Act of the dominion legislature.
In a case from India in 1899 which necessitated the review of a number of conflicting decisions of the Indian courts, Hobhouse settled a long disputed point in Hindu law and decided, contrary to much tradition, that when an individual person was adopted as an only son, the fact of adoption should be recognised and the parents' plenary powers admitted. In 1885 Hobhouse accepted a peerage as Baron Hobhouse, of Hadspen in the County of Somerset, with a view to assisting in the judicial work of the House of Lords, but a statutory qualification by which only judges of the high courts of the United Kingdom could sit to hear appeals had been overlooked. In 1887 the disqualification was removed by Act of Parliament in regard to members of the Judicial Committee, he only sat there to try three cases, in two of which, Russell v. Countess of Russell and the Kempton Park case, he was in a dissenting minority; as a judge Hobhouse, always careful and painstaking, invariably stated the various arguments and but he was tenacious of his deliberately formed opinion.
While engaged on the Judicial Committee, Hobhouse devoted much energy to local government of London. From 1877 to 1899 he was a vestryman of St George's, Hanover Square. In 1880 he assisted to form and long worked for the London Municipal Reform League, which aimed at securing a single government for the m
Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy MRCP, FRCS. Bidhan Roy is considered the Maker of Modern West Bengal due to his key role in the founding of several institutions and five eminent cities, Kalyani, Bidhannagar and Habra, he is one of the few people in history to have obtained F. R. C. S. and M. R. C. P. Degrees simultaneously. In India, the National Doctors' Day is celebrated in his memory every year on 1 July, he was awarded Bharat Ratna on India's highest civilian honour. He was a member of the Brahmo Samaj. Bidhan Chandra Roy was born on 1 July 1882 at Bankipore, where his father, Prakash Chandra Roy, was working as an excise inspector, his mother, Aghore Kamini Devi, was a devoted social worker. Bidhan was the youngest of five siblings — he had 2 sisters and Sarojini, 2 brothers and Sadhan. Bidhan's parents were ardent Brahmo Samajists, led an austere and disciplined life, devoted their time and money to the service of everyone in need, irrespective of caste or creed. Prakash Chandra was a descendant of the family of the rebel Hindu king of Jessore, Maharaja Pradapaditya, but did not inherit much wealth from his ancestors.
He earned only a moderate salary for most part of Bidhan's childhood, yet he and Aghore Kamini supported the education and upbringing of not just their own children but a number of other poor children orphans. The spirit of ` give and take' was inculcated in his siblings from their tender years, they were taught and encouraged to give away what was precious to them and willingly. Bidhan completed his matriculation from Patna Collegiate School in 1897, obtained his I. A. degree from Presidency College, Calcutta and B. A. from Patna College with Honors in Mathematics. After completing his graduation in mathematics, he applied for admission to the Bengal Engineering College and the Calcutta Medical College, his application was accepted by both institutions and he opted to pursue medical studies. Bidhan left Patna in June 1901 to join the Calcutta Medical College. While at medical school, Bidhan came upon an inscription which read, "Whatever thy hands findeth to do, do it with thy might." These words became a lifelong source of inspiration for him.
The partition of Bengal was announced. Opposition to the partition was being organised by nationalist leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal. Bidhan resisted the immense pull of the movement, he controlled his emotions and concentrated on his studies, realising that he could serve his nation better by qualifying in his profession first. Intending to enroll himself at St Bartholomew's Hospital to pursue postgraduate study in medicine, Bidhan set sail to England in February 1909 with only ₹1200. However, the Dean of St. Bartholomew's Hospital was reluctant to accept an Asian student and rejected Bidhan's application. Dr. Roy did not lose heart but kept submitting his application again and again till the Dean, after 30 admission requests, admitted Bidhan to the college. Bidhan completed his postgraduation in just two years and three months, in May 1911 accomplished the rare feat of becoming a member of the Royal College of Physicians and a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons simultaneously.
He returned home from England in 1911. After graduation, Roy joined the Provincial Health Service, he exhibited immense dedication and hard work, would serve as a nurse when necessary. In his free time he practised charging a nominal fee. Following his return from England after post-graduation, he taught at the Calcutta Medical College, at the Campbell Medical School and the Carmichael Medical College. Dr. Roy believed that swaraj would remain a dream unless the people were healthy and strong in mind and body, he made contributions to the organisation of medical education. He played an important role in the establishment of the Jadavpur T. B. Hospital, Chittaranjan Seva Sadan, Kamala Nehru Memorial Hospital, Victoria Institution, Chittaranjan Cancer Hospital; the Chittaranjan Seva Sadan for women and children was opened in 1926. Women were unwilling to come to the hospital but thanks to Dr. Roy and his team's hard work, the Seva Sadan was embraced by women of all classes and communities, he opened a center for training women in social work.
In 1942, Rangoon fell to Japanese bombing and caused an exodus from Calcutta fearing Japanese insurgency. Dr. Roy was serving as the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta, he acquired air-raid shelters for schools and college students to have their classes in, provided relief for students and employees alike. In recognition for his efforts, the Doctorate of Science was conferred upon him in 1944. Dr. Roy believed, he felt that the youth must not take part in strikes and fasts but should study and commit themselves to social work. While delivering the Convocation Address at the University of Lucknow on 15 December 1956, Dr. Roy said:My young friends, you are soldiers in the battle of freedom-freedom from want, ignorance and helplessness. By a dint of hard work for the country, rendered in a spirit of selfless service, may you march ahead with hope and courage... Dr. Roy was both Gandhiji's doctor; when Gandhiji was undertaking a fast in Parnakutivin, Poona in 1933, Dr. Roy attended to him.
Gandhiji refused to take medicine on the grounds. Gandhiji asked Dr. Roy, "Why should I t
Buckingham is a town in north Buckinghamshire, close to the borders of Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire, which had a population of 12,043 at the 2011 Census. It is a civil parish with a town council. Buckingham was the county town of Buckinghamshire from the 10th century, when it was made the capital of the newly formed shire of Buckingham, until Aylesbury took over this role early in the 18th century. Buckingham has a variety of typical of a small market town, it has a number of local shops, both independent. Market days are Saturday which take over Market Hill and the High Street cattle pens. Buckingham is twinned with France. Buckingham and the surrounding area has been settled for some time with evidence of Roman settlement found in several sites close the River Great Ouse, including a temple south of the A421 at Bourton Grounds, excavated in the 1960s and dated to the 3rd century AD. A possible Roman building was identified at Castle Fields in the 19th century. Pottery, kiln furniture and areas of burning found at Buckingham industrial estate suggest the site of some early Roman pottery kilns here.
In the 7th century, Buckingham "meadow of Bucca's people" is said to have been founded by Bucca, the leader of the first Anglo Saxon settlers. The first settlement was located around the top of a loop in the River Great Ouse, presently the Hunter Street campus of the University of Buckingham. Between the 7th century and the 11th century, the town of Buckingham changed hands between the Saxons and the Danes, in particular, in 914 King Edward the Elder and a Saxon army encamped in Buckingham for four weeks forcing local Danish Viking leaders to surrender. Subsequently, a fort was constructed at the location of the present Buckingham parish church. Buckingham is mentioned in the Burghal Hidage, a document ascribed to the early tenth century, but more of the period 878-9, which describes a system of forts set up by King Alfred over the whole of the West Saxon kingdom; when King Edward encamped at Buckingham with his army in 914, he was therefore restoring a fort which had existed for more than a generation.
This tactical move was part of a putsch against the Danish Vikings who controlled what had been southern Mercia, which involved the taking of control of Viking centres at Bedford, Northampton and the whole of East Anglia by the end of 917. Buckingham is the first settlement referred to in the Buckinghamshire section of the Domesday Book of 1086. Buckingham was referred to as Buckingham with Bourton, the survey makes reference to 26 burgesses, 11 smallholders and 1 mill; the town received its charter in 1554 when Queen Mary created the free Borough of Buckingham with boundaries extending from Thornborowe Bridge to Dudley Bridge and from Chackmore Bridge to Padbury Mill Bridge. The designated borough included twelve principal burgesses and a steward. Yeomanry House, the offices and home of the commanding officer of the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, was built in the early 19th century; the town suffered from a significant fire that raged through the town centre on 15 March 1725, with the result that many of the main streets of the town were destroyed including Castle Street, Castle Hill and the north side of Market Hill.
The result was 138 dwellings being consumed in the fire. The current fine range of Georgian architecture in these streets today is as a direct result of that fire, but the immediate aftermath was difficult for the town. Collections were made in surrounding towns such as Aylesbury and Wendover to help those made homeless and by 1730, only a third of the homes had been rebuilt. Due to many buildings being considered to be of historic interest, a number of them have been granted'listed building' status. In the 19th century, it was connected to the North Western Railway. In 1971, Buckinghamshire County Council set up the Buckingham Development Company with other local councils, undertook a signifiant project to grow the town and provide a bypass to the south and east of the historic town centre; the population rose from just over 5,000 to 9,309 in 1991. The town is said to be the final resting place of St Rumbold, a little-known Saxon saint and the grandson of Penda King of Mercia, he was born at King's Sutton, where he died just three days later.
During his short life, he professed his Christian faith and asked for baptism. He is now most referred to as St Rumbold, the latter being the most common, as it can be found being used on a local road name and recent booklets about the subject; the town contains many 18th century buildings. There are three main roads crossing Buckingham, namely the A413, the A421 and the A422. Capability Brown's historic formal garden design at Stowe is an important attraction in the care of the National Trust. There is a medieval well known as St Rumbold's Well on the south side of the dismantled railway which borders the town; the well, now dry for much of the year, was positioned to exploit the spring line below the crest of a north facing slope overlooking the town. Suburbs of Buckingham include Mount Pleasant, Page Hill, Badgers, Linden Village, Castle Fields and Lace Hill. Maids Moreton, a village on the north eastern borders of the town has become contiguous with the Buckingham urban area. Nearby towns include Aylesbury, Bicester, Milton
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Sir Hassan Suhrawardy OBE, CStJ, FRCS was a noted Indian surgeon, military officer in the British Indian Army, a public official. He was the former Chairman of the executive committee of the East London Mosque. Hassan Suhrawardy was born the son of Ubaidullah Al Ubaidi Suhrawardy, an educationist and scion of the prominent Suhrawardy family of Midnapore. At a young age, Hassan was married to Sahibzadi Shahbanu Begum in a match arranged by their families in the usual Indian way, they had a harmonious marriage and were the parents of two children, a son Hassan Masud Suhrawardy and a daughter, Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah. Hassan's daughter Shaista was married to Mohammed Ikramullah, a Pakistani diplomat and brother of Chief Justice Mohammad Hidayatullah, sometime Vice-President of India. Through Shaista Begum, Hassan Suhrawardy is the grandfather of Salma Sobhan, Naz Ikramullah and Princess Sarvath of Jordan. Hassan Suhrawardy was the maternal uncle of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, sometime Prime Minister of undivided Pakistan.
Hassan's sister Khujastha Akhtar Banu was married to her cousin Justice Sir Zahid Suhrawardy, an early Indian judge of the Calcutta High Court, they were the parents of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Suhrawardy was the First Muslim Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University and the second Muslim from the sub-continent to become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. In 1945 he was appointed Professor of Islamic History and Culture in Calcutta University while retaining the chair of Public Health and Hygiene, which he had held since 1931, he served as an adviser to the Simon Commission and was a member of the Bengal Legislative Council of which he was Deputy President from 1923 to 1925. As Chief Medical and Health Officer of the East Indian Railway he founded the railway's ambulance and nursing division. Suhrawardy played a role towards the establishment of the East London Mosque, it was while he was Vice-Chancellor and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine that he received his knighthood after he had saved the life of Sir Stanley Jackson from an attempt by Bina Das, a female student who attempted to shoot Jackson in the Senate House of the University of Calcutta in February, 1932.
His distinguished career in medicine and in the public service was crowned in 1939 by his appointment to succeed Sir Abdul Qadir as Adviser to the Secretary of State for India. He retired from that post in 1944. Suhrawardy was appointed an OBE in the 1927 Birthday Honours list, awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal, First Class in the same honours list in 1930, knighted on 17 February 1932, appointed an Associate Officer of the Venerable Order of St. John in January 1932 and promoted to Associate Commander in January 1937, he was active in the Muslim League, renouncing his knighthood a month before his death in August 1946
Azizul Haque (educator)
Sir Muhammad Azizul Haque, KCSI, CIE was a Bengali lawyer and public servant. He studied at University Law College in Calcutta, he worked to better the condition of Muslim people in the rural farmlands. This led him to work with Sher-e-Bangla A. K. Fazlul Haque, Sir Abdulla Suhrawardy, Sir Salimullah and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he remained friends with many throughout his life. He was the speaker of the Bengal Legislative Assembly. Azizul Haque was born on 27 November 1892 in Shantipur in India. Haque was given the title of Khan Bahadur by the British Government, appointed a CIE in 1937 knighted in the 1941 New Year Honours List, appointed a KCSI in the 1946 Birthday Honours List. However, he subsequently renounced his British honours in protest against the government. Haque died on 23 March 1947 in Calcutta. Haque's literary works include: History and Problems of Moslem Education in Bengal Education and Retrenchment The Man Behind the Plough The Sword of the Crescent Moon Cultural Contributions of Islam to Indian History A Plea for Separate Electorate in Bengal The Man behind the Plough Govt.
Azizul Haque College The Islamic Review, England, p. 331 The Islamic Review, England, p. 411 The Islamic Review, England, p. 16 Azizul Haque in Banglapedia Rabindranath Tagore's letter to Sir Azizul Haque Bengal Legislative Assembly List