Michael Leib was an American physician, scientist, inventor and philosopher from Pennsylvania. He served Pennsylvania in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in both the U. S. House and the United States Senate. Leib was born in Pennsylvania to George and Dorothea Leib, he studied and practiced medicine in Philadelphia, receiving commission as a surgeon in the Philadelphia Militia in 1780 and serving during the American Revolutionary War. Following the war, Leib continued the practice of medicine, he was elected as a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and served from 1795 to 1798. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district and served from 1799 to 1803, he continued in the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district from 1803 to 1806. He resigned to return to the Pennsylvania House. In 1807, he was elected Brigadier-General of the Second Brigade of the Philadelphia Militia.
Leib was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate by the state legislature in December 1808. Leib was elected to the term beginning on March 4, 1809, but assumed office on January 9, 1809, following the resignation of Samuel Maclay. In 1809, he was a member of the committee that formed the "Whig Society of Pennsylvania", he served as a U. S. Senator until February 14, 1814, when he resigned to become postmaster of Philadelphia, he returned to the Pennsylvania House for a third time, from 1817 until 1818 and served as a Pennsylvania State Senator for the 1st district from 1818 until 1821. He became prothonotary of the United States district court in Philadelphia in November 1822 and served in that role until his death on December 8, 1822, he was interred at St. John's Lutheran Churchyard in Philadelphia. In 1924, he was reinterred to the Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia when the church and burial ground were demolished during the construction of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge.
He was influenced and mentored by Benjamin Franklin. United States Congress. "Michael Leib". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
William Findlay (governor)
William Findlay was the fourth Governor of Pennsylvania from 1817 to 1820, a United States Senator from 1821 to 1827. He was born in Mercersburg in the Province of Pennsylvania on June 20, 1768 to Samuel Findlay and Jane Smith, he was a brother of John Findlay. Samuel Findlay's father named Samuel Findlay, was born in County Londonderry in Ulster in 1711, settled in the Province of Pennsylvania in 1730 and died in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania in 1739. After receiving a common-school education, he became a farmer and early took part in politics as a Jeffersonian Democrat, he served as brigade inspector in the state militia, studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Franklintown, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1797 and 1804–1807, was state treasurer from 1807 to 1817. In 1817, Findlay was nominated for the post of governor in the state's first open convention, he was elected governor and served until 1820. He was the first governor to lead the state from its new capital of Harrisburg, running many of the functions of government out of his own home while the new capitol building was under construction.
He was defeated for re-election in 1820 by Joseph Hiester. In 1821, he was elected as a Democratic Republican to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy in the term commencing March 4, 1821, caused by the failure of the legislature to select someone, he served from December 10, 1821, to March 3, 1827. He was not a candidate for re-election in 1826. In the U. S. Senate, he served as chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, he served as the fifth treasurer of the U. S. Mint from 1827 to 1841, he resigned due to illness. He sold the Findlay Farm to Benjamin Jordan and Edward Crouch in 1823, he died in Harrisburg and his remains were interred at Harrisburg Cemetery. He was the brother of United States Congressman John and United States Congressman and Cincinnati mayor James Findlay. William Findlay married Nancy Irwin, who became Pennsylvania's First Lady from 1817 to 1820, they had Jane Findlay Shunk and John King Findlay. Nancy Irwin Findlay died on July 27, 1824, is buried in Harrisburg Cemetery.
William Findlay's son, John King Findlay, was a noted jurist. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1824 and was assigned to the 1st Artillery of the U. S. Army, he was the assistant professor of chemistry and geology at West Point from August 29 until November 4, 1824, of geography and ethics until April 17, 1825, was on topographical duty until May 13, 1828, when he resigned. In 1831, he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar, he was recorder of Lancaster in 1841–1845, judge of the Philadelphia District Court 1845–1851, president of the 3rd Judicial District of Pennsylvania in 1857–1862. After this he practiced law in Philadelphia. John King Findlay was a captain of militia 1840–1845 and 1852–1856, he published an enlarged edition of Archbold's Law of Nisi Prius. William Findlay's daughter, Jane Findlay, married Francis R. Shunk, the 10th Governor of Pennsylvania, she held the position of First Lady of Pennsylvania from 1845 to 1848. Findlay Township in Western Pennsylvania and Findlay Commons on the campus of Penn State University are both named for Governor Findlay.
United States Congress. "William Findlay". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Wilson, J. G.. "Findlay, William". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Biography
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Militia (United States)
The militia of the United States, as defined by the U. S. Congress, has changed over time. During colonial America, all able-bodied men of certain ages were members of the militia, depending on the respective states rule. Individual towns formed local independent militias for their own defense; the year before the US Constitution was ratified, The Federalist Papers detailed the founders' paramount vision of the militia in 1787. The new Constitution empowered Congress to "organize and discipline" this national military force, leaving significant control in the hands of each state government. Today, as defined by the Militia Act of 1903, the term "militia" is used to describe two classes within the United States: Organized militia – consisting of State militia forces. Unorganized militia – composing the Reserve Militia: every able-bodied man of at least 17 and under 45 years of age, not a member of the National Guard or Naval Militia. A third militia is a state defense force, it is authorized by state and federal laws.
The term "militia" derives from Old English milite meaning soldiers, militisc meaning military and classical Latin milit-, miles meaning soldier. The Modern English term militia dates to the year 1590, with the original meaning now obsolete: "the body of soldiers in the service of a sovereign or a state". Subsequently, since 1665, militia has taken the meaning "a military force raised from the civilian population of a country or region to supplement a regular army in an emergency as distinguished from mercenaries or professional soldiers"; the spelling of millitia is observed in written and printed materials from the 17th century through the 19th century. See article: Colonial American military history The early colonists of America considered the militia an important social institution, necessary to provide defense and public safety. See article: Provincial troops in the French and Indian Wars During the French and Indian Wars, town militia formed a recruiting pool for the Provincial Forces.
The legislature of the colony would authorize a certain force level for the season's campaign, based on that set recruitment quotas for each local militia. In theory, militia members could be drafted by lot if there were inadequate forces for the Provincial Regulars. In September 1755, George Washington adjutant-general of the Virginia militia, upon a frustrating and futile attempt to call up the militia to respond to a frontier Indian attack:... he experienced all the evils of insubordination among the troups, perverseness in the militia, inactivity in the officers, disregard of orders, reluctance in the civil authorities to render a proper support. And what added to his mortification was, that the laws gave him no power to correct these evils, either by enforcing discipline, or compelling the indolent and refractory to their duty... The militia system was suited for only to times of peace, it provided for calling out men to repel invasion. See New Hampshire Provincial Regiment for a history of a Provincial unit during the French and Indian War.
Just prior to the American Revolutionary War, on October 26, 1774, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, observing the British military buildup, deemed their militia resources to be insufficient: the troop strength, "including the sick and absent, amounted to about seventeen thousand men... this was far short of the number wanted, that the council recommended an immediate application to the New England governments to make up the deficiency":... they recommended to the militia to form themselves into companies of minute-men, who should be equipped and prepared to march at the shortest notice. These minute-men were to consist of one quarter of the whole militia, to be enlisted under the direction of the field-officers, divide into companies, consisting of at least fifty men each; the privates were to choose their captains and subalterns, these officers were to form the companies into battalions, chose the field-officers to command the same. Hence the minute-men became a body distinct from the rest of the militia, and, by being more devoted to military exercises, they acquired skill in the use of arms.
More attention than was bestowed on the training and drilling of militia. See article: List of United States militia units in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War began near Boston, Massachusetts with the Battles of Lexington and Concord, in which a group of local militias constituted the American side. On April 19, 1775, a British force 800 strong marched out of Boston to Concord intending to destroy patriot arms and ammunition. At 5:00 in the morning at Lexington, they met about 70 armed militiamen whom they ordered to disperse, but the militiamen refused. Firing ensued; this became known as "the shot heard round the world". Eight militiamen were killed and ten wounded, whereupon the remainder took flight; the British continued on to Concord and were unable to find most of the arms and ammunition of the patriots. As the British marched back toward Boston, patriot militiamen assembled along the route, taking cover behind stone walls, sniped at the British. At Meriam's Corner in Concord, the British columns had to close in to cross a narrow bridge, exposing themselves to concentrated, deadly fire.
The British retreat became a rout. It was only with the help o
James Ross (Pennsylvania politician)
James Ross was a lawyer who represented Pennsylvania in the U. S. Senate from 1794 to 1803. Born near Delta, York County, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Jane Ross. At eighteen, after having received a classical education, he moved to Canonsburg and taught at what would become Washington and Jefferson College, he was admitted to the bar in 1784 focusing on land law. A Federalist, he was a member of the convention that drafted a new constitution for Pennsylvania in 1789-1790. President George Washington appointed him to negotiate with the rebels of the Whiskey Rebellion defusing the situation without violence. On April 1, 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature elected him to the United States Senate to replace Albert Gallatin, removed by the legislature. There, he authored a new law for the public lands and fought President Thomas Jefferson's administration, he was elected to a second term in the Senate in 1797. In 1800, with the 1800 Presidential Election on the horizon, Ross introduced a controversial bill whereby, after the electoral votes were counted in Congress, the ballots would be turned over to a committee chaired by the Chief Justice and consisting of twelve members, six from each house of Congress.
The committee, acting behind closed doors, would be able to discard electoral votes deemed fraudulent after investigation. A group of horrified Republican Senators leaked the bill to arch-Republican Philadelphia printer William Duane, who published the contents in his Aurora on February 19, 1800; the Federalists dropped the bill. On January 15, 1803, amidst the controversies over Spain's revocation of the American right of deposit at New Orleans and French acquisition of Louisiana, Ross moved to afford Jefferson the ability to raise 50,000 troops to seize New Orleans. Jefferson did not want to have to use these troops, but the motion gave United States Minister to France Robert R. Livingston leverage in his negotiations, which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase, he ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Pennsylvania in 1799, 1802, 1808. During the late 1810s he is listed as the Pittsburgh City Council President, he died in Allegheny, now part of Pittsburgh. Ross Street in Downtown Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh suburb of Ross Township, the Fox Chapel borough street James Ross Place, Ross County, are named in his honor.
United States Congress. "James Ross". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. James Ross at Find a Grave
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Daniel Sturgeon was an American physician and Democratic party politician from Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He served in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. Daniel Sturgeon was born on October 27, 1789, in Mount Pleasant, present-day Adams County, Pennsylvania, he moved with his parents to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1804. He attended Jefferson College in Canonsburg and Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Sturgeon practiced medicine in Uniontown, until being appointed county coroner in 1813, he served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1818 until 1824 and the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1825 until 1830, serving as President of that body for the final two years of his term until serving as Pennsylvania Auditor General from 1830 until 1836. Prior to being elected to the U. S. Senate, Sturgeon served as Pennsylvania Treasurer from 1838 until 1839. Sturgeon was elected by the state legislature to the United States Senate on January 14, 1840, to serve the term that commenced on March 4, 1839.
He was re-elected to the U. S. Senate in 1845 and was not a candidate for re-election in 1851, his term expired in March 1851. While a U. S. Senator, Sturgeon served as chairman of the Committee on Patents and the Patent Office and the Committee on Agriculture. Following his tenure in the U. S. Senate, Sturgeon was appointed treasurer of the United States Mint in Philadelphia by President Franklin Pierce, serving from 1853 until 1858, he was interred in Oak Grove Cemetery. United States Congress. "Daniel Sturgeon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Daniel Sturgeon at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov