A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. They have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the British Magna Carta of 1215, but since the 14th century have only been used in place of private acts to grant a right or power to an individual or a body corporate, they were, are still, used to establish significant organisations such as boroughs and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from royal warrants of appointment, grants of arms and other forms of letters patent, such as those granting an organisation the right to use the word "royal" in their name or granting city status, which do not have legislative effect; the British monarchy has issued over 1,000 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence; the earliest charter recorded by the UK government was granted to the University of Cambridge in England in 1231, although older charters are known to have existed including to the Worshipful Company of Weavers in England in 1150 and to the town of Tain in Scotland in 1066.
Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014. Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to grant rights and privileges to towns and cities. During the 14th and 15th century the concept of incorporation of a municipality by royal charter evolved. Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England, the British East India Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India and China, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the British South Africa Company, some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, royal charters were used to create chartered companies – for-profit ventures with shareholders, used for exploration and colonisation. Early charters to such companies granted trade monopolies, but this power was restricted to parliament from the end of the 17th century.
Until the 19th century, royal charters were the only means other than an act of parliament by which a company could be incorporated. The use of royal charters to incorporate organisations gave rise to the concept of the "corporation by prescription"; this enabled corporations that had existed from time immemorial to be recognised as incorporated via the legal fiction of a "lost charter". Examples of corporations by prescription include Cambridge universities. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, of the 81 universities established in pre-Reformation Europe, 13 were established ex consuetudine without any form of charter, 33 by Papal bull alone, 20 by both Papal bull and imperial or royal charter, 15 by imperial or royal charter alone. Universities established by royal charter did not have the same international recognition – their degrees were only valid within that kingdom; the first university to be founded by charter was the University of Naples in 1224, founded by an imperial charter of Frederick II.
The first university founded by royal charter was the University of Coimbra in 1290, by King Denis of Portugal, which received Papal confirmation the same year. Other early universities founded by royal charter include the University of Perpignan and the University of Huesca, both by Peter IV of Aragon, the Jagiellonian University by Casimir III of Poland, the University of Vienna by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Caen by Henry VI of England, the University of Girona and the University of Barcelona, both by Alfonso V of Aragon, the University of Valence by the Dauphin Louis, the University of Palma by Ferdinand II of Aragon; the University of Cambridge was confirmed by a Papal bull in 1317 or 1318, but despite repeated attempts, the University of Oxford never received such confirmation. The three pre-Reformation Scottish universities were all established by Papal bulls. Following the reformation, establishment of universities and colleges by royal charter became the norm; the University of Edinburgh was founded under the authority of a royal charter granted to the Edinburgh town council in 1582 by James VI as the "town's college".
Trinity College Dublin was established by a royal charter of Elizabeth I in 1593. Both of these charters were given in Latin; the Edinburgh charter gave permission for the town council "to build and to repair sufficient houses and places for the reception and teaching of professors of the schools of grammar, the humanities and languages, theology and law, or whichever liberal arts which we declare detract in no way from the aforesaid mortification" and granted them the right to appoint and remove professors. But, as concluded by Edinburgh's principal, Sir Alexander Grant, in his tercentenary history of the university, "Obviously this is no charter founding a university". Instead
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi, it erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859; the rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, the First War of Independence.
The Indian rebellion was fed by resentments born of diverse perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, as well as skepticism about the improvements brought about by British rule. Many Indians rose against the British. Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, on the rebels, their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals. After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, they declared the Emperor of Hindustan. Soon, the rebels had captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces and Awadh; the East India Company's response came as well. With help from reinforcements, Kanpur was retaken by mid-July 1857, Delhi by the end of September. However, it took the remainder of 1857 and the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be suppressed in Jhansi and the Awadh countryside.
Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidency—remained calm. In the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing support; the large princely states, Mysore and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion, serving the British, in the Governor-General Lord Canning's words, as "breakwaters in a storm."In some regions, most notably in Awadh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. However, the rebel leaders proclaimed no articles of faith. So, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian- and British Empire history, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company, forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, the administration in India, through passage of the Government of India Act 1858. India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj. On 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria issued a proclamation to Indians, which while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects.
In the following decades, when admission to these rights was not always forthcoming, Indians were to pointedly refer to the Queen's proclamation in growing avowals of a new nationalism. Although the British East India Company had established a presence in India as far back as 1612, earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its firm foothold in eastern India; the victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, when the East India Company army defeated Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After his defeat, the emperor granted the Company the right to the "collection of Revenue" in the provinces of Bengal, known as "Diwani" to the Company; the Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Madras. In 1806, the Vellore Mutiny was sparked by new uniform regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.
This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states of the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir were annexed after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849; the border dispute between Nepal and British India, which sharpened after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. In 1854, Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh was added two years later. For practical purposes, the Company was the government of much of India; the Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. The sepoys were Indian soldiers who were recruited into the Company's army
Hythe is a coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the district of Folkestone and Hythe on the south coast of Kent. The word Hythe or Hithe is an Old English word meaning landing place; the town has medieval and Georgian buildings, as well as a Saxon/Norman church on the hill and a Victorian seafront promenade. Hythe was once defended by two castles and Lympne; the town hall, a former guildhall, was built in its fireplace designed by the Adam Brothers. Hythe's market once took place in Market Square close to where there is now a farmers' market every second and fourth Saturday of the month. Hythe has gardening, horse riding, tennis, football and sailing clubs. Lord Deedes was patron of Hythe Civic Society, the hounds of the East Kent Hunt are kennelled in nearby Elham; as an important Cinque Port Hythe once possessed a bustling harbour which, over the past three hundred years, has now disappeared due to silting. Hythe was the central Cinque Port, sitting between Hastings and New Romney to the west and Dover and Sandwich to the east.
According to Hasted, a French fleet approached Hythe in 1293 and landed 200 men, but "the townsmen came upon them and slew every one of them: upon which the rest of the fleet hoisted sail and made no further attempt". In 1348 the Black Death afflicted Hythe, in 1400 the plague further reduced the population. Hythe has no coat of arms. Hythe is the birthplace of Mackeson Stout, a type of beer. Hythe Ranges is a military training ground. Access to this section of the shore is restricted; the Royal Military Canal runs to Winchelsea. Running under Stade Street, the canal, intended to repel invasion during the Napoleonic wars of 1804 to 1815, gives central Hythe its character. Now shaded by trees, the canal, 10 yards wide, passes into the marsh from the middle of the town; the canal runs through Hythe. It follows the original haven, once Hythe's harbour as far as the light railway thence across Romney Marsh to Winchelsea, its 26-mile length can be walked. Built around the same time as a defence against possible invasion by Napoleon were the Martello Towers.
In total 74 of these towers were built between Seaford. The walls were up to 13 ft thick, each tower held 24 men and had a huge cannon mounted on the top, they were named after a similar tower at Mortella Point in Corsica which the Navy had captured from the French. Although never needed for their original purpose they were used to combat smuggling and as signalling stations and coastal defences during the two world wars. Three of the towers survive at Hythe. Geologically the town developed on a succession of non parallel terraces, rising from the level ground around the Royal Canal towards the steep incline upon which the parish church of St Leonard was built. From the High Street, alleys lead up to the steeper levels of the town; this publication may show the royal canal named as the royal military canal because, its previous name. The large 11th century church is up the hill; the chancel, from 1220, covers a processional ossuary lined with 8,000 thigh bones. They date from the medieval period having been stored after removal, to make way for new graves.
This was common in England, but bones were dispersed, this is thus a rare collection. Several of the skulls show marks of trepanning; this is one of only two surviving ossuaries in England. The chancel is closed in winter. Other curiosities are worth looking for. On pillars on the south side of the nave are medieval graffiti depicting ships; the vestry door, on the north side of the nave, is unlocked. It has been suggested that this, which in late medieval times was on the outer wall of the church, was once an internal wall, with the earlier Norman church a stage higher up the hill; this would make the existing chapel of St Edmund the original chancel, with the original nave being on the other side of the north wall. Evidence of earlier masonry is visible on the north wall. Going round into the north transept, it is clear that Roman masonry was re-used in the building of the arch, narrow and late Saxon in style. At the time of Hasted's ` History of Kent' this doorway was not visible on the inside.
Lionel Lukin, credited with inventing the self-righting lifeboat, is buried in the parish churchyard. Hythe was once defended by two castles and Lympne. Saltwood derives its name from the village in its shadow. During the reign of King Canute the manor of Saltwood was granted to the priory of Christ Church in Canterbury, but during the 12th century it became home of Henry d'Essex, constable of England. Thomas Becket had sought from King Henry II restoration of the castle as an ecclesiastical palace. Henry instead granted the castle to Ranulf de Broc; that the castle had been returned to Becket, as Archbishop of Canterbury, remained a church property until the reign of Henry VIII, when Hythe and Saltwood were to be sequestrated to the Crown, suggests that some complicity by
Sir Robert Fullerton was a governor of Penang and the first governor of Straits Settlements, appointed by the Colonial Office, London. He was born in Edinburgh the son of William Fullerton of Carstairs and raised on Nicolson Street in the city's south side, he was one of twelve children including Lord Fullerton. His elder sister Elizabeth married William Fullerton Elphinstone, a director of the East India Company; this influential connection contributed to his career. According to Prinsep, his career progression is as follows: 1789 – Writer 1790 – Assistant under the Military Secretary 1791 – Assistant at Masulipatam 1797 – Deputy Commercial Resident at the Presidency 1798 – Deputy Commercial Resident at Ingeram 1802 – Commercial Resident at Ingeram 1805 – General Agent for Managing the Monopoly and Sale of Salt 1806 – Third Judge at the Provincial Court, Northern Division 1809 – Third Member of the Board of Trade, General Superintendent of Investments 1812 – Superintendent of Government Lotteries 1814 – Second Member of Council, President of the Board of Trade.
Fullerton received his original appointment on 4 February 1824 and was governor of Prince of Wales Isle from 20 August 1824 to 1826, after which he became the governor of the newly incorporated Straits Settlements of Singapore and Malacca under the British administration in India. The governor of the Straits Settlements was assisted by three resident councillors. Robert Fullerton became the first governor of the Straits Settlements, based in Penang, served in that capacity from 27 November 1826 to 12 November 1830; the departure of the last governor is recorded in the Gazette. The issue of 29 August 1830 carries the following notification: "The Honorable the Governor, being about to proceed to Singapore and Malacca, NOTICE is hereby given that this station will cease to be the seat of Government from the date of his departure, the charge of the settlement will devolve upon the Honorable Robert Ibbetson, Resident Councillor. Fullerton, with the sanction of the Court of Directors and Board of Control, regulated for the appointment of "The Committee of Assessors," for the purposes of ensuring the streets of Penang were cleared and kept in repair.
He died in London, England in 1831. Governor of Penang Biography of Robert Fullerton Biography on Singapore Infopedia
Addiscombe Military Seminary
The East India Company Military Seminary was a British military academy at Addiscombe, Surrey, in what is now the London Borough of Croydon. It opened in 1809 and closed in 1861, its purpose was to train young officers to serve in the East India Company’s private army in India. The institution was formally known as the East India Company Military Seminary until 1855, when the name was changed to the East India Company Military College. In 1858, when the college was taken over by the government, it was renamed the Royal India Military College. Colloquially, it was known as Addiscombe Seminary, Addiscombe College, or Addiscombe Military Academy; the Seminary was a sister institution to the East India Company College in Hertfordshire, which trained civilian "writers". In military terms it was a counterpart to the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. Addiscombe Place, the mansion house which formed the central building of the Seminary, was erected in about 1702 by William Draper, on land which he had inherited in 1700 from his aunt, Dame Sarah Temple.
Draper's father-in-law was the diarist John Evelyn, who in 1703 pronounced the house "in all points of good and solid architecture to be one of the best gentleman's houses in Surrey, when finish'd". Its interior included many mural paintings of mythological subjects, supposed to be the work of Sir James Thornhill. By the late 18th century the house was in the ownership of Charles James Clarke, who leased it to the statesman Charles Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury 1st Earl of Liverpool. Regular visitors during Liverpool's tenure included William Pitt. Following the death of Lord Liverpool in December 1808, Addiscombe Place was put on the market by Emelius Delmé-Radcliffe, it was bought by the Court of Directors of the East India Company for use as a military academy. Although the Company was a trading concern, it maintained its own army, the officers of, trained at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, at the Royal Military College Junior Department at Great Marlow, or privately, they were now to be trained at Addiscombe.
The Seminary opened on 21 January 1809, although the formal transfer of title of the property did not take place until a year on 26 January 1810. The initial purchase comprised the mansion house and 58 acres of land to the south of Lower Addiscombe Road, but a further 30 acres to the north were subsequently acquired. New buildings were added, so that the mansion house, which housed the entire establishment, became a purely administrative block; the additions included barracks, a chapel, a drawing and lecture hall, a hospital, a dining-hall, a sand-modelling hall, a gymnasium, service facilities including a bakehouse, dairy and brew-house. In the early days cadets entered the Seminary between the ages of 13½ and 16, between 15 and 18, they remained for 2 years, although it was possible to pass the final examination within a shorter period. The initial intake comprised 60 cadets, but numbers rose to about 75 a year, meaning that there were around 150 cadets in residence at any one time. Cadets or their families were required to pay fees, but these were subsidised and represented only a proportion of the true costs of their education.
The main purpose of the Seminary was to train cadets for the Engineer or Artillery arms of the service, but as an experiment in 1816–17, more permanently from 1827, "general service" cadets destined for the Infantry were admitted. In all, some 3,600 cadets passed through Addiscombe during the years of its existence. Of these, over 500 entered the Engineers, nearly 1,100 the Artillery, about 2,000 the Infantry, some of whom subsequently transferred to the Cavalry; the curriculum comprised instruction in the "sciences of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry. The Company paid well, attracted some distinguished academic staff: John Shakespear published a standard Hindustani grammar, Jonathan Cape was a Fellow of the Royal Society. In practice, the emphasis was on mathematics, the Seminary was criticised for not including more training in practical "military science". In the 1850s photography was studied. J. M. Bourne concludes that the Seminary was "not a true military college at all, but a militarised public school" – although he judges that, by the standards of the age, its record as a military training school was not worse than those of the establishments at Woolwich and Sandhurst.
Cadets were required to wear uniforms at all times, were not permitted to go beyond the grounds or into Croydon without permission. However, they gained a reputation for indiscipline, fights with the townspeople of Croydon were not infrequent. There was no corporal punishment, but in the early years cadets could be punished by being incarcerated in the so-called "Black Hole", fed on bread and water; until 1829 they worshipped at Croydon Parish Church: after that date they began to worship at the newly consecrated St James's Church, Addiscombe. Examinations were held twice-yearly in June and December: they lasted about three weeks, culminated in a Pub
James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman and colonial administrator in British India. He served as Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, he is credited with introducing passenger trains in railways, electric telegraph and uniform postage in India which he describes as the "three great engines of social improvement". He founded Public Works Department in India. To his supporters he stands out as the far-sighted Governor-General who consolidated East India Company rule in India, laid the foundations of its administration, by his sound policy enabled his successors to stem the tide of rebellion. To his critics, he stands out as the destroyer of both the East India Company's financial and military position through reckless policies, his critics hold that he laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and led the final transformation of profitable commercial operations in India into a money-losing colonial administration.
His period of rule in India directly preceded the transformation into the Victorian Raj period of Indian administration. He was denounced by many in Britain on the eve of his death as having failed to notice the signs of the brewing Indian Rebellion of 1857, having aggravated the crisis by his overbearing self-confidence, centralizing activity and expansive annexations. James Andrew Broun-Ramsay was the third and youngest son of George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie, one of Wellington's generals, after being Governor General of Canada, became Commander-in-Chief in India, of his wife, Christian of Colstoun, Haddingtonshire; the 9th Earl was in 1815 created Baron Dalhousie of Dalhousie Castle in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, had three sons, of whom the two elder died young. James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, his youngest son, was described as small in stature, with a firm chiseled mouth and high forehead. Several years of his early boyhood were spent with his mother in Canada. Returning to Scotland he was prepared for Harrow School, where he entered in 1825.
Two years he and another student, Robert Adair, were expelled after bullying George Rushout, nephew of John Rushout, 2nd Baron Northwick. The two boys dunked Rushout in water for 30 minutes, leaving him ill, he nearly died, thanks to lackluster medical response from the school, whose headmaster claimed his illness was blamed on constipation. His uncle intervened, the two boys were forced to leave school. George Rushout did not return, until 33 years when, having succeeded his uncle as the 3rd Baron Northwick, he became headmaster; until he entered university, Dalhousie's entire education being entrusted to the Rev. Mr Temple, incumbent of a quiet parish in Staffordshire. In October 1829, he passed on to Christ Church, where he worked hard, won some distinction, made many lifelong friends, his studies, were so interrupted by the protracted illness and death in 1832 of his only surviving brother, that Lord Ramsay, as he became, had to content himself with entering for a pass degree, though he was placed in fourth class of honours for Michaelmas 1833.
He travelled in Italy and Switzerland, enriching with copious entries the diary which he religiously kept up through life, storing his mind with valuable observations. An unsuccessful but courageous contest at the general election in 1835 for one of the seats in parliament for Edinburgh, fought against such veterans as the future speaker, James Abercrombie, afterwards Lord Dunfermline, John Campbell, future lord chancellor, was followed in 1837 by Ramsay's return to the House of Commons as member for Haddingtonshire. In the previous year he had married Lady Susan Hay, daughter of the Marquess of Tweeddale, whose companionship was his chief support in India, whose death in 1853 left him a heartbroken man. In 1838 his father had died after a long illness, while less than a year he lost his mother. Succeeding to the peerage, the new earl soon made his mark in a speech delivered on 16 June 1840 in support of Lord Aberdeen's Church of Scotland Benefices Bill, a controversy arising out of the Auchterarder case, in which he had taken part in the General Assembly in opposition to Dr Chalmers.
In May 1843 he became Vice-President of the Board of Trade, Gladstone being President, was sworn in as a privy counsellor. He was given the honorary post of Captain of Deal Castle the same year. Succeeding Gladstone as President of the Board of Trade in 1845, he threw himself into the work during the crisis of the Railway Mania with such energy that his health broke down under the strain. In the struggle over the Corn Laws he ranged himself on the side of Sir Robert Peel, after the failure of Lord John Russell to form a ministry he resumed his post at the board of trade, entering the cabinet on the retirement of Lord Stanley; when Peel resigned office in June 1846, Lord John offered Dalhousie a seat in the cabinet, an offer which he declined from a fear that acceptance might involve the loss of public character. Another attempt to secure his politics; as Governor-General of India and Governor of Bengal on 12 January 1848, shortly afterwards he was honoured with the green ribbon of the Order of the Thistle.
During this period, he was said to be an hard worker working sixteen to eighteen hours a day. The shortest workday Dalhousie would take began at half-past eight and would continue until half-past five, remaining at his desk during lunch. During this period, he sought to expand the reach of the empire and ride long distances on horseback, in spite of having a bad back. In con