Frederick William Beechey
Frederick William Beechey was an English naval officer and geographer. He was the son of two painters, Sir William Beechey RA. Born in London on 17 February 1796, he entered the Royal Navy at the age of 10, he was promoted to midshipman the following year and saw active service during the wars with France and America. In early 1818, now a lieutenant, Beechey sailed on HMS Trent under Lieutenant John Franklin in David Buchan's Arctic expedition, of which at a period he published a narrative. In the following year he accompanied Lieutenant W. E. Parry in HMS Hecla, sailing as far north as Melville Island. In 1821, as an officer on HMS Adventure, he took part in the survey of the Mediterranean coast of Africa under the direction of Captain William Henry Smyth, he and his brother, Henry William Beechey, made an overland survey of this coast and published a full account of their work in 1828 under the title of Proceedings of the Expedition to Explore the Northern Coast of Africa from Tripoly Eastward in 1821-1822.
In 1825, Beechey was appointed to command HMS Blossom. His task was to explore the Bering Strait in concert with Franklin and Parry operating from the east. In the summer of 1826, he passed the strait and a barge from his ship reached 71°23'31" N. and 156°21'30" W. near Point Barrow which he named, a point only 146 miles west of that reached by Franklin's expedition from the Mackenzie River. The whole voyage lasted more than three years and in the course of it Beechey discovered several islands in the Pacific, an excellent harbour near Cape Prince of Wales. In 1826, he visited a Catholic mission in California, he wrote, "...with whips and goads or sharp, pointed sticks to preserve silence and maintain order, what seemed more difficult than either, to keep the congregation in their kneeling posture. The goads would inflict a sharp puncture without making any noise; the end of the church was occupied by a guard of soldiers under arms with fixed bayonets." In July 1826, he named the three islands in the Bering Strait.
Two were the Diomede Islands that Vitus Bering had named in 1728: "Ratmanoff Island" and "Krusenstern Island". Beechey called the uninhabited third islet "Fairway Rock", still its contemporary name. One of his crew, Petty Officer John Bechervaise, gave a detailed account of the voyage in his Thirty-six Years of a Seafaring Life by an Old Quartermaster, published in 1839. In 1831, there appeared Beechey's Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Bering's Strait to Co-operate with the Polar Expeditions, 1825-1828. In 1835, the following year Captain Beechey was employed on the coast survey of South America, from 1837 to 1847 carried on similar work along the Irish coasts, in the North Sea and English Channel, he carried out detailed tidal surveys during this period, which were published, with charts, in two Royal Society papers in 1848 and 1851. This was the first published work of its kind since Edmond Halley's tidal chart appeared in about 1702, he was appointed in 1850 to preside over the Marine Department of the Board of Trade.
In 1854, he was made rear-admiral, in the following year was elected president of the Royal Geographical Society. Beechey Island, where Sir John Franklin wintered, was named by him after his father, his daughter was the painter Frances Anne Hopkins who lived in Canada for twelve years and painted many scenes of canoe travel. His parents and three of his brothers were painters: the admiral and painter Richard Brydges Beechey, the portraitist Henry William Beechey, the portraitist George Duncan Beechey. European and American voyages of scientific exploration —. Proceedings Of The Expedition To Explore The Northern Coast Of Africa, From Tripoly Eastward. London: John Murray. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. Narrative Of A Voyage To The Pacific And Beering's Strait, To Co-Operate With The Polar Expeditions Performed In His Majesty's Ship Blossom, Under The Command Of Captain F. W. Beechey, R. N. In The Years 1825, 26, 27, 28. Philadelphia: Carey & Lea. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. A Voyage Of Discovery Towards The North Pole, Performed In His Majesty's Ships Dorothea And Trent, Under The Command Of Captain David Buchan, R. N. 1818.
London: Richard Bentley. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. "Report of Observations Made Upon the Tides in the Irish Sea, Upon the Great Similarity of Tidal Phenomena of the Irish and English Channels, the Importance of Extending the Experiments Round the Land's End and up the English Channel. Embodied in a Letter to the Hydrographer". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 138: 105–116. Doi:10.1098/rstl.1848.0006. JSTOR 108287. —. "Report of Further Observations Made upon the Tidal Streams of the English Channel and German Ocean, under the Authority of the Admiralty, in 1849 and 1850". Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London. 6: 68–70. Doi:10.1098/rspl.1850.0024. —. "Report of Further Observations upon the Tidal Streams of the North Sea and English Channel, with Remarks upon the Laws by Which Those Streams Appear to be Governed". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 141: 703–718. Doi:10.1098/rstl.1851.0034. JSTOR 108420. —. "The Drawings and Watercolours".
Arctic. 33: 1–117. Doi:10.14430/arctic2551. JSTOR 40509279; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Beechey, Frederick William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University
King Edward's School, Bath
King Edward's School, Somerset, England is an independent co-educational day school providing education for 1016 pupils aged 3 to 18. The school is a member of The Headmistresses' Conference; the school was established in the 16th century in a city centre site, founded in 1552. In the 1960s it moved to the outskirts onto a multi building site. In addition to the academic curriculum the schools includes drama, sport and a combined cadet force. King Edward's School Bath was judged as "excellent" in every category in the school's 2015 Independent Schools Inspectorate report; the report noted that "The school's extra-curricular provision is outstanding", "Achievements outside the curriculum are both numerous and outstanding" and "The quality of the pupils' achievements and learning is excellent". The school was ranked as one of the top four independent schools in the south west by The Sunday Times Schools Guide, Parent Power Survey based upon 2016 academic results; the school was founded in 1552 under laws set out in the Charities Act of 1545, passed by Henry VIII to use funds from the dissolution of the monasteries to replace monastic grammar schools such as that run by Bath Abbey.
The Mayor of Bath and one of the members of parliament for Bath, Edward Ludwell, petitioned Edward VI for land owned by the priory, to establish the school in Frog Lane, support ten poor people, which prevented the crown from selling off the land held by the priory. In 1580s the school moved to a disused church building by the north gate of the city; the city corporation misappropriated the considerable funds form the land granted under Letters Patent, failing to maintain or improve the school until it was exposed in the Court of Chancery in 1734. Around 1750 a new building was erected for the school in Broad Street; the secondary school relocated from its site at Broad Street in central Bath in the 1960s to a 14-acre site at North Road in the southeastern edge of the city occupied by St Christopher's Preparatory School. The junior school remained on the Broad Street site until the summer of 1990 when it transferred to a new building in the North Road school grounds; the old Broad Street site, built in 1754 by Thomas Jelly and is a Grade II* Listed building, remains empty.
In 1997 an application to turn the building into a public house by Samuel Smith Brewery was refused. A scheme for use as a hotel has been withdrawn; the building remains on the Heritage at Risk Register but work to repair the roof has reduced the risk to the property. Proposals to use it as a temporary shelter for the homeless were rejected in 2018, by the brewery, claiming that work would be "commencing soon". In the 1990s, while Peter Winter was Headmaster the school took the steps towards full co-education. In 2005 there were plans to move the'pre-preparatory' school, located in Weston, Bath, on to the North Road site. However, for a range of reasons it never materialised. In 2008 the school achieved the best examination results of Bath schools for A level and GCSE examination results; the Senior and Junior School is situated with views across Bath. The school is made up of several buildings; the main block is the primary building used for English, Music and Chemistry. The main block incorporates the Wroughton Theatre.
Nethersole House, built in the 19th century, now houses the Religious and Philosophical Studies department, History, Business Studies and Economics and Learning Support, as well as the Headmaster's Study and Reception. The Holbeche Centre is home to the Sixth Form centre, as well as Art and Design & Technology classrooms; the Porter Library, now the home of the Geography department since the completion of the Wessex Building in 2015, is next door. The sports hall at the bottom of the site is used for assemblies, as well as sports; the senior school opened a new building in September 2008 which accommodates many of the major departments including Biology, Modern Languages and ICT. The Wessex Building is located to the north of Nethersole House and was opened in 2015 by the Earl of Wessex and holds the Library, dining hall and a conference suite; the school opened its newest sporting facility, an all-weather pitch, in November 2016 by Rio Olympic gold medalist, Crista Cullen. In 2019 the schools newest facility was opened.
The Rose is a new drama centre with state of facilities. It is located at the bottom of the school below the lower entrance; the school includes both music departments. The drama department puts on a school play each year and recent performances have included Fiddler on the Roof and Pride and Prejudice. There is a lower school play, aimed for pupils in years 7 to 9 and has casts of up to 80 pupils which included The Wind in the Willows and Disney's Beauty and The Beast; the School has recently introduced LAMDA exams and taken a show to the Edinburgh Fringe. In late 2017 the school performed "Pop the Musical", a show written by the school based on a book by author Catherine Bruton, who teaches English at the school; the Music department has over 20 instrumental and choral groups of varying musical styles. The school has partnerships with Bath Abbey and Bath's resident orchestra, Bath Philharmonia Orchestra, with annual concert performances in Bath’s historical venues including The Assembly Rooms and the Guildhall.
Every year the Music department organises the KES Musical Festival which includes concerts throughout Bath as well as numerous perform
The guinea was a coin of one quarter ounce of gold, minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated, it was the first English machine-struck gold coin worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was fixed at twenty-one shillings; when Britain adopted the gold standard the guinea became a specialised term. Although the coin itself no longer circulated, the term guinea survived as a unit of account in some fields. Notable usages included professional fees, which were invoiced in guineas, horse racing and greyhound racing, the sale of rams. In each case a guinea meant an amount of one pound and one shilling, or one pound and five pence in decimalised currency; the name forms the basis for the Arabic word for the Egyptian pound الجنيه el-Genēh / el-Geni, as a sum of 100 qirsh was worth 21 shillings at the end of the 19th century.
The first guinea was produced on 6 February 1663. One troy pound of 11⁄12 fine gold would make 44 1⁄2 guineas, each thus theoretically weighing 129.438 grains. The denomination was worth one pound, or twenty shillings, but an increase in the price of gold during the reign of King Charles II led to the market trading it at a premium; the price of gold continued to increase in times of trouble, by the 1680s, the coin was worth 22 shillings. Indeed, in his diary entries for 13 June 1667, Samuel Pepys records that the price was 24 to 25 shillings; the diameter of the coin was 1 in throughout Charles II's reign, the average gold purity was 0.9100. "Guinea" was not an official name for the coin, but much of the gold used to produce the early coins came from Guinea in Africa. The coin was produced each year between 1663 and 1684, with the elephant appearing on some coins each year from 1663 to 1665 and 1668, the elephant and castle on some coins from 1674 onward; the elephant, with or without the castle, symbolises the Royal African Company, whose activities on the Guinea Coast of Africa resulted in the importation of much gold into England.
The obverse and reverse of this coin were designed by John Roettier. The obverse showed a fine right-facing bust of the king wearing a laurel wreath, surrounded by the legend CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA, while the reverse showed four crowned cruciform shields bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland, between which were four sceptres, in the centre were four interlinked "C"s, surrounded by the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX; the edge was milled to deter clipping or filing, to distinguish it from the silver half-crown which had edge lettering. Until 1669 the milling was perpendicular to the edge, giving vertical grooves, while from 1670 the milling was diagonal to the edge. John Roettier continued to design the dies for this denomination in the reign of King James II. In this reign, the coins weighed 8.5 g with a diameter of 25–26 mm, were minted in all years between 1685 and 1688, with an average gold purity of 0.9094. Coins of each year were issued both without the elephant and castle mark.
The king's head faces left in this reign, is surrounded by the inscription IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA, while the reverse is the same as in Charles II's reign except for omitting the interlinked "C"s in the centre of the coin. The edge of the coins are milled diagonally. With the removal of James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, his daughter Mary and her husband Prince William of Orange reigned jointly as co-monarchs, their heads appear conjoined on the guinea piece in Roman style, with William's head uppermost, with the legend GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA. In a departure from the previous reigns, the reverse featured a new design of a large crowned shield which bore the arms of England and France in the first and fourth quarters, of Scotland in the second quarter, of Ireland in the third quarter, the whole ensemble having a small shield in the centre bearing the rampant lion of Nassau. By the early part of this reign the value of the guinea had increased to nearly 30 shillings; the guineas of this reign weighed 8.5 g, were 25–26 mm in diameter, were the work of James and Norbert Roettier.
They were produced in all years between 1689 and 1694 both without the elephant and castle. Following the death of Queen Mary from smallpox in 1694, William continued to reign as William III; the guinea coin was produced in all years from 1695 to 1701, both with and without the elephant and castle, the design being the work of Johann Crocker known as John Croker, since James Roettier had died in 1698 and his brother Norbert had moved to France in 1695. The coins of William III's reign weighed 8.4 g with an average gold purity
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea
Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies between Baffin Island and Nunavik, with its eastern entrance marked by Cape Chidley in Newfoundland and Labrador and Resolution Island off Baffin Island; the strait is about 750 km long with an average width of 125 km, varying from 70 km at the eastern entrance to 240 km at Deception Bay. English navigator Sir Martin Frobisher was the first European to report entering the strait, in 1578, he named a tidal rip at the entrance the Furious Overfall and called the strait Mistaken Strait, since he felt it held less promise as an entrance to the Northwest Passage than the body of water, named Frobisher Bay. John Davis sailed by the entrance to the strait during his voyage of 1587; the first European to explore the strait was George Weymouth who sailed 300 nautical miles beyond the Furious Overfall in 1602. The strait was named after Henry Hudson who explored it in 1610 in the ship Discovery, the same ship used by George Weymouth in 1602.
Hudson was followed by Thomas Button in 1612, a more detailed mapping expedition led by Robert Bylot and William Baffin in 1616. Hudson Strait links the northern seaports of Ontario with the Atlantic Ocean; the Strait could serve as an eastern entrance to the Northwest Passage if it were not for ice in the Fury and Hecla Strait south of western Baffin Island. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Hudson Strait as follows: On the West. A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, thence by the Eastern shore of Southampton Island to Seahorse Point, its Eastern extreme, thence a line to Lloyd Point Baffin Island. On the North; the South coast of Baffin Island between Lloyd Point and East Bluff. On the East. A line from East Bluff, the Southeast extreme of Baffin Island, to Point Meridian, the Western extreme of Lower Savage Islands, along the coast to its Southwestern extreme and thence a line across to the Western extreme of Resolution Island, through its Southwestern shore to Hatton Headland, its Southern point, thence a line to Cape Chidley, Labrador.
On the South. The mainland between Cape Chidley and Nuvuk Point
John Murray (1778–1843)
John Murray was a Scottish publisher and member of the John Murray publishing house. The publishing house was founded by Murray's father, who died when Murray was only fifteen years old. During his adolescence, he ran the business with a partner Samuel Highley, but in 1803 the partnership was dissolved. Murray soon began to show the courage in literary speculation which earned for him the name given him by Lord Byron of "the Anak of publishers", a reference to Anak in the Book of Numbers. In 1807 Murray took a share with Archibald Constable in publishing Sir Walter Scott's Marmion. In the same year, he became part-owner of the Edinburgh Review, although with the help of George Canning he launched in opposition the Quarterly Review in 1809, with William Gifford as its editor, Scott, Robert Southey, John Hookham Frere and John Wilson Croker among its earliest contributors. Murray was cooperated with Constable, but ended the association in 1813 due to Constable's business methods that did not work properly.
In 1811, the first two cantos of Lord Byron's Childe Harold were brought to Murray by Robert Charles Dallas, to whom Byron had presented them. Murray paid Dallas 500 guineas for the copyright. In 1812, he bought the publishing business of William Miller, migrated to 50 Albemarle Street. Literary London flocked to his house, Murray became the centre of the publishing world, it was in his drawing-room that Scott and Byron first met, here, in 1824, after the death of Lord Byron, that the manuscript of his memoirs, considered by Gifford unfit for publication, was destroyed. A close friendship existed between Byron and his publisher, but for political reasons business relations ceased after the publication of the fifth canto of Don Juan. Murray paid Byron some £20,000 for his various poems. To Thomas Moore he gave nearly £5,000 for writing the life of Byron, to George Crabbe £3,000 for Tales of the Hall, he is referred to in Susanna Clarke's novel Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell, is played by John Sessions in its television adaptation.
Murray's Family Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Murray, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 41–42. Works by John Murray at Project Gutenberg
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different