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William Perkins (theologian)

William Perkins was an influential English cleric and Cambridge theologian, receiving both a B. A. and M. A. from the university in 1581 and 1584 and one of the foremost leaders of the Puritan movement in the Church of England during the Elizabethan era. Although not accepting of the Church of England's ecclesiastical practices, Perkins conformed to many of the policies and procedures imposed by the Elizabethan Settlement, he did remain, sympathetic to the non-conformist puritans and faced disciplinary action for his support. Perkins was a prolific author who penned over forty works, many of which were published posthumously. In addition to writing, he served as a fellow at Christ's College and as a lecturer at St Andrew's Church in Cambridge, he was a firm proponent of Reformed theology the supralapsarian theology of Theodore Beza and John Calvin. In addition, he was a staunch defender of Protestant ideals the five solae with a particular emphasis on solus Christus and sola Scriptura. Perkins was born to Thomas and Anna Perkins at Marston Jabbett in the parish of Bulkington, England in 1558, the year in which the Protestant Elizabeth I succeeded her Catholic sister Mary as Queen of England.

Perkins lived his entire life under Elizabeth I, dying one year before the Virgin Queen's own death in 1603. Perkins's relationship with Elizabeth was ambiguous: on the one hand, she was Good Queen Bess, the monarch under whom England and became a Protestant nation. Little is known of Perkins' upbringing. Sometime in his early life he was rendered lame, his family was evidently of some means, since in June 1577, at age 19, Perkins was enrolled as a pensioner of Christ's College, Cambridge being trained in the tradition of the Reformed scholastic framework. He would receive his BA in 1581 and his MA in 1584. According to an unverifiable story, Perkins was convicted of the error of his ways after he heard a Cambridge mother say to her child, "Hold your tongue, or I will give you to drunken Perkins yonder." Whether or not the story is true, it is clear that Perkins had a religious awakening sometime between 1581 and 1584 during his time at Cambridge. Perkins thus began a lifelong association with the "moderate-puritan" wing of the Church of England which held views similar to those of the continental Calvinist theologians Theodore Beza, Girolamo Zanchi, Zacharias Ursinus.

Perkins's circle at Cambridge included Richard Greenham. Following his ordination, Perkins preached his first sermons to the prisoners of the Cambridge jail. On one celebrated occasion, Perkins encountered a young man, going to be executed for his crimes and who feared he was shortly going to be in hell: Perkins convinced the man that, through Christ, God could forgive his sins, the distraught youth faced his execution with manly composure as a result. In 1584, after receiving his MA, Perkins was elected as a fellow of Christ's College, a post he held until 1594. In 1585, he became a Lecturer of St Andrew the Great in a post he held until his death; as a "moderate Puritan", Perkins was opposed to non-conformists and other separatists who refused to conform to the Church of England. On the other hand, he opposed the Elizabethan regime's program of imposing uniformity on the church. For example, when Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift imprisoned Francis Johnson for Johnson's support of a presbyterian form of church polity, Perkins loudly defended Johnson.

This was not an isolated incident, he appeared before the commission more than once. On 13 January 1587, Perkins preached a sermon denouncing the practice of kneeling to receive Communion, was called before the Vice-Chancellor as a result. During the final set of trials against Puritan ministers in 1590–91, Perkins confirmed that he had discussed the Book of Discipline with Puritan ministers, but claimed that he could not remember whom he had talked to. Perkins married Timothye Cradocke of Grantchester on 2 July 1595, they became the parents of seven children, three of whom died in youth from various causes, one of whom was born after Perkins himself had died. Perkins was a proponent of "double predestination" and was a major player in introducing the thought of Theodore Beza to England, he viewed the Reformed concept of the Covenant of Grace, central to Reformed soteriology and double predestination, to be a doctrine of great consoling value. He was responsible for the publication in English of Beza's famous chart about double predestination.

In addition to adopting a Reformed soteriology, he strongly held to the doctrines of solo Christo and sola Scriptura which "serve as the twin foundation stones for what Perkins conceived as biblical preaching." He was a major proponent of literal interpretation utilizing the regula fidei, or Rule of Faith. This principle advocates that the unclear portions of scripture ought to be interpreted by the clear portions rather than by tradition or speculation, he did, leave room for figurative or analogical language when context demands. Although unknown to modern Christians, Perkins has had an influence, felt by Christians all around the world, and was regarded in the Elizabethan Church. In addition, Perkins's views on double predestination made him a major target of Jacobus Arminius, the Dutch Reformed clergyman who opposed the doctrine of pred

Catholic Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine and History of the Catholic Church referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and supplementary volumes, it was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests and doctrine". The Catholic Encyclopedia was published by the Robert Appleton Company, a publishing company incorporated at New York in February 1905 for the express purpose of publishing the encyclopedia; the five members of the encyclopedia's Editorial Board served as the directors of the company. In 1912 the company's name was changed to The Encyclopedia Press. Publication of the encyclopedia's volumes was the sole business conducted by the company during the project's lifetime.

The encyclopedia was designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church, concentrating on information related to the Church and explaining matters from the Catholic point of view. It records the accomplishments of Catholics and others in nearly all intellectual and professional pursuits, including artists, educators and scientists. While more limited in focus than other general encyclopedias, it was far broader in scope than previous efforts at comprehensive Catholic encyclopedias, which covered only internal Church affairs, it offers in-depth portrayals of historical and philosophical ideas and events, from a Catholic perspective, including issues that divide Catholicism from Protestantism and other faith communities. Since the encyclopedia was first published starting in 1907 and has never been updated, many of its entries may be out of date either with respect to the wider culture or to the Catholic ecclesiastical world. In particular, it predates the creation of the Vatican City State and the Second Vatican Council, which introduced many significant changes in Catholic practice: For example, the online version of the entries on Judaism and Islam at states in an editorial note: "To complement this article, taken from the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent recommends a prayerful reading of'Nostra Aetate' from the Second Vatican Council."

The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11, 1905, under the supervision of five editors: Charles G. Herbermann, Professor of Latin and librarian of the College of the City of New York Edward A. Pace, Professor of Philosophy at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C. Condé B. Pallen, editor The Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, Professor of Church History at The Catholic University The Rev. John J. Wynne, S. J. editor of Messenger of the Sacred HeartThe first edition was printed by Robert Appleton Company. The volumes came out sequentially, the first two in 1907 and the last three in 1912: The editors had their first editorial meeting at the office of The Messenger, on West 16th Street, New York City; the text received a nihil obstat from an official censor, Remy Lafort, on November 1, 1908, an imprimatur from John Murphy Farley, Archbishop of New York. This review process was accelerated by the reuse of older authorized publications. In addition to frequent informal conferences and constant communication by letters, the editors subsequently held 134 formal meetings to consider the plan and progress of the work, culminating in publication on April 19, 1913.

A first supplement was published in 1922. In 1912, a special illustrated, commemorative volume was awarded to those patrons who contributed to the start of the enterprise by buying multiple encyclopedia sets early on. There was controversy over the presence of the Catholic Encyclopedia in public libraries in the United States with nativist protests that this violated the separation of church and state, including a successful appeal in Belleville, New Jersey; the encyclopedia was updated under the auspices of The Catholic University of America and a 17-volume New Catholic Encyclopedia was first published in 1967, in 2002. The Catholic Encyclopedia and its makers state that: The work is new, not a translation or a compilation from other encyclopedic sources; the editors have insisted that the articles should contain the latest and most accurate information to be obtained from the standard works on each subject. However, "from standard works" allows that some of the articles from European contributors such as Pierre Batiffol and Johann Peter Kirsch had been published in whole or in part in Europe and were translated and edited for the Encyclopedia.

Those who wrote new articles in English include Anthony Maas and Herbert Thurston. Under copyright law of the United States, all works published in the United States before 1923 are in the public domain. In 1993, Kevin Knight a 26-year-old resident of Denver, decided, during the visit of Pope John Paul II to that city for World Youth Day, to launch a project to publish the 1913 edition of the encyclopedia on the Internet. Knight founded the Web site New Advent to host the undertaking. Volunteers from the United States, Canada and Brazil helped in the transcription of the original material; the site went online in 1995, transcription work ended in 1997. In 2007, Catholic Answers published a watermarked version derived from page scans; this version has since been replaced with a transcription of the Encyclopedia

Spingler Building

The Spingler Building is an eight-story Romanesque building at 5–9 Union Square West, between 14th and 15th Streets, in the Union Square neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Built in 1897 by William H. Hume & Son, it replaced a five-story building of the same name, which burned down in 1892; the Spingler Building occupies an L-shaped lot wrapping around 15 Union Square West to the north, is adjacent to the Lincoln Building to the south. The site of the Spingler Building was part of a farm owned by Henry Spingler. Union Square was first laid out in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, expanded in 1832, made into a public park in 1839; the completion of the park led to the construction of mansions surrounding it, which were replaced with commercial enterprises following the American Civil War. Despite this, the Spingler and Van Buren families continued to own the land under the western side of Union Square until 1958, leasing it out to various people; the Spingler Institute for Young Ladies, founded in 1843, was located at 5 Union Square West from 1848 until c.

1861, at which point it was turned into the Spingler Hotel. The hotel operated from 1864 until about 1878. By the late 1870s, technological advances in elevator technology and steel framework enabled the construction of taller office buildings; the original Spingler Building, a five-story loft and commercial structure on the site of the hotel, was completed in 1878 at a cost of $115,000. The Spingler Building was a "L"-shaped structure wrapping around the Tiffany & Co. building at 15 Union Square West to the northeast, with a depth of 200 feet on Union Square West, along its eastern facade, 70 feet on 15th Street to the north. The structure housed the Brentano's book store. At the time, The New York Times said: "the block is now occupied by uniform buildings the front is of iron, imposing in appearance, the shops and lofts are of the first class." In 1892, the structure burned down in a fire that destroyed everything below the second floor, but only caused minor damage to its neighbors: the Lincoln Building and 15 Union Square West.

The charred walls of the old building remained standing for several years. On July 17, 1895, James L. Libby & Son leased 5–9 Union Square West as well as the adjacent 20 East 15th Street; the "L"-shaped building site covered about 14,000 square feet and was the same as the old building footprint. On this site, Libby & Son planned to build an eight-story limestone and terracotta building; the structure was to be designed by William H. Son. Land clearing began four days afterward, at which point The New York Times reported that the structure would be completed by May 1896. However, the new Spingler Building was not completed until sometime before March 1897, when Libby & Son ran advertisements in the New-York Tribune stating that the building had the "finest stores and lightest lofts in the city"; the Spingler Building was designed for multiple uses, including "stores, manufacturing enterprises and industrial lofts," and catered in particular to Union Square's growing garment trade. Among the Spingler Building's first tenants were hatters Cluett, Coon & Co. who were reported to have moved into the building in an August 1897 issue of American Hatter magazine.

In 1901, some of the upper-level space was leased to Mark Aronson, whose company manufactured cloaks and suits. This was followed in 1906 by Henry Hart of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, though Hart seems to have moved out the following year. One of the ground-floor stores was occupied in 1910 by the Cleveland Faucet Company. Besides Aronson's firm, other garment companies seem to have occupied the Spingler Building in the early 20th century, including the London Button Company. In the late 1990s, the supply store chain Staples announced that it would open a location on Union Square West between 14th and 15th Streets, within 20,000 square feet of space across two floors; the store opened in February 1997 within the Spingler Building at 5–9 Union Square West, where it is still located. Just before the store's opening, a particular point of contention was the presence of several large signs, including a lighted sign with 4-foot-tall letters; the Union Square Business Improvement District had requested that Staples reduce the size of these signs in January 1997, saying that the signs might be visually distracting.

The New York City Department of Buildings had approved and revoked the signs' permits, but after the permit was rescinded, Staples erected the signs anyway, The dispute resulted in Staples being issued a summons for the New York City Criminal Court, by the end of the year, the signs had been dismantled. The Spingler Building is designed in the Romanesque style with classical influences, its facade was designed with base and capital sections, similar to the components of a column. The facade of the two-story base is of limestone. Media related to Spingler Building ‎ at Wikimedia Commons

Oath of Allegiance (Canada)

The Canadian Oath of Allegiance is a promise or declaration of fealty to the Canadian monarch, as personification of the Canadian state, along with other specific oaths of office, by new occupants of various federal and provincial government offices, members of federal and municipal police forces, members of the Canadian Armed Forces, and, in some provinces, all lawyers upon admission to the bar. The Oath of Allegiance makes up the first portion of the Oath of Citizenship, the taking of, a requirement of obtaining Canadian nationality; the vow's roots lie in the oath taken in the United Kingdom, the modern form of, implemented in 1689 by King William II and III and Queen Mary II and was used in Canada prior to Confederation. The Canadian oath was established at that time in the British North America Act, 1867, meaning that alteration or elimination of the oath for parliamentarians requires a constitutional amendment; the Oath of Allegiance has been altered and made or removed as a requirement for admission to other offices or positions through Act of Parliament or letters patent, to which proposals have been put forward for further abolishment or modification.

The present form of the Oath of Allegiance, which derives from that which was, still is, taken by parliamentarians in the United Kingdom, is: A person may choose to replace the word swear with affirm, to omit the phrase so help me God. The oath taker is given the option of either swearing on a holy book or not; the oath for senators and members of parliament has stood the same since confederation. The oath set out in said schedule is: I, do swear, that I will be faithful and bear true Allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, with the further instruction that "the name of the King or Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the Time being is to be substituted from Time to Time, with Proper Terms of Reference thereto." The oath thus presently reads as follows: In French, this is: For those parliamentarians whose religion prohibits the swearing of oaths, there exists a compromise affirmation, first instituted in 1905: The Oath of Allegiance was implemented to secure the supremacy of the reigning monarch of Canada, the giving of faithfulness to whom is a manifestation of a key responsibility central to the Canadian system of government, serves to "remind individuals taking it of the serious obligations and responsibilities that he or she is assuming."

Allegiance is not, given to that royal figure as an individual so much as to the Crown and other institutions and concepts the sovereign represents within both the federal and provincial spheres, including the state, its constitution and traditions, unity and democracy, as well as, in the military context, the highest authority in the Canadian Forces. Further, within Canada's constitutional system, "the oath to the Queen is in fact an oath to a domestic institution that represents egalitarian governance and the rule of law"; the oath acts as the legal basis of ministerial responsibility for those being sworn into the Privy Council to sit in the Cabinet. Former Premier of Ontario Mike Harris said in 1993: "The oath to the Queen is fundamental to the administration of the law in this country, it signifies that, here in Canada, justice is done—not in the name of the Prime Minister, or the Mayor, or the Police Chief, as in totalitarian nations—but by the people, in the name of the Queen," while James Robertson stated that the oath was the way elected members of parliament—who are assuming positions of public trust—promise to carry out their duties "patriotically, in the best interests of the country."

The Federal Court expressed that giving allegiance to the sovereign was "a solemn intention to adhere to the symbolic keystone of the Canadian Constitution, thus pledging an acceptance of the whole of our Constitution and national life," though reflecting: "It may be argued that it strikes at the heart of democracy to curtail collective opposition and incentive for change by demanding loyalty to a particular political theory."The relationship between the oath taker and the monarch is a complex one with roots reaching back to historical periods when a monarch ruled and accepted an oath of fealty from his or her subjects. The modern oath remains both reciprocal. Canada... according to their respective laws and customs." It has been said of this mutual verbal contract: "except through the person of the Queen, Canada cannot take an oath to Canadians in return. It doesn't exist in the sense, it is fundamental to our tradition of law and freedom that the commitments made by the people are reciprocated by the state.

Reciprocal oaths are essential to our Canadian concept of government." For members of the Canadian Forces, the oath to the monarch is "the soldier's code of moral obligation." The letters patent issued in 1947 by King George VI outline that the Oath of Allegiance must be taken by a newly appointed governor general and stipulate that the oath must be administered by the chief justice or other judge of the Supreme Court of Canada in the presence of members of the Queen's Privy C

Favorite Songs of All

Favorite Songs of All is Phillips and Dean's sixth album and first greatest hits collection. No songs from Where Strength Begins or Repeat the Sounding Joy were included. In addition, two new songs, "Freedom of the Sea" and "No Matter How Long" were added to the album. "Freedom of The Sea" – 4:57 "No Matter How Long" – 4:53 "Favorite Song Of All" – 4:29 "Turn Up The Radio" – 3:52 "I Want To Be Just Like You" – 5:33 "Shine On Us" – 4:03 "Mercy Came Running" – 4:27 "The Concert Of The Age" – 4:20 "Midnight Oil" – 4:42 "Build A Bridge Of Love" – 4:42 "This Is The Life" – 3:26 "Little Bit Of Morning" – 4:24 "He'll Do Whatever It Takes" – 4:56 "Crucified With Christ" – 5:18

North Carolina Highway 67

North Carolina Highway 67 is a 40.9-mile-long primary state highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina. It serves the northern area of Yadkin County, connecting the towns of Jonesville and East Bend, along with the city of Winston-Salem in Forsyth County; the western terminus is U. S. Route 21 Business in Jonesville. From this point in Yadkin County, the route travels in an easterly direction over Interstate 77, through Boonville and East Bend before crossing the Yadkin River into Forsyth County. After crossing the county line, NC 67 turns to head in a southeasterly direction through part of Tobaccoville, near Bethania and Pfafftown on its way into Winston-Salem. Once within Winston-Salem's city limits, the route bears the street name Reynolda Road on its straight southeasterly journey toward downtown. Arriving at the Wake Forest University campus, NC 67 bears right onto a short 1⁄4-mile-long road known as Wake Forest Road, a connecter of Silas Creek Parkway, a four-lane parkway. After it connects with Silas Creek Parkway, it passes an interchange with Robinhood Road.

It passes another interchange with Country Club Road. After passing an intersection with Goodyear Drive, it turns into a short expressway with a Cloverleaf interchange with Salem Parkway; the road becomes a boulevard after passing the Startford Road interchange. It goes into the Hanes Mall. area. NC 67 passes another interchange with Bolton Street; the southern terminus of NC 67 is at an intersection with Peters Creek Parkway. NC 67 was formed as a new primary route, it ran from US 21/NC 26 Jonesville to US 421/NC 60 Oldtown. About 1933, NC 67 was given its much straighter alignment from Jonesville to then-US 421. Between 1950-53, NC 67 was rebuilt around the south of East Bend, leaving behind "Old NC 67." About 1961, NC 67 was extended into central Winston-Salem replacing US 421. It ran down Reynolda Road, West End Boulevard, Broad Street used one-way splits on 4th-5th Street over to US 158 Business. In 1970, NC 67 was removed off 4th/5th Street and instead continued south on Broad Street to end the at the Interstate 40 interchange.

In 1994, NC 67 was removed from the Reynolda Road routing to central Winston-Salem and instead was placed on Silas Creek Parkway all the way around to the NC 150/Peters Creek Parkway intersection. N. C. 67