SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William McGregor (football)

William McGregor was a Scottish association football administrator in the Victorian era, regarded as the founder of the Football League, the first organised association football league in the world. After moving from Perthshire to Birmingham to set up business as a draper, McGregor became involved with local football club Aston Villa, which he helped to establish as one of the leading teams in England, he served the club for over 20 years in various capacities, including president and chairman. In 1888, frustrated by the regular cancellation of Villa's matches, McGregor organised a meeting of representatives of England's leading clubs, which led to the formation of the Football League, giving member clubs a guaranteed fixture list each season; this was instrumental in the transition of football from an amateur pastime to a professional business. McGregor served as both chairman and president of the Football League and was chairman of The Football Association, he was recognised by the FA for his service to the game shortly before his death in 1911, was posthumously honoured by the local football authorities and Aston Villa.

Born in Braco in Perthshire, Scotland, McGregor first became interested in football after watching a match between locals and visiting artisans at Ardoch. He served an apprenticeship as a draper in Perth, in 1870, following the example of his brother Peter, moved to Birmingham, opened his own drapery business in Aston, an area just outside the city. Upon his arrival in the English Midlands he became involved with a local football club, formed by a fellow Scot, Campbell Orr. McGregor was enthusiastic enough about the game to arrange for his shop to close early on Saturdays to allow him to watch matches, he sold football kits at the shop, which became a popular meeting place for football enthusiasts. McGregor was married to Jessie, the couple had a daughter and a son named Jessie and William. A teetotaller, McGregor was a supporter of the Temperance movement, was active in the local branch of the Liberal Party until his membership lapsed in 1882 due to the increasing amount of time he devoted to football.

He was involved in the early attempts to establish a baseball league in the United Kingdom, served as the honorary treasurer of the Baseball Association of Great Britain and Ireland. Despite his commitment to sport, he held on to his drapery business throughout his life. McGregor was a committed Christian, respected for his honesty and integrity, he worshipped for forty years at the Congregational church in Aston. His pastor, the Revd. W. G. Percival said that the best thing about him "was not so much the genial, honest sportsman, but the Christian behind it all", he described him as "a man of unblemished personal character". In 1877, McGregor was invited to become a committee member of Aston Villa, a football club formed three years earlier, he umpired matches for the club. At the time the club played at Aston Park, close to the premises of McGregor's business, he became interested in joining Villa due to the strong Scottish contingent in the club's ranks, the team's exciting style of play, the club's connection to a Wesleyan Chapel.

He assumed the post of club administrator, helping the impecunious club to survive its financial troubles. After some of Aston Villa's possessions were seized by bailiffs, McGregor allowed the club to use his shop as a store to prevent further seizures. Under McGregor's leadership, Aston Villa won their first trophy, the Birmingham Senior Cup, in 1880, shortly after which McGregor became the club's president; the following year McGregor became a member of the club's board of directors. Villa's standing within the game continued to grow, and, in 1887, the club became the first from the Midlands to win the FA Cup, defeating local rivals West Bromwich Albion in the final. In 1895, McGregor became vice-chairman, went on to become the club's chairman in 1897. During his time at the club he was noted for his organisational skills and ambition, was responsible for adopting the lion rampant depicted on the Royal Standard of Scotland, as the club's crest; as the 1880s progressed, the balance of power within English football began to change.

The first national competition, the FA Cup, had been dominated by amateur clubs from privileged backgrounds, such as Wanderers and Old Etonians. However the 1883 FA Cup Final saw the first victory by Blackburn Olympic. At this time professionalism was not permitted. Clubs from urban areas in the north were strong advocates of the practice, but the southern amateur teams and the FA authorities were opposed. Though not an advocate of professionalism, McGregor came to favour its introduction. By 1885 the issue threatened to split the FA when a group of clubs, predominantly from Lancashire, announced their intention to leave and form a rival British Football Association if professionalism was not accepted. An emergency FA conference was called in response. Representing Aston Villa, McGregor spoke in favour of professionalism, the only delegate from the Midlands to do so, was one of the few delegates to admit that his club had been paying players. Though not as outspoken as stronger proponents, such as Preston North End's William Sudell, McGregor was well respected.

The conference ended with the FA accepting professionalism, although each club was permitted only to pay players, born or lived for at least two years within six miles of its home stadium. Professionalism brought fresh complications for club administrators. Many friendlies were cancelled due to opponents' FA Cup or county cup matches taking precedence or clubs failing to hono

Arnstein & Lehr

Arnstein & Lehr was a national law firm founded in Chicago in 1893, with offices in Chicago, Springfield, Illinois. The firm represented business enterprises in significant legal victories in the United States and Puerto Rico, its representation of Sears, Roebuck and Co. since 1895 is one of the country's longest continuous attorney-client relationships. On September 1, 2017, Arnstein & Lehr, LLP combined with Saul Ewing to form Saul Ewing Arnstein & Lehr, LLP with 14 offices and over 400 attorneys. In 1893, Albert Henry Loeb and Sydney Adler founded a law partnership specializing in corporate and real estate law, known as Loeb & Adler, with offices in room 903 of the Chamber of Commerce Building on the southeast corner of LaSalle and Washington Streets in Chicago. In 1895, the firm handled the reorganization of Sears and the entry into the company of Julius Rosenwald and Aaron Nusbaum. Albert Henry Loeb was retained to draft the reorganization documents giving equal ownership to Rosenwald and Nusbaum with Richard Warren Sears, incorporating the company in Illinois.

By 1898 the firm's clients included the State Bank of Chicago, Security Title & Trust Company, The Sheriff of Cook County, all the Judges of the Circuit Court and Superior Courts of Cook County. In 1902 the firm represented the Coliseum Garden Company “to provide music and high class vaudeville entertainment.” Albert Henry Loeb resigned from the firm in 1903 to become a full-time executive for Sears. In 1923, United States Senator James Hamilton Lewis, who had lost a re-election bid, joined the firm as a partner, his name was included in the firm name. To begin his successful bid to regain his seat in the Senate, he resigned from the firm in 1927. In 1929, Lucy Mae Viner, one of the earliest women lawyers in the city, became an associate, in 1934 the firm's first woman partner, listed as L. M. Varner; the firm represented Kroehler Manufacturing Mfg. Co. Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. Lady Esther Company, The Edgewater Beach Hotel, Lloyd A Fry Roofing Co. Johnson Controls, Inc. and Navistar. By 1970, the firm was outside General Counsel for five New York Stock Exchange Companies, DeSoto, Roper Corporation, Sears Roebuck & Co.

Universal-Rundle Corporation and Whirlpool Corporation. After several changes in name to reflect the changing membership, the firm in 1988, became Arnstein & Lehr, LLP; the firm was located in the Sears Tower and subsequently moved to its present location at 120 South Riverside Plaza, Chicago. On March 28, 1972, as construction of the building neared the 50th storey, the state's attorney of neighboring Lake County brought suit against Sears, Roebuck and Co. in the name of the People of the State of Illinois to halt construction and limit the height of the building claiming that the completed building would interfere with television reception to the north and west of Chicago. Shortly thereafter, on March 28, 1972, a similar suit was filed in Cook County by several Chicago suburbs; the firm won both of them in the trial courts. On June 6, 1972, Lake County appealed and because of the importance of the litigation the suits were consolidated, the Appellate Courts were by-passed and the matter went directly to the Supreme Court of Illinois.

The suit by the Chicago suburbs were subsequently added. On June 30, 1972, the Supreme Court entered a letter order upholding the decision of the trial courts to permit the construction as planned and followed it with a written opinion on September 20, 1972. In the 1970s, one of this country's largest and most complex antitrust suits began when an antitrust and dumping suit was filed in 1972 in New Jersey by National Union Electric Corp. against many of its Japanese competitors alleging a conspiracy to destroy the United States television industry. In 1974, Zenith Radio Corporation filed a similar suit seeking $900,000,000.00 in Philadelphia federal court against the same defendants and added Motorola and Sears as co-conspirators. The suits were consolidated for trial in the United States District Court in Philadelphia; the firm defended Sears. The suit first made legal history in 1980 when the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit ruled that a plaintiff does not have an absolute right to a trial by jury in a civil case.

Subsequently, the defendants, including Sears, filed Motions for Summary Judgment on both the antitrust and dumping claims. After summer long hearings on a daily basis to determine what evidence could be considered on the Summary Judgment Motions, Judge Edward R. Becker entered summary judgment for all defendants on both claims and dismissed what was a $1,500,000,000.00 lawsuit. Plaintiffs appealed and the Third Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the summary judgments for all the defendants, but affirmed the decision for Sears and two other defendants; the Supreme Court of the United States reinstated the summary judgments for the Japanese defendants. In 1977, the firm handled a case involving regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act that went as far as the Supreme Court of the United States. In the early 1970s, the Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a “National Emission Standard for Asbestos” and specified a certain procedure be followed in demolition of buildings containing asbestos but not limiting asbestos emissions that occur during a demolition.

The National Association of Demolition Contractors retained the firm to defend criminal charges brought against member demolition contractors throughout the country for violation of what the government termed an “emission standard”. One such indictment was returned on February 20, 1973, in the federal

Marie of Cleves, Duchess of Orléans

Marie of Cleves was the third wife of Charles, Duke of Orléans, the mother of his only son, King Louis XII of France. She was born a German princess, the last child of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves and his second wife, Marie of Burgundy. Marie was a patron of commissioned many works. After the Duke's death she was secretly remarried in 1480 to one of her gentlemen of the chamber, the Artesian "Sieur de Rabodanges", some years her junior, she died in Chaunay. At age fourteen, Marie married Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans, a man 32 years her senior, on 27 November 1440 in Saint-Omer, they had three children: Marie of Orléans. Marie is a character in Hella Haasse's historical novel about Charles, Duke of Orléans In a Dark Wood Wandering. Arn, Mary-Jo. Charles d'Orléans in England, 1415-1440. Cambridge. S. Brewer, 2000. Googlebooks Retrieved August 17, 2009 Wilson, Katharina M. An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Vol. 2 New York: Garland Pub, 1991. Googlebooks Holt, Emily Sarah. Memoirs of Royal Ladies.

London: Hurst and Blackett, 1861. Googlebooks