The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Meiringen is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Besides the village of Meiringen, the municipality includes the settlements of Balm, Brünigen, Hausen, Sand, Unterbach, Wylerli, the village is known for its claim to have been the place where the meringue was first created. The blazon of the coat of arms is Or an Eagle displayed Sable crowned, beaked and membered of the first. In it, the words the first refer to the first tincture mentioned, namely or. It further implies, for each of the nouns that precede the word of. Meiringen is located in the eastern Bernese Oberland region, in the Haslital on the reaches of the river Aare. On the left bank it stretches up into the Alps and reaches an elevation of 3,191 m at the summit of the Wellhorn, the municipality has an area, as of 2009, of 40.59 square kilometers. Of this area,17.75 km2 or 43. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 13.27 km2 or 32. 7% is forested. Of the rest of the land,3.04 km2 or 7. 5% is settled,0.53 km2 or 1. 3% is either rivers or lakes and 6.09 km2 or 15. 0% is unproductive land.
Of the built up area and buildings made up 3. 1%, out of the forested land,29. 7% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 4% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,3. 3% is used for growing crops and 17. 8% is pastures and 22. 5% is used for alpine pastures, all the water in the municipality is in rivers and streams. Of the unproductive areas,5. 6% is unproductive vegetation and 9. 4% is too rocky for vegetation, Meiringen is first mentioned in 1234 as Magiringin. Due to its location at the foot of several alpine passes. The first village church was built in the 9th or 10th century, when it was destroyed in a flood the new church of St. Michael was built about 5 m above the old church. The current church of St. Michael dates from the 15th century and was renovated in 1683-84, the Restiturm castle was constructed in the 13th century, whilst the Wyghus fortress in the Brünig Pass was first mentioned in 1333, though it was destroyed later. Meiringen was always the political capital of the surrounding valley and it was the capital of the Imperial reichsfrei bailiwick of Hasli.
In 1275 it formed an alliance with the city of Bern, in 1311, Hasli was given to the house of Weissenburg by Henry VII. After an unsuccessful revolt in 1334, Hasli passed to the city of Bern as a territory in name
The Zinalrothorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. Its name comes from the village of Zinal lying on the north side, when it was first climbed in 1864 the mountain was known locally as Moming. The Zinalrothorn is one of the high summits separating the Matter valley on the east, the summit of the Weisshorn is located 5 km to the north and the Dent Blanche 7 km to the west. At the western foot of the lies the large Zinal Glacier and, on the northern side. LEpaule is a minor summit lying at the base of the northern ridge, the villages of Täsch and Zermatt are the closest while Zinal on the north-west is located further. The first ascent was made on 22 August 1864 via the ridge by Leslie Stephen and Florence Crauford Grove with guides Jakob Anderegg. They left Zinal at 1 a. m. and ascended the Zinal Glacier, the reached the shoulder from the ridge connecting the Blanc de Moming at the base of the northern ridge at 9 a. m. The traverse of the ridge to the summit took them 2 hours, the first winter and ski ascent was by Marcel Kurz and T.
Theytaz on 7 February 1914. In the 1880s Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, the first president of the Ladies Alpine Club, to preserve her modesty, she made the decision to climb the mountain a second time to retrieve it rather than return to Zermatt in trousers
Martin Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington
William Martin Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington, known between 1895 and 1931 as Sir Martin Conway, was an English art critic, politician and mountaineer. Conway was born at Rochester, England, on 12 April 1856, the son of Reverend William Conway and he was educated at Repton and Trinity College, where he studied mathematics and became a close friend of Karl Pearson. He became interested in woodcuts and early printed books, Conway was a member of the Alpine Club, of which he was president from 1902 to 1904. However, subsequent measurements have revised his height to 22,322 ft, in 1896–97 he explored the interior of Spitsbergen, and the following year he explored and surveyed the Bolivian Andes, climbing Sorata and Illimani. He attempted Aconcagua stopping short of the summit by 50-ft, at the Paris exhibition of 1900 he received the gold medal for mountain surveys, and the Founders Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1905. He served as President of the Alpine Club for 1902–04 and became the first president of The Alpine Ski Club at its meeting in 1908.
From 1884 to 1887 Conway was Professor of Art at University College, Liverpool and he was knighted in 1895 for his efforts in mapping 5,180 square km of the Karakoram Range in the Himalayas three years earlier. In 1889 he published a book concerning his research on Albrecht Dürer and he was assisted in this by the polymath Lina Eckenstein who was the sister of a fellow mountaineer. Conway had been involved in politics for some time, consorting with both parties allegedly in pursuit of a knighthood and a barony, he received both. He was mentioned as a liberal candidate for Wolverhampton South in early 1900. Conway was first Director-General of the Imperial War Museum and a trustee of the National Portrait Gallery and his photograph collection formed the basis of the Conway Library at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London. He was responsible for the restoration of Allington Castle and he died in London on 19 April 1937. The title became extinct on his death, archival material relating to Martin Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington
Charles Scribner's Sons
The firm published Scribners Magazine for many years. More recently, several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards, in 1978 the company merged with Atheneum and became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984, Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the book and reference book operations still bore the original family name. The former imprint, now simply Scribner, was retained by Simon & Schuster, as of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint. The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as Baker & Scribner. After Bakers death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company, in 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, after the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company.
His other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm and they each served as presidents. When the other partners in the sold their stake to the family. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor, when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine. The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years, in 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribners Magazine. The firms headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style. The childrens book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh and it published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation.
Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012, Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books which had previously been part of Free Press. The other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors and this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster
Worshipful Society of Apothecaries
The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London is one of the livery companies of the City of London. It is one of the largest livery companies and ranks 58th in their order of precedence, the society is a member of the London Museums of Health & Medicine and its guild church is the Church of St Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe. The Societys modern roles include educational, social and charitable activities, in addition to supporting the City of London, its governance and the Lord Mayor of the City of London. Prior to the foundation of the Society in 1617, London apothecaries were in the Grocers Company, having sought autonomy for many years, the apothecaries finally separated from the Grocers Company in 1617 when they were granted a Royal Charter by James I. During the remainder of the 17th century its members challenged the College of Physicians members monopoly of practising medicine, the Apothecaries Act 1815 granted the Society the power to license and regulate medical practitioners throughout England and Wales.
Amongst the notable people who qualified in medicine as a Licentiate of the Society were the poet John Keats, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Nobel Prize winner Sir Ronald Ross KCB FRS. The Society throughout its history has been a pioneer in the nurturing of medical specialist knowledge, including for general practice, through its qualifications. The Society was not as speedy in settling its bill from the College of Arms however, hei mihi, quod nullis amor est medicabilis herbis, nec prosunt domino, quae prosunt omnibus, artes. The Societys supporters are golden unicorns, and its crest is a rhinoceros, the unicorns may have been a compliment to James I, and the horns of unicorns and of the rhinoceros are reputed to be of medical use. The illustration in the grant of arms accords the Society the helmet of a Peer. This is specific and unusual, although it is not unique, the use of the term Society rather than the usual Company is purely traditional, though - the charter and grant themselves use both terms, as do grants to other City companies.
The Society is based at Apothecaries Hall in Blackfriars, the building, originally part of the Dominican priory of Black Friars, was called Cobham House prior to its purchase by the society in 1632. The original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a new hall was built on the same site and completed in 1672 to the design of Edward Jerman, an Elaboratory was included at this time for the first ever large-scale manufacture of drugs. From until 1922, the Society manufactured medicinal and pharmaceutical products at their Hall, much of the manufactured drugs were to supply clients of the Society which included the Navy, the Army, the East India Company and the Crown Colonies. A major restoration and building programme was carried out in the 1780s, although the hall underwent further redevelopment in the 1980s, its appearance has altered little since the late-eighteenth century. In addition to providing qualifications in, and regulation of, the trade of the apothecary and dispensing and this began after the 1815 Apothecaries Act, followed by further Acts of Parliament.
The title of the licence was Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries. When the General Medical Council was established by statute in 1858, notable people who qualified in medicine as a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries include the poet John Keats, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Nobel Prize winner Sir Ronald Ross KCB FRS
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
The Alpine Journal is an annual magazine published by the Alpine Club of London. It is the oldest mountaineering magazine in the world, since 2004, the editor-in-chief is Stephen Goodwin. The magazine was first published on 2 March 1863 by the house of Longman in London. It was a replacement for Peaks and Glaciers, issues from the last 40 years are freely available online. A second stage in this programme is intended to make all volumes back to 1863 available. The following people have edited the magazine, Leslie Stephen Douglas Freshfield Arthur John Butler John Percy Farrar Edward Lisle Strutt T, graham Brown Johanna Merz Official website including an online archive
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
The Wetterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss Alps towering above the village of Grindelwald. The Mittelhorn and Rosenhorn are mostly hidden from view from Grindelwald, the Grosse Scheidegg Pass crosses the col to the north, between the Wetterhorn and the Schwarzhorn. The Mittelhorn was first summitted on 9 July 1845 by the guides, this time accompanied by a third guide, Kaspar Abplanalp. The son of a Scottish physician, Speer lived in Interlaken, a September 1854 ascent by a party including Alfred Wills is much celebrated in Great Britain. In 1866, Lucy Walker was the first documented female ascendant of the peak, the 24-year-old English mountaineer William Penhall and his Meiringen guide Andreas Maurer were killed by an avalanche high up on the Wetterhorn on 3 August 1882. The famed guide and Grindelwald native Christian Almer climbed the many times in his life, including on his first of many trips with Meta Brevoort. His last ascent was in 1898 at the age of 72 together with his wife to celebrate their anniversary on the summit.
Winston Churchill climbed the Wetterhorn in 1894, the Wetterhorn summit was the intended terminal for the worlds first passenger carrying aerial tramway, but only the first quarter was built. It was in operation until the beginning of World War I, the Wetterhorn on Summitpost The Wetterhorn from Grindelwald First The Wetterhorn from the Eiger Trail
Middlesex is a historic county in south-east England. It is now entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, the largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831. The City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county. As London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, in the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, the City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199.
In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, after the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts. Since 1965 various areas called Middlesex have been used for cricket, Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns. The name means territory of the middle Saxons and refers to the origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Anglo-Saxon, i. e. Old English, middel, in an 8th-century charter the region is recorded as Middleseaxon and in 704 it is recorded as Middleseaxan. The Saxons derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known, the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word Saxon, there were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was formerly part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the century and became a county in its own right. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London, during the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster, largely took over the administrative functions of the hundred. The divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower, the county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river