Thomas Wharton Jr.
Thomas Wharton Jr. was a Pennsylvania merchant and politician of the Revolutionary era. He served as the first President of Pennsylvania following the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain. Wharton was born in Chester County in the Province of Pennsylvania, in 1735, he was born into one of Philadelphia's most prominent early Quaker families. He was known as "Junior" to distinguish him from a cousin of the same name, his father, John Wharton, served as coroner of Chester County. His paternal grandfather, Thomas Wharton, a native of Westmorland, came to Pennsylvania around 1683. In 1762, Wharton married Susannah Lloyd, the daughter of Thomas Lloyd and great-granddaughter of Thomas Lloyd, an early governor of Pennsylvania and a colleague of William Penn, they were married by a pastor in Christ Church, an Anglican church, were therefore disowned by the Quakers of the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting. Wharton was thereafter associated with the Anglican Church; the couple had five children before Susannah's death ten years later.
Wharton married Elizabeth Fishbourne and had three children with her. Wharton owned; the Wharton family was involved in various areas of business and public service, including shipbuilding for the Continental Navy. Members of the Wharton family served in the Continental Congress and the State Legislature, as Mayor of Philadelphia and on the City Council, in positions of military leadership, in other offices. Wharton was well respected for his character as well as his business acumen. Like many other colonial merchants, Wharton signed petitions and joined boycotts in protest of the 1765 Stamp Act and the 1767 Townshend Acts, but he was not an early leader of the resistance movement, his rise to prominence in the Patriot cause followed Parliament's passage of the Boston Port Act in 1774. At a public meeting held in Philadelphia on May 20, 1774, Wharton was chosen as a member of the Committee of Correspondence, was one of twenty-five citizens who formed the Committee of Safety, Pennsylvania’s governing body in the early days of the Revolution.
On July 24, 1776 he became president of that body. As such he was a member of the committee directing. On September 28, 1776, Pennsylvania adopted a new state constitution; this document created an Executive Council of twelve men. Although wealthy, upper class Pennsylvanians like John Dickinson and Robert Morris opposed this radically democratic constitution, Wharton supported it. On a joint ballot of the Council and the General Assembly Wharton was elected the first President of the Council. Wharton, each of his successors in that office, may be referred to, quite properly, as President of Pennsylvania. However, the position is analogous to the modern office of Governor, Presidents of Council are listed with those who have held the latter title. Wharton was elected March 5, 1777 and took office under the title His Excellency Thomas Wharton, Esquire, President of the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Captain General and Commander-in-Chief in and over the same, he held office until his death in 1778.
In September 1777, with British forces poised to take Philadelphia, the Executive Council evacuated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was at this same time that the Continental Congress evacuated to Lancaster and to York, Pennsylvania. Wharton retreated to Lancaster along with other representatives of the State government. In the only election held while the Council was in Lancaster, Wharton was reelected President on November 21, 1777. Wharton, as President, had some difficult decisions to make, he found it necessary to banish to Virginia several of his acquaintances and friends, most of them Quakers, because of the possibility that they were siding with the British. Although this action was thought prudent by the revolutionary authorities, it was not based on much evidence and Wharton's social connections suffered because of it. On May 22, 1778, with the Council still in Lancaster, Wharton died in Lancaster at the age of 42 or 43. Vice-President George Bryan assumed the duties of the presidency upon Wharton's death.
Wharton was given an elaborate funeral with full military honors, in accordance with his position as commander in chief of the State's forces, was buried within the walls of Evangelical Trinity Church in Lancaster. At the time of his death, Thomas Wharton Jr. was survived by at least three sons. A Commonwealth of Pennsylvania historical marker at Trinity Church commemorates both Wharton and Pennsylvania Governor Thomas Mifflin, the first and last Governors and Presidents of Pennsylvania under the 1776 State Constitution; the marker is located on Duke Street in Lancaster. The text of the marker reads: Holy TrinityLutheran ChurchFounded in 1730. A session for an Indian treaty was held in the original church building in 1762; the present edifice was dedicated in 1766. Here are interred the remains of Gov. Thomas Mifflin. List of Governors of Pennsylvania Thomas Wharton Jr. at Find a Grave National Governors Association Historical Society of Pennsylvania: Thomas Wharton, Junr
Bank of Pennsylvania
The Bank of Pennsylvania was established on July 17, 1780, by Philadelphia merchants to provide funds for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Its investors included George Co. with a £ 2,000 payment. Within a year after the Union was founded in 1781, the Bank of North America superseded the Bank of Pennsylvania. In 1793, the Bank of Pennsylvania was re-established, with a charter from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, branches were opened in Pittsburgh, Lancaster and Easton; the bank collapsed in September 1857, with Thomas Allibone of the family firm Thomas Allibone & Co. serving as its president. In 1870, the only remaining piece of the bank headquarters building — one of its Ionic stone columns — was moved to Adrian, where it was erected as a Civil War Memorial in commemoration of the 84 local soldiers who died in the American Civil War
François Barbé-Marbois, marquis de Barbé-Marbois was a French politician. Born in Metz, where his father was director of the local mint, Barbé-Marbois tutored the children of the Marquis de Castries. In 1779 he was made secretary of the French legation to the United States. In 1780, Barbé-Marbois sent a questionnaire to the governors of all thirteen former American colonies, seeking information about each state's geography, natural resources and government. Thomas Jefferson, finishing his final term as Virginia's governor, responded to this query with a manuscript that became his famous Notes on the State of Virginia. Barbé-Marbois was elected a Foreign Honorary Member to both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society in 1781; when the minister Chevalier de la Luzerne returned to France in 1783, Barbé-Marbois remained in America as chargé d'affaires in 1784. That year he married Elizabeth Moore, the daughter of William Moore, former governor of Pennsylvania.
In 1785 he became intendant of the colony of Saint-Domingue under the Ancien Régime. At the close of 1789, he returned to France, placed his services at the disposal of the French Revolutionary government. In 1791 he was sent to Regensburg to help the French ambassador. Suspected of treason, he was soon freed. In 1795 he was elected to the Council of the Ancients, where the general moderation of his attitude in his opposition to the exclusion of nobles and the relations of émigrés from public life, brought him under suspicion of being a royalist, though he pronounced a eulogy on Napoleon Bonaparte for his success in Italy. During the anti-Royalist coup d'état of the 18th Fructidor 1797), he was arrested and transported to French Guiana. Transferred to the island of Oléron in 1799, he was set free by Napoleon Bonaparte after the 18 Brumaire Coup. In 1801, under the Consulate, he became councillor of state and director of the Trésor public, in 1802 a senator. In 1803 he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase treaty by which Louisiana was ceded to the United States, was rewarded by the First Consul with a gift of 152,000 francs.
Loyal to the First Empire, he was made grand officer of the Legion of Honour and a count in 1805, in 1808 he became president of the Cour des Comptes. His career as Head of the Treasury ended in 1806. In return for these favours, he heaped praise upon Napoleon. Deprived of his positions by Napoleon during the Hundred Days, he was appointed Minister of Justice under the Duc de Richelieu, tried unsuccessfully to gain the confidence of the Ultra-Royalists, withdrew at the end of nine months. In 1830, when the July Revolution brought Louis Philippe and the Orléans Monarchy, Barbé-Marbois went, as president of the Cour des Comptes, to compliment the new king, was confirmed in his position, he held his office until April 1834. In 1829 he wrote the book Histoire de la Louisiane et la cession de cette colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis de l'Amérique septentrionale, he published various texts, including: Reflexions sur la colonie de Saint-Domingue De la Guyane, etc. Journal d'un deporté non-jugé Written in 1780, while secretary to the French Legation to the US Army: "D'Complot du Benedict Arnold & Sir Henri Clinton contre Eunas` States du America General George Washington" One of the first accounts of Arnold's treason, was not published until 1816.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Barbé-Marbois, François, Marquis de". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Wilson, J. G.. "Marbois, Francois de Barbe". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Tugdual de Langlais, L'armateur préféré de Beaumarchais,Jean Peltier Dudoyer, de Nantes à l'Isle de France, Éd. Coiffard, 2015, 340 p. Tugdual de Langlais, Marie-Etienne Peltier, Capitaine corsaire de la République, Éd. Coiffard, 2017, 240 p.. Works by or about François Barbé-Marbois at Internet Archive https://web.archive.org/web/20040813061110/http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/france/louis2.htm Letter from George Washington Letter from Thomas Jefferson at the Wayback Machine https://web.archive.org/web/20040816205311/http://www.antebellumcovers.com/catalog104.htm Exhibits
Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land"; the Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, would breakaway during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and be one of the original thirteen states. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn's Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor, a 72-member Provincial Council, a larger General Assembly.
The General Assembly known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, but had little power. Succeeding Frames of Government were produced in 1683, 1696 and 1701; the fourth Frame was known as the Charter of Privileges and remained in effect until the American Revolution. At that time, the Provincial Assembly was deemed too moderate by the revolutionaries, who ignored the Assembly and held a convention which produced the Constitution of 1776 for the newly established commonwealth, creating a new General Assembly in the process. William Penn was an English real estate entrepreneur, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Le nape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. Penn, despite having the land grant from the King, embarked on an effort to purchase the lands from Native Americans.
Much of the land near present-day Philadelphia was held by the Delaware who would expect payment in exchange for a quitclaim to vacate the territory. Penn and his representatives negotiated a series of treaties with the Delaware and other tribes that had an interest in the land in his royal grant; the initial treaties were conducted between 1682 and 1684 for tracts between New Jersey and the former Swedish / Dutch colonies in present-day Delaware. The province was thus divided first into three counties, plus the three "lower counties on Delaware Bay"; the easternmost, Bucks County, Philadelphia County and Chester County, the westernmost. "The lower counties on Delaware," a separate colony within the province, constituted the same three counties that constitute the present State of Delaware: New Castle, the northernmost, the southernmost, Kent, which fell between New Castle and Sussex County. Their borders remain unchanged to this day, it was not until several decades into the next century that additional treaties with the Native Americans were concluded.
The Proprietors of the colony made treaties in 1718, 1732, 1737, 1749, 1754 and 1754 pushing the boundaries of the colony north and west. By the time the French and Indian War began in 1754, the Assembly had established the additional counties of Lancaster, Cumberland and Northampton. After the war was concluded, an additional treaty was made in 1768, that abided by the limits of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; this proclamation line was not intended to be a permanent boundary between the colonists and native American lands, but rather a temporary boundary which could be extended further west in an orderly manner but only by the royal government and not private individuals such as the Proprietors. This altered the original royal land grant to Penn; the next acquisitions by Pennsylvania were to take place as an independent commonwealth or state and no longer as a colony. The Assembly establish additional counties from the land prior to the War for American Independence; these counties were Bedford and Westmoreland.
William Penn and his fellow Quakers imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists and government was open to all Christians; until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no public debt. It encouraged the rapid growth of Philadelphia into America's most important city, of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country hinterlands, where German religions and political refugees prospered on the fertile soil and spirit of cultural creativeness. Among the first groups were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683. 1751 was an auspicious year for the colony. Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, The Academy and College of Philadelphia, the predecessor to the private University of Pennsylvania, both opened. Benjamin Franklin founded both of these institutions along with Philadelphia's Union Fire Company fifteen years earlier in 1736. In 1751, the Pennsylvania State House ordered a new bell which would become known as the Liberty Bell for the new bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia.
William Penn had mandated fair dealings with Native Americans. This led to better r
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Joseph Reed (politician)
Joseph Reed was a lawyer, military officer and statesman of the Revolutionary Era who lived the majority of his life in Pennsylvania. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and, while in Congress, signed the Articles of Confederation, he served as President of Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, a position analogous to the modern office of Governor. Reed was born in Trenton in the Province of New Jersey, he was the son of Andrew Reed, a shopkeeper and merchant, Theodosia Bowes. His grandfather, Joseph Reed, was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim in Ulster and settled in West Jersey His brother, Bowes Reed, would serve as a colonel in the Revolutionary War and as Secretary of State of New Jersey; the family moved to Philadelphia shortly after Reed's birth and, as a boy, Reed was enrolled at Philadelphia Academy. He received his bachelor's degree from the College of New Jersey in 1757 and, soon after, began his professional education under Richard Stockton. In the summer of 1763, Reed sailed for England, for two years, he continued his studies in law at Middle Temple in London.
During the course of his studies, Reed became romantically attached to Esther de Berdt, the daughter of the agent for the Province of Massachusetts Bay, Dennis de Berdt. De Berdt, though fond of Reed, was aware of the law student's intention to return to Philadelphia and refused consent for Esther to marry Reed. Reed returned to the Colonies with only a tenuous engagement to Esther, with an understanding that he would return to settle permanently in Great Britain shortly after. Following the death of his father, Reed returned to London to find that Esther's father had died during Reed's return trip to Britain. Reed and Esther married in May 1770 at Saint Luke's, near the City of London. Finding the de Berdt family in financial difficulties, Reed remained in London long enough to help settle his wife's family's affairs. Together with the widowed Mrs. de Berdt and Reed sailed for North America in October 1770. The Reeds would have five children. Joseph, who would become a prominent lawyer. Denis de Berdt George Washington, who would become a Navy commander.
Esther Martha At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Reed ran a successful Philadelphia law practice, from which he resigned at the request of George Washington. In 1775, Reed held the rank of colonel and he subsequently served in the capacity of secretary and aide-de-camp to Washington. On October 20, 1775, Reed wrote a famous letter to Colonel John Glover of the "Marblehead Men" Regiment of seamen in the Continental Army, setting the design of the First Navy Flag, the Evergreen Tree of Liberty flag. Colonel Glover was the owner of the Hannah vessel and was the action officer, along with Stephen Moylan, for commissioning the other First Navy ships called the "Washington Cruisers". Reed wrote: "What do you think of a Flag with a white Ground, a tree in the middle, the motto: "Appeal to Heaven"."In 1775, Reed commenced service as Adjutant-General of the Continental Army. In December 1776, General Washington, anxious to know the location of General Charles Lee's forces, opened a letter from Lee to Reed which indicated that they were both questioning Washington's abilities.
This was disconcerting to Washington, as Reed was one of his most trusted officers. Reed continued to serve in the army without pay until the close of the war. Though he took part in many military engagements in the northern and eastern theaters of the war, Reed was never wounded. In 1777, Reed was offered the positions of brigadier general and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, both of which he declined, he was elected to Congress in 1778, whilst serving as President in Pennsylvania. Reed has been recognized for his integrity, when offered a bribe of £10,000, as well as the most valuable office in the colonies, to promote the cause of colonial reconciliation with the British crown, Reed's reply was, "I am not worth purchasing; as a delegate to the Continental Congress, Reed accused Benedict Arnold of military malpractice whilst the latter was in command at Philadelphia. The subsequent court martial exonerated Arnold and received strong opposition from other members of Congress.
In 1778, Reed was one of the five delegates from Pennsylvania to sign the Articles of Confederation. On December 1, 1778, he was elected President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, a position analogous to the modern office of governor. Reed assumed office immediately. George Bryan, acting president since the death of Thomas Wharton on May 23, 1778, received only one vote for President, but was re-elected to the Vice-Presidency with an overwhelming majority similar to Reed's final tally. Reed was re-elected to the Presidency twice – on November 11, 1779 and November 14, 1780 – each time defeating William Moore, with a final count of 59 to 1 at the second election. Reed's third and final term came to a close on November 15, 1781, when he was succeeded by William Moore. During Reed's tenure as president, Pennsylvania passed a law for gradual abolition of slavery in 1780. Philadelphia County had no slave registrations making it impossible to determine who in Philadelphia owned slaves in 1780.
Reed's antipathy to Pennsylvania's Loyalist residents has been well attested by historic sources. Whilst
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet