Pittsburgh City-County Building
The Pittsburgh City-County Building is the seat of government for the City of Pittsburgh, houses both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County offices. It is located in Downtown Pittsburgh at 414 Grant Street, Pennsylvania. Built from 1915-17 it is the third seat of government of Pittsburgh. Today the building is occupied by Pittsburgh offices with Allegheny County located in adjacent county facilities. At the start of the 20th century, City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County officials began to realize that the current structure which housed the city and county government offices was insufficient for the city's rapid growth; the offices at that time were located in the Smithfield Street City Hall building, built in 1868-1872. The demand for new offices grew exponentially with the incorporation of Allegheny City into the City of Pittsburgh in 1907, which added 130,000 new residents to the city. In 1909 plans for a new City Hall began. Mayor William A. McGee proposed selling the current offices in the Smithfield Street City Hall and the Public Safety building, using these funds to buy the Allegheny County Courthouse and use it as the space for construction of a new City Hall.
By 1912 the plans moved forward with both the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County approving a joint venture to purchase the land and both occupy the new building. The architect for the new building was to be chosen through a competition, only accepting architects residing and doing business within Allegheny County. Regional favoritism was used in the building's construction as well, as in 1914 Mayor Joseph Armstrong claimed that all material for the building should come from manufactures who produce and are located in Pittsburgh, that all labor employed should be obtained or taken from Allegheny County; the plans for the development of the new building extended to some of the prominent organization within Pittsburgh such as the Carnegie Library, the Civic Club of Allegheny County who both had plans for space in the new building. Construction was postponed for more than a year though as the general contracting firm of W. F. Trimble & Sons filed an injunction claiming that the selection of James L. Stuart as consulting and supervising engineer was done through an improper bidding process.
The case was decided by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and resolved by a legislative act, development on the building was allowed to continue. The groundbreaking on the building occurred with a ceremony on July 6, 1915 with County Commissioner I. K. Campbell striking the first blow with a pick and Joseph G. Armstrong Jr. lifting the first shovel of dirt. Both the pick and the shovel were silver plated and preserved as mementos in the office of the Mayor. Following significant progress in construction a cornerstone laying ceremony was planned to coincide with the celebration of Pittsburgh's Centennial. On March 26, 1916 the celebration of the 100th anniversary of incorporation was held in Pittsburgh and a parade wound through downtown Pittsburgh ending at a steel-framework of what would become the new City-Council Building. Three cornerstones were laid during the celebration, including one for the City, one for the County, one for the workers, each of which contained time capsules; the construction on the new building finished in 1917, was completed under budget.
In April 1917, the City Law Department was the first to switch into the new building, with the rest of the remaining offices allocated by June. The building was nominated in January 2016 to become a City Historic Site by Preservation Pittsburgh. In 1914, a competition was held for a new Pittsburgh City Hall; the 16-entry competition led to the commissioning of Edward B. Lee, a respected Pittsburgh architect, with Palmer, Hornbostel, & Jones as associated architects; the completed design was done by Henry Hornbostel. The building was designed with elements of the City Beautiful Movement; the City-County building is a representation of a distinctly American extrapolation of the Beaux Arts mode. Hornbostel was known for this architectural style, architectural historian James Van Trump has stated that Hornbostel kept the principles of the Beaux Arts central with his designs, but frequently departed from the precepts, integrated elements of other styles akin to industrially-inspired brutalism; the design of the building was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement.
This movement featured urban planning with soaring Neoclassical buildings and orderly designs, included the concept of the “White City”. The City-County Building was one of Pittsburgh's first attempts at incorporating the City Beautiful Movement into its urban design; some of the most significant design elements of the building include the Grand Lobby, a lit atrium with a 47-foot high barrel-vaulted ceiling. The ceiling is held up by bronze columns crafted by Louis Tiffany Studios, they feature at their bases, the Seals of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, frontiersman Guyasuta, Pittsburgh's oldest surviving building, the Fort Pitt Blockhouse. The rooms ornate elevator doors feature a series of reliefs detailing the previous homes of municipal government; the reliefs age with the building's they clutch, reaching adulthood with the present City-County Building and Allegheny County Courthouse. The building is unique in that most of the furniture was designed by the building's architect, Hornbostel.
The Office of the Mayor, Council Chamber, Supreme Court Room all feature 1917 furniture still in use today. On the seventh floor of the building is a massive mural completed in 1940 entitled "Justice" by award-winning artist Harry Scheuch. 1922's In the Name of the Law starred Pittsburgh Pirates great and future Hall of Famer Honus Wagner as the hero, as a Pit
Middletown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania
Middletown is a borough in Dauphin County, United States, on the Susquehanna River, 10 miles southeast of Harrisburg. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 8,901, it is part of the Harrisburg–Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area. Middletown was founded in 1755 along the left bank of the Susquehanna River and was incorporated as a borough in 1828 after a sudden boom in development and population occurred as a result of the construction of the Union Canal, connecting Lancaster to Middletown. Earlier in 1824 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's legislature authorized and funded the canal construction as part of the broad sweeping commercial initiative called the Main Line of Public Works. Middletown was selected as the western terminus of the Union Canal, it was named from its location halfway between Lancaster and Carlisle, where an ascent exists to a low pass allowing easier travel among the barrier mountains of the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians giving access into north-central Maryland and the valley of the Potomac River.
It is the oldest incorporated community in Dauphin County and is located within a rich agricultural area forming the western edge of Pennsylvania Dutch Country. The George Everhart Trust, named for a citizen of Middletown from the 1800s, still manages leases on much of the land in and around Middletown; the trust was founded to operate the Frey Orphanage and did so for many years, in three locations in Middletown. The orphanage closed, the final location, on Red Hill, has become the Frey Village Retirement Community, a Diakon Lutheran senior living facility. Middletown is located 3 miles north of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant; the Unit #2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant suffered a partial meltdown in 1979, causing then-Governor Richard "Dick" Thornburgh to order the evacuation of pregnant women and pre-school children from the area. Within days, 140,000 people had left the area. President Jimmy Carter visited Middletown's Community Building to calm the nerves of anxious residents.
Because the town is old, diverse historic architectural styles abound. Middletown has everything from log houses to Victorian mansions, beyond; the Simon Cameron House and Bank, B'nai Jacob Synagogue, St. Peter's Kierch and Joseph Raymond Houses, Henry Smith Farm, Swatara Ferry House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Middletown is located in southern Dauphin County at 40°11′55″N 76°43′46″W, its southern border is along the Susquehanna River, its eastern border is formed by Swatara Creek, across, the borough of Royalton. Pennsylvania Route 230 leads northwest 10 miles to the center of Harrisburg and southeast 8 miles to Elizabethtown. Via the PA 283 expressway it is 28 miles southeast to Lancaster; the Pennsylvania Turnpike passes through the northern part of the borough, but the nearest access is 4 miles west near Highspire. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.1 square miles, of which 2.0 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 2.33%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,242 people, 4,032 households, 2,370 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,536.5 people per square mile. There were 4,387 housing units at an average density of 2,153.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 88.77% White, 7.34% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.18% of the population. There were 4,032 households, out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.90. In the borough the population was spread out, with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,425, the median income for a family was $43,661. Males had a median income of $32,891 versus $24,692 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $18,535. About 4.6% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. Middletown Area School District Penn State Harrisburg Official website
George Howard Earle III
George Howard Earle III was an American politician and diplomat. He was a member of the prominent Earle family and the 30th Governor of Pennsylvania from 1935 to 1939. Earle was one of just two Democrats that served as Governor of Pennsylvania between the Civil War and World War II; the son of prominent attorney George Howard Earle, Jr. Earle worked in his family's sugar business after graduating from Harvard University. During World War I, he commanded USS Victor, a submarine chaser, his private yacht. Though raised a Republican, Earle joined the Democrats out of dissatisfaction with the Republican Party's handling of the Great Depression, he campaigned for Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election and served as the U. S. Minister to Austria from 1933 to 1934. In this role, he warned the Roosevelt administration of the rising danger presented by Nazi Germany. Earle defeated Republican William A. Schnader in the 1934 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election; as governor, he introduced an ambitious "Little New Deal" that sought to combat the effects of the Great Depression.
Among other policies, his administration created a centralized Department of Public Assistance, eliminated the private police forces operated by several coal and steel companies, began construction of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, instituted Pennsylvania's first gasoline and cigarette tax, established a forty-hour work week. The Little New Deal made Earle one of the most popular politicians in the country. Earle sought election to the United States Senate in 1938, but he was defeated by incumbent Republican Senator James J. Davis. Earle was appointed as the Ambassador to Bulgaria in 1940 and served as a special emissary to the Balkans during World War II, he compiled a report blaming the Katyn massacre of Polish nationals on the Soviet Union, but this report was suppressed. After the war, he served as assistant governor of American Samoa, he retired from public office and died in 1974. Earle grew up on a Montgomery County estate as the son of George Howard Earle, Jr. and Catharine H. French, a wealthy family that traced its lineage in America to the arrival of the Mayflower.
He received a degree from Harvard University and subsequently worked abroad in a family-owned sugar business. He enlisted in the military in 1916 and was assigned to the Mexican border during the Pancho Villa Expedition. After the United States entered World War I, Earle commanded USS Victor, a submarine chaser, his private yacht, he earned the Navy Cross in 1918 after averting a fatal explosion. After the war, Earle returned to private business in the sugar industry. Though raised as a Republican, Earle joined the Democratic Party over disillusionment with the Republican Party's handling of the Great Depression. After campaigning for Franklin Roosevelt in the 1932 election, Earle served as Ambassador to Austria from 1933 to 1934. Earle looked warily upon the Nazi Party, warned the FDR Administration of the potential danger of Nazi Germany. Although Pennsylvania had not elected a Democratic governor in over forty years, Earle defeated Republican Attorney General William A. Schnader in the 1934 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election.
Though Earle faced a split legislature in the first half of his term, his party gained control of both chambers of the Pennsylvania legislature in the 1936 election. An ardent Roosevelt admirer, Earle rolled out an ambitious "Little New Deal," which resulted in the introduction of a record 3514 bills during the 1935-36 session of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, his administration created a centralized Department of Public Assistance, designed to ensure uniform allocation of relief payments. Earle's government sought to ameliorate ongoing labor strife by increasing union bargaining rights and eliminating the private police forces operated by many of the influential coal and steel companies. Pennsylvania Turnpike construction began during his tenure. Other bills passed include Pennsylvania's first gasoline and cigarette tax, teacher tenure, a maximum forty-hour work week. Earle's administration relaxed Pennsylvania's Blue laws, passed the nation's first milk control law, outlawed company police forces hired by mining companies.
Earle's "Little New Deal" earned him a place on the cover of Time Magazine in 1937, a Gallup poll that same year saw him named the nation's third most popular Democrat. However, Earle became known for his mercurial temperament and his administration was plagued by high-profile corruption charges involving his top officials. Earle's poor relationship with the state's judicial hierarchy resulted in one of his central policy goals, the imposition of a graduated income tax, being declared unconstitutional. Earle, constitutionally ineligible to run for a second consecutive term as governor, ran for the Senate in 1938, but lost to incumbent Republican James J. Davis. Earle's loss to Davis coincided with a Republican landslide that saw Republicans re-gain control of the legislature and governorship. Pennsylvania would not elect another Democratic governor until 1954. In 1940, Earle was appointed as Ambassador to Bulgaria. During World War II, he served again in the United States Navy, this time as Lieutenant Commander and as a special emissary to the Balkans, where Earle proposed a plan that he believed might bring the war in Europe to an early end.
The German ambassador and the head of the German secret service had secretly proposed a coup against Adolf Hitler that would end with Hitler turned over to the US as a war criminal, but the plot was not approved by the US government. In 1944, President Roosevelt assigned Earle to compile information on the Katyń massacre, the massacre of the Polish intelligentsia by the Soviet governme
Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick, is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick, the foremost patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church; the day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, céilís, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks. Christians who belong to liturgical denominations attend church services and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol were lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption. Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.
It is widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora around the world in the United Kingdom, United States, Argentina and New Zealand. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated in more countries than any other national festival. Modern celebrations have been influenced by those of the Irish diaspora those that developed in North America. However, there has been criticism of Saint Patrick's Day celebrations for having become too commercialised and for fostering negative stereotypes of the Irish people. Patrick was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian bishop in Ireland. Much of what is known about Saint Patrick comes from the Declaration, written by Patrick himself, it is believed that he was born in Roman Britain in the fourth century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father was a deacon and his grandfather was a priest in the Christian church. According to the Declaration, at the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Gaelic Ireland, it says that he spent six years there working as a shepherd and that during this time he "found God".
The Declaration says that God told Patrick to flee to the coast, where a ship would be waiting to take him home. After making his way home, Patrick went on to become a priest. According to tradition, Patrick returned to Ireland to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity; the Declaration says that he spent many years evangelising in the northern half of Ireland and converted "thousands". Patrick's efforts against the druids were turned into an allegory in which he drove "snakes" out of Ireland, despite the fact that snakes were not known to inhabit the region. Tradition holds that he was buried at Downpatrick. Over the following centuries, many legends grew up around Patrick and he became Ireland's foremost saint. Today's St Patrick's Day celebrations have been influenced by those that developed among the Irish diaspora in North America; until the late 20th century, St Patrick's Day was a bigger celebration among the diaspora than it was in Ireland. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, Irish traditional music sessions, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.
There are formal gatherings such as banquets and dances, although these were more common in the past. St Patrick's Day parades began in North America in the 18th century but did not spread to Ireland until the 20th century; the participants include marching bands, the military, fire brigades, cultural organisations, charitable organisations, voluntary associations, youth groups, so on. However, over time, many of the parades have become more akin to a carnival. More effort is made to use the Irish language in Ireland, where the week of St Patrick's Day is "Irish language week". Since 2010, famous landmarks have been lit up in green on St Patrick's Day as part of Tourism Ireland's "Global Greening Initiative" or "Going Green for St Patrick´s Day"; the Sydney Opera House and the Sky Tower in Auckland were the first landmarks to participate and since over 300 landmarks in fifty countries across the globe have gone green for St Patricks day. Christians may attend church services, the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day.
Because of this, drinking alcohol – Irish whiskey, beer, or cider – has become an integral part of the celebrations. The St Patrick's Day custom of "drowning the shamrock" or "wetting the shamrock" was popular in Ireland. At the end of the celebrations, a shamrock is put into the bottom of a cup, filled with whiskey, beer, or cider, it is drunk as a toast to St Patrick, Ireland, or those present. The shamrock would either be swallowed with the drink or taken out and tossed over the shoulder for good luck. Irish Government Ministers travel abroad on official visits to various countries around the globe to celebrate St Patrick's Day and promote Ireland; the most prominent of these is the visit of the Irish Taoiseach with the U. S. President which happens on or around St Patrick's Day. Traditionally the Taoiseach presents the U. S. President a Waterford Crystal bowl filled with shamrocks; this tradition began when in 1952, Irish Ambassador to the U. S. John Hearne sent a box of shamrocks to President Harry S. Truman.
From on it became an annual tradition of the Irish ambassador to the U. S. to present the St Patrick's Day shamrock to an official in the U. S
Andrew Fulton (mayor)
Andrew Fulton was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1884 to 1887. The son of Samuel Magee and Agnes Rebecca Fulton, he was born in 1850 into a foundry family, he was outgoing and affable and preferred the less formal "Andy Fulton", this charismatic charm as well as his tall stature served him well in a career of politics. In 1879, Fulton was elected to the City Council followed soon by his election to the mayor's office in 1887. Mayor Fulton oversaw the completion of the Western Penitentiary during his term. After leaving office he continued to stay active in Pittsburgh politics working on both the city and county levels, with the exception of an absence to Colorado to raise horses for a number of years, he died in 1925 of pneumonia.
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
William C. McCarthy
William C. McCarthy was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1866 to 1868 and from 1875 to 1878. McCarthy was born in 1820, he was known as "Roaring Bill". His reputation as a volunteer fireman was legendary. McCarthy was a newspaper editor with the Pittsburgh Dispatch; the Industrial Revolution was gearing up and Pittsburgh was annexing neighboring townships and boroughs. In 1868, Bloomfield became part of the city. During his first administration, the police department ceased orally assuring the citizenry "that all is well," and inclined planes began to ascend Mount Washington; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 occurred during his second term as mayor. Striking railroad workers clashed in a fierce battle with Philadelphia Militiamen at the 28th Street Roundhouse. Rail traffic was brought to a halt, the terminal was burned. McCarthy was elected City Controller in 1878, he died January 27, 1900. List of mayors of Pittsburgh