Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, technologically advancing world, their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods and subjects that continue the challenging of boundaries, well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family and nationality. In vernacular English and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms modern art and contemporary art by non-specialists; some define contemporary art as art produced within "our lifetime," recognising that lifetimes and life spans vary. However, there is a recognition; the classification of "contemporary art" as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase, goes back to the beginnings of Modernism in the English-speaking world.
In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums. A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, an increasing number after 1945. Many, like the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston changed their names from ones using "Modern art" in this period, as Modernism became defined as a historical art movement, much "modern" art ceased to be "contemporary"; the definition of what is contemporary is always on the move, anchored in the present with a start date that moves forward, the works the Contemporary Art Society bought in 1910 could no longer be described as contemporary. Particular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s. There has been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, definitions of what constitutes "contemporary art" in the 2010s vary, are imprecise.
Art from the past 20 years is likely to be included, definitions include art going back to about 1970. And early 21st cent. Both an outgrowth and a rejection of modern art". Many use the formulation "Contemporary Art", which avoids this problem. Smaller commercial galleries and other sources may use stricter definitions restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards. Artists who are still productive after a long career, ongoing art movements, may present a particular issue. Sociologist Nathalie Heinich draws a distinction between modern and contemporary art, describing them as two different paradigms which overlap historically, she found that while "modern art" challenges the conventions of representation, "contemporary art" challenges the notion of an artwork. She regards Duchamp's Fountain as the starting point of contemporary art, which gained momentum after World War II with Gutai's performances, Yves Klein's monochromes and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing. One of the difficulties many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity—diversity of material, subject matter, time periods.
It is "distinguished by the lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism" that we so see in other, oftentimes more familiar, art periods and movements. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principles—the focus of the work is self-referential, investigating its own materials. Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism. Contemporary art, on the other hand, does not have single objective or point of view, its view instead is unclear reflective of the world today. It can be, contradictory and open-ended. There are, however, a number of common themes. While these are not exhaustive, notable themes include: identity politics, the body and migration, contemporary society and culture and memory, institutional and political critique. Post-modern, post-structuralist and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of contemporary theories of art; the functioning of the art world is dependent on art institutions, ranging from major museums to private galleries, non-profit spaces, art schools and publishers, the practices of individual artists, writers and philanthropists.
A major division in the art world is between the for-profit and non-profit sectors, although in recent years the boundaries between for-profit private and non-profit public institutions have become blurred. Most well-known contemporary art is exhibited by professional artists at commercial contemporary art galleries, by private collectors, art auctions, corporation
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Trompe-l'œil is an art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions. Forced perspective is a comparable illusion in architecture. Though the phrase, which can be spelled without the hyphen and ligature in English as trompe l'oeil, originates in the Baroque period, when it refers to perspectival illusionism, trompe-l'œil dates much further back, it was employed in murals. Instances from Greek and Roman times are known, for instance in Pompeii. A typical trompe-l'œil mural might depict a window, door, or hallway, intended to suggest a larger room. A version of an oft-told ancient Greek story concerns a contest between two renowned painters. Zeuxis produced a still life painting so convincing that birds flew down to peck at the painted grapes. A rival, asked Zeuxis to judge one of his paintings, behind a pair of tattered curtains in his study. Parrhasius asked Zeuxis to pull back the curtains, but when Zeuxis tried, he could not, as the curtains were included in Parrhasius's painting—making Parrhasius the winner.
With widespread fascination with perspective drawing in the Renaissance, Italian painters of the late Quattrocento such as Andrea Mantegna and Melozzo da Forlì, began painting illusionistic ceiling paintings in fresco, that employed perspective and techniques such as foreshortening to create the impression of greater space for the viewer below. This type of trompe l'œil illusionism as applied to ceiling paintings is known as di sotto in sù, meaning "from below, upward" in Italian; the elements above the viewer are rendered as if viewed from true vanishing point perspective. Well-known examples are the Camera degli Sposi in Mantua and Antonio da Correggio's Assumption of the Virgin in the Duomo of Parma. Vittorio Carpaccio and Jacopo de' Barbari added small trompe-l'œil features to their paintings, playfully exploring the boundary between image and reality. For example, a fly might appear to be sitting on the painting's frame, or a curtain might appear to conceal the painting, a piece of paper might appear to be attached to a board, or a person might appear to be climbing out of the painting altogether—all in reference to the contest of Zeuxis and Parrhasius.
In a 1964 seminar, the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan observed that the myth of the two painters reveals an interesting aspect of human cognition. While animals are attracted to superficial appearances, humans are enticed by the idea of things that are hidden. Perspective theories in the 17th century allowed a more integrated approach to architectural illusion, which when used by painters to "open up" the space of a wall or ceiling is known as quadratura. Examples include Pietro da Cortona's Allegory of Divine Providence in the Palazzo Barberini and Andrea Pozzo's Apotheosis of St Ignatius on the ceiling of the Roman church of Sant'Ignazio; the Mannerist and Baroque style interiors of Jesuit churches in the 16th and 17th century included such trompe-l'œil ceiling paintings, which optically "open" the ceiling or dome to the heavens with a depiction of Jesus', Mary's, or a saint's ascension or assumption. An example of a perfect architectural trompe-l'œil is the illusionistic dome in the Jesuit church, Vienna, by Andrea Pozzo, only curved but gives the impression of true architecture.
Trompe-l'œil paintings became popular in Flemish and in Dutch painting in the 17th century arising from the development of still life painting. The Flemish painter Cornelis Norbertus Gysbrechts created a chantourné painting showing an easel holding a painting. Chantourné means'cutout' and refers to a trompe l'œil representation designed to stand away from a wall; the Dutch painter Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten was a master of the trompe-l'œil and theorized on the role of art as the lifelike imitation of nature in his 1678 book, the Introduction to the Academy of Painting, or the Visible World. A fanciful form of architectural trompe-l'œil, features realistically rendered paintings of such items as paper knives, playing cards and scissors accidentally left lying around. Trompe-l'œil can be found painted on tables and other items of furniture, on which, for example, a deck of playing cards might appear to be sitting on the table. A impressive example can be seen at Chatsworth House in Derbyshire, where one of the internal doors appears to have a violin and bow suspended from it, in a trompe l'œil painted around 1723 by Jan van der Vaardt.
Another example can be found in the Painted Hall at the Old Royal Naval College, London. This Wren building was painted by Sir James Thornhill, the first British born painter to be knighted and is a classic example of the baroque style popular in the early 18th century; the American 19th-century still-life painter William Harnett specialized in trompe-l'œil. In the 20th century, from the 1960s on, the American Richard Haas and many others painted large trompe-l'œil murals on the sides of city buildings, from beginning of the 1980s when German Artist Rainer Maria Latzke began to combine classical fresco art with contemporary content trompe-l'œil became popular for interior murals; the Spanish painter Salvador Dalí utilized the technique for a number of his paintings. Trompe-l'œil, in the form of "forced perspective", has long been used in stage-theater set design, so as to create the illusion of a much deeper space than the actual stage. A famous early example is t
Art Basel is a for-profit owned and managed international art fair staged annually in Basel, Switzerland. The commercial fairs offer parallel programming produced in collaboration with the host city’s local institutions. While Art Basel provides a platform for galleries to show and sell their work to buyers, it attracts a large international audience of art spectators and students. Art Basel was started in 1970 by Trudl Bruckner and Balz Hilt. In its inaugural year, the Basel show attracted more than 16,000 visitors who viewed work presented by 90 galleries representing 10 countries. Thirty art publishers participated. By 1975, five years after its founding, the Basel show reached 300 exhibitors; the participating galleries came from 21 countries. UBS is the lead partner of the Art Basel in Basel since 1994, the lead partner of the Art Basel in Miami Beach since its inception in 2002 and the lead partner of the Art Basel in Hong Kong since its inception in 2013. In 2013, Art Basel launched its inaugural sales fair in Hong Kong.
Half of the participating galleries came from the Asia-Pacific region. In 2014, Art Basel partnered with Kickstarter to create a crowdfunding initiative aimed at funding non-profit visual arts organizations worldwide. Together with JRP Ringier, Art Basel publishes Art Basel | Year 44 the first book that covered all three shows. In 2015, the BMW Art Journey award was established by BMW and Art Basel to reward promising artists from the Discoveries sector in Hong Kong and the Positions sector in Miami Beach; the executive-education program Collecting Contemporary Art in Hong Kong was launched by Art Basel, HKU SPACE Centre for Degree Programmes and Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. Under the stewardship of Art Basel’s Global Director, Marc Spiegler, the 2015 show in Basel, attracted 98,000 visitors over six days, it presented 284 galleries from 33 countries. A total of 14 galleries showed in Basel for the first time. Alongside private collectors from Europe and Asia, representatives and groups from over 80 museums and institutions from across the world were in attendance.
Spearheaded by Noah Horowitz, Art Basel’s Director Americas, the 2015 show in Miami Beach, presented 267 leading international galleries from 32 countries. Over five days, the show attracted 77,000 visitors including private collectors and directors, curators and patrons of nearly 200 museum and institution groups; the show hosted first-time collectors from Cambodia, Nicaragua, Romania and Zimbabwe. Art Basel Miami Beach was first introduced in 2002 under the direction of Sam Keller. In 2008, MCH Group, Angus Montgomery Arts and the events organiser Tim Etchells launched Art HK, sparking investor interest in Hong Kong. MCH bought it out in 2013 to create Art Basel in Hong Kong; the 2015 Hong Kong Exhibition, directed by Adeline Ooi, attracted over 70,000 visitors, among them directors, curators and patrons from over 100 leading international museums and institutions. On display were 239 galleries from 35 countries and territories. Art Basel’s initiatives concentrate on the broader art world. Art Basel has three main initiatives: Art Basel Cities, BMW Art Journey, Crowdfunding.
Art Basel Cities is a project between Art Basel and cities worldwide to create cultural events and programming throughout the year. Art Basel, the city’s local art stakeholders and the city’s officials will sit together and develop a program in line with the city’s mid- and long-term cultural development goals; this initiative was launched during the 2016 Hong Kong edition of Art Basel. Cities interested in the collaboration have to apply via an online questionnaire; as of 2016, Art Basel has yet to announce. BMW Art Journey Award is a grant that supports emerging creatives and enables them to go on an artistic journey of their own definition; the chosen artist can select the destination and go anywhere in the world to explore new ideas, discover new themes, create new works. A winner is selected twice a year from a shortlist of three finalists during the Art Basel shows in Hong Kong and Miami Beach; the Crowdfunding Initiative is a partnership between Kickstarter and Art Basel to provide visibility and generate support for projects from non-profit organizations around the world.
The projects include artist residencies, education programs, public installations and other innovative artistic projects. They are selected by an independent jury made up of three non-profit art world specialists; the Art Market is an annual global art market analysis. It covers all aspects of the international market and highlights the most important developments in the previous year; the first report was published in 2017. Franz Schultheis, Erwin Single, Stephan Egger, Thomas Mazzurana: When Art meets Money. Encounters at the Art Basel. Verlag Walther König, Cologne 2015. ISBN 978-3863357443. Art Basel | Year 45. JRP|Ringier, 2015. ISBN 978-3-03764-395-2. Official website
Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, an American public university. It is located in the Lenox Hill neighborhood of the Upper East Side of New York City; the college offers studies in more than one hundred undergraduate and postgraduate fields across five schools. It administers Hunter College High School and Hunter College Elementary School. Hunter was founded in 1870 as a women's college; the main campus has been located on Park Avenue since 1873. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated Franklin Delano Roosevelt's and her former townhouse to the college; the college is the only one in the nation whose roster of alumni includes two female Nobel laureates in medicine. Hunter College has its origins in the 19th-century movement for normal school training which swept across the United States. Hunter descends from the Female Normal and High School, established in New York City in 1870. Founded by Irish immigrant Thomas Hunter, president of the school during the first 37 years, it was a women's college for training teachers.
The school, housed in an armory and saddle store at Broadway and East Fourth Street in Manhattan, was open to all qualified women, irrespective of race, religion or ethnic background. At the time most women's colleges had ethno-religious admissions criteria. Created by the New York State Legislature, Hunter was deemed the only approved institution for those seeking to teach in New York City; the school incorporated an elementary and high school for gifted children, where students practiced teaching. In 1887, a kindergarten was established as well. During Thomas Hunter's tenure as president of the school, Hunter became known for its impartiality regarding race, ethnicity, financial or political favoritism; the first female professor at the school, Helen Gray Cone, was elected to the position in 1899. The college's student population expanded, the college subsequently moved uptown, in 1873, into a new Gothic structure, now known as Thomas Hunter Hall, on Lexington Avenue between 68th and 69th Streets.
The hall was designed by the architect Snyder. In 1888 the school was incorporated as a college under the statutes of New York State, with the power to confer the degree of A. B; this led to the separation of the school into two "camps": the "Normals", who pursued a four-year course of study to become licensed teachers, the "Academics", who sought non-teaching professions and the Bachelor of Arts degree. After 1902 when the "Normal" course of study was abolished, the "Academic" course became standard across the student body. In 1914 the Normal College became Hunter College in honor of its first president. At the same time, the college was experiencing a period of great expansion as increasing student enrollments necessitated more space; the college reacted by establishing branches in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Staten Island. By 1920, Hunter College had the largest enrollment of women of any municipally financed college in the United States. In 1930, Hunter's Brooklyn campus merged with City College's Brooklyn campus, the two were spun off to form Brooklyn College.
Between 1938 and 1939 the garden at Park Avenue was given up for the construction of the north building. The expansion destroyed a large part of the neo-gothic original structure, fusing them together. Only the back part facing Lexington Avenue between 68th and 69th street remain from the original building; the late 1930s saw the construction of Hunter College in the Bronx. During the Second World War, Hunter leased the Bronx Campus buildings to the United States Navy who used the facilities to train 95,000 women volunteers for military service as WAVES and SPARS; when the Navy vacated the campus, the site was occupied by the nascent United Nations, which held its first Security Council sessions at the Bronx Campus in 1946, giving the school an international profile. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated a town house at 47–49 East 65th Street in Manhattan to the college; the house had been a home for First Lady. Today it is known as The Roosevelt House of Public Policy and opened in fall 2010 as an academic center hosting prominent speakers.
Hunter became the women's college of the municipal system, in the 1950s, when City College became coeducational, Hunter started admitting men to its Bronx campus. In 1964, the Manhattan campus began admitting men also; the Bronx campus subsequently became Lehman College in 1968. In 1968–1969, Black and Puerto Rican students struggled to get a department that would teach about their history and experience; these and supportive students and faculty expressed this demand through building take-overs, etc. In Spring 1969, Hunter College established Puerto Rican Studies. An "open admissions" policy initiated in 1970 by the City University of New York opened the school's doors to underrepresented groups by guaranteeing a college education to any and all who graduated from NYC high schools. Many African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Ricans, students from the developing world made their presence felt at Hunter, after the end of "open admissions" still comprise a large part of the school's student body.
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An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, magazines, teaching materials, video games and films. Illustration means providing an example; the origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English: via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a wide range of styles and techniques, including drawing, printmaking, montage, digital design, multimedia, 3D modelling. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis. Depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, realistic or technical. Specialist areas include: Architectural illustration Archaeological illustration Botanical illustration Concept art Fashion illustration Information graphics Technical illustration Medical illustration Narrative illustration Picture books Scientific illustration Technical and scientific illustration communicates information of a technical or scientific nature.
This may include exploded views, fly-throughs, instructional images, component designs, diagrams. The aim is "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer"Technical and scientific illustration is designed to describe or explain subjects to a nontechnical audience, so must provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". In contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is used to create accurate representations that can be updated and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design and fine art. Today, due in part to the growth of graphic novel and video game industries, as well as increased use of illustration in magazines and other publications, illustration is now becoming a valued art form, capable of engaging a global market. Original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction.
The US artist Norman Rockwell's painting "Breaking Home Ties" sold in a 2006 Sotheby's auction for USD15.4 million. Many other illustration genres are valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example attracting high prices; the art of illustration is linked to the industrial processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, were individually hand drawn and painted. With the invention of the printing press during the 15th century, books became more distributed illustrated with woodcuts. 1600s Japan saw the origination of Ukiyo-e, an influential illustration style characterised by expressive line, vivid colour and subtle tones, resulting from the ink-brushed wood block printing technique. Subjects included popular figures and every day life. Hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching.
In 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography improved reproduction quality. In Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to "serious" publications. At this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores and classes; the British humorous magazine Punch built on the success of Cruikshank's Comic Almanac and employed many well-regarded illustrators, including Sir John Tenniel, the Dalziel Brothers, Georges du Maurier. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained as illustrators. Punch was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s; the magazine was the first to use the term "cartoon" to describe a humorous illustration and its widespread use led to John Leech being known as the world's first "cartoonist". In common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text.
With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from reliance on caricature to sophisticated topical observation. From the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color and rendering techniques; these developments in printing effected all areas of literature from cookbooks and traveling guides, as well as children's books. Due to advances in printing, it became more affordable to produce color photographs within books and other materials. By 1900 100 percent of paper was machine-made, while a person working by hand could produce 60-100lbs of paper per day, mechanization yielded around 1,000lbs per day. Additionally, in the 50 year period between 1846 and 1916, book production increased 400% and the price of books was cut in half. In America, this led to a "golden age of illustration" from before the 1880s until the early 20th century.
A small group of illustrators became successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the time. Among the best known illustrators of that period were N. C. Wyeth and Howard Pyl
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others. Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are used in editorial cartoons, while caricatures of movie stars are found in entertainment magazines; the term is derived from the Italian caricare -- to load. An early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Browne's Christian Morals, published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, Caricatura representations. With the footnote: When Men's faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura Thus, the word "caricature" means a "loaded portrait".
Until the mid 19th century, it was and mistakenly believed that the term shared the same root as the French'charcuterie' owing to Parisian street artists using cured meats in their satirical portrayal of public figures. Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who sought people with deformities to use as models; the point was to offer an impression of the original, more striking than a portrait. Caricature took a road to its first successes in the closed aristocratic circles of France and Italy, where such portraits could be passed about for mutual enjoyment. While the first book on caricature drawing to be published in England was Mary Darly's A Book of Caricaturas, the first known North American caricatures were drawn in 1759 during the battle for Quebec; these caricatures were the work of Brig.-Gen. George Townshend whose caricatures of British General James Wolfe, depicted as "Deformed and crass and hideous", were drawn to amuse fellow officers. Elsewhere, two great practitioners of the art of caricature in 18th-century Britain were Thomas Rowlandson and James Gillray.
Rowlandson was more of an artist and his work took its inspiration from the public at large. Gillray was more concerned with the vicious visual satirisation of political life, they were, great friends and caroused together in the pubs of London. In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a serious social or political point. A caricaturist draws on the natural characteristics of the subject. Sir Max Beerbohm and published caricatures of the famous men of his own time and earlier, his style of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. His published works include Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, The Poets' Corner, Rossetti and His Circle.
He published in fashionable magazines of the time, his works were exhibited in London at the Carfax Gallery and Leicester Galleries. George Cruikshank created political prints that attacked leading politicians, he went on to create social caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack and Omnibus. Cruikshanks' New Union Club of 1819 is notable in the context of slavery, he earned fame as a book illustrator for Charles Dickens and many other authors. Honoré Daumier created over 4,000 lithographs, most of them caricatures on political and everyday themes, they were published in the daily French newspapers Mort Drucker joined Mad in 1957 and became well known for his parodies of movie satires. He combined a comic strip style with caricature likenesses of film actors for Md, he contributed covers to Time, he has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society Special Features Award for 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, their Reuben Award for 1987. Alex Gard created more than 700 caricatures of show business celebrities and other notables for the walls of Sardi's Restaurant in the theater district of New York City: the first artist to do so.
Today the images are part of the Billy Rose Theatre Collection of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Al Hirschfeld was best known for his simple black and white renditions of celebrities and Broadway stars which used flowing contour lines over heavy rendering, he was known for depicting a variety of other famous people, from politicians, musicians and television stars like the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation. He was commissioned by the United States Postal Service to provide art for U. S. stamps. Permanent collections of Hirschfeld's work appear at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, he boasts a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. S. Jithesh is known for his speedy style of Celebrity Caricaturing Stage Shows."Cartoons take shape in no time". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 28, 2010.</ref> He performs a'Caricature Stage Show', a blend of poetry and socio-political satire