Joshua Tree National Park
Joshua Tree National Park is located in southeastern California. Declared a U. S. National Park in 1994 when the U. S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act and it is named for the Joshua trees native to the park. It covers a area of 790,636 acres —an area slightly larger than the state of Rhode Island. A large part of the park, some 429,690 acres, is a wilderness area. The Little San Bernardino Mountains run through the southwest edge of the park, in 1950, the size of the park was reduced by about 265,000 acres to exclude some mining property. The park was elevated to a National Park on 31 October 1994 by the Desert Protection Act, the higher and cooler Mojave Desert is the special habitat of Yucca brevifolia, the Joshua tree for which the park is named. It occurs in patterns from dense forests to distantly spaced specimens, in addition to Joshua tree forests, the western part of the park includes some of the most interesting geologic displays found in Californias deserts. The dominant geologic features of landscape are hills of bare rock.
These hills are popular amongst rock climbing and scrambling enthusiasts, the flatland between these hills is sparsely forested with Joshua trees. Together with the piles and Skull Rock, the trees make the landscape otherworldly. Temperatures are most comfortable in the spring and fall, with an average high/low of 85 and 50 °F respectively, winter brings cooler days, around 60 °F, and freezing nights. It occasionally snows at higher elevations, summers are hot, over 100 °F during the day and not cooling much below 75 °F until the early hours of the morning. Joshua trees dominate the open spaces of the park, but in among the outcroppings are piñon pine, California juniper, Quercus turbinella, Quercus john-tuckeri. These communities are under stress, however, as the climate was wetter until the 1930s, with the same hot. These cycles were nothing new, but the vegetation did not prosper when wetter cycles returned. The difference may have been human development, cattle grazing took out some of the natural cover and made it less resistant to the changes.
But the bigger problem seems to be invasive species, such as cheatgrass, in drier times, they die back, but do not quickly decompose. This makes wildfires hotter and more destructive, which some of the trees that would have otherwise survived
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are old-growth temperate rainforests located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and Californias Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres. Located entirely within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests and these trees are the tallest and one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast, the northern portion of that area, originally inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region. Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco, after many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began.
Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the redwood trees had been logged. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have ties to the region. Archaeological study shows they arrived in the area as far back as 3,000 years ago, an 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500. They used the abundant redwood, which with its grain was easily split into planks, as a building material for boats, houses. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping. Redwood boards were used to form a sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast. The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a secondary rush in California.
This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich and this quickly led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained, by 1919, the miners logged redwoods for building, when this minor gold rush ended, some of them turned again to logging, cutting down the giant redwood trees. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a national park
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae. The 13 extant otter species are all semiaquatic, aquatic or marine, with diets based on fish, Lutrinae is a branch of the weasel family Mustelidae, which includes badgers, honey badgers, minks and wolverines. The word otter derives from the Old English word otor or oter and this, and cognate words in other Indo-European languages, ultimately stem from the Proto-Indo-European language root *wódr̥, which gave rise to the English word water. An otters den is called a holt or couch, male otters are called dogs or boars, females are called bitches or sows, and their offspring are called pups. The collective nouns for otters are bevy, lodge, romp or, the feces of otters are typically identified by their distinctive aroma, the smell of which has been described as ranging from freshly mown hay to putrefied fish, these are known as spraints. The gestation period in otters is about 60 to 86 days, the newborn pup is cared for by the bitch and older offspring.
Bitch otters reach sexual maturity at two years of age and males at approximately three years. The holt is built under tree roots or a rocky cairn and it is lined with moss and grass. After one month, the pup can leave the holt and after two months, it is able to swim, the pup lives with its family for approximately one year. Otters live up to 16 years, they are by nature playful and its usual source of food is fish, and further downriver, but it may sample frogs and birds. Otters have long, slim bodies and relatively short limbs and their most striking anatomical features are the powerful webbed feet used to swim, and their seal-like abilities holding breath underwater. Most have sharp claws on their feet and all except the sea otter have long, the 13 species range in adult size from 0.6 to 1.8 m in length and 1 to 45 kg in weight. The Oriental small-clawed otter is the smallest otter species and the giant otter and they have very soft, insulated underfur, which is protected by an outer layer of long guard hairs.
This traps a layer of air which keeps them dry, several otter species live in cold waters and have high metabolic rates to help keep them warm. European otters must eat 15% of their weight each day. In water as warm as 10 °C, an otter needs to catch 100 g of fish per hour to survive, most species hunt for three to five hours each day and nursing mothers up to eight hours each day. For most otters, fish is the staple of their diet and this is often supplemented by frogs and crabs. Some otters are expert at opening shellfish, and others feed on available small mammals or birds
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size definition for what constitutes a town varies considerably in different parts of the world, the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, and the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the meaning of the word. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom, in English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more specifically those of the wealthy, in Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, and is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs, for example, Edina Burgh or Edinburgh was built around a fort and eventually came to have a defensive wall.
In some cases, town is a name for city or village. Sometimes, the town is short for township. A places population size is not a determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, as in India at least until recent times, in the United Kingdom, there are historical cities that are far smaller than the larger towns. Some forms of settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be clearly non-rural. Towns often exist as governmental units, with legally defined borders. In the United States these are referred to as incorporated towns, in other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be unincorporated. Note that the existence of a town may be legally set forth through other means. In the case of planned communities, the town exists legally in the form of covenants on the properties within the town. Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age, although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian qytezë means small city or new city, while in ancient times small residential center within the walls of a castle
The harbor seal, known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere. The most widely distributed species of pinniped, they are found in waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Harbor seals are brown, silvery white, tan, or gray, an adult can attain a length of 1.85 meters and a mass of 132 kilograms. Blubber under the skin helps to maintain body temperature. Harbor seals stick to familiar resting spots or haulout sites, generally rocky areas where they are protected from weather conditions and predation. Males may fight over mates underwater and on land, females bear a single pup after a nine-month gestation, which they care for alone. Pups can weigh up to 16 kg and are able to swim and they develop quickly on their mothers fat-rich milk and are weaned after four to six weeks. The global population of seals is 350, 000–500,000. Once a common practice, sealing is now illegal in many nations within the animals range, individual harbor seals possess a unique pattern of spots, either dark on a light background or light on a dark.
They vary in color from black to tan or grey. The body and flippers are short, heads are rounded, as with other true seals, there is no pinna. An ear canal may be visible behind the eye, including the head and flippers, they may reach an adult length of 1.85 meters and a weight of 55 to 168 kg. Females are generally smaller than males, there are an estimated 350, 000–500,000 harbor seals worldwide. While the population is not threatened as a whole, the Greenland, Hokkaidō, local populations have been reduced or eliminated through disease and conflict with humans, both unintentionally and intentionally. It is legal to kill seals perceived to threaten fisheries in the United Kingdom and Canada, Seals are taken in subsistence hunting and accidentally as bycatch. Along the Norwegian coast bycatch accounted for 48% of pup mortality, Seals in the United Kingdom are protected by the 1970 Conservation of Seals Act, which prohibits most forms of killing. There are five subspecies of Phoca vitulina, Western Atlantic common seals, P. v. concolor, the validity of this subspecies is questionable, and not supported by genetic evidence.
Ungava seals, P. v. mellonae, are found in eastern Canada in fresh water, Pacific common seals, P. v. richardsi, are located in western North America
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common and well-known members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin. Recent molecular studies show the genus contains two species, the bottlenose dolphin and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, instead of one. Research in 2011 revealed a species, the Burrunan dolphin. Bottlenose dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide and they live in all oceans except for the Arctic and Antarctic Circle area. Bottlenose dolphins live in groups typically of 10–30 members, called pods and their diets consist mainly of forage fish. Dolphins often work as a team to harvest fish schools, Dolphins search for prey primarily using echolocation, which is similar to sonar. They emit clicking sounds and listen for the echos to determine the location and shape of nearby items. Numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence have been conducted, examining mimicry, use of language, object categorization. They can use tools and transmit cultural knowledge across generations, Bottlenose dolphins gained popularity from aquarium shows and television programs such as Flipper.
They have trained by militaries to locate sea mines or detect. In some areas, they cooperate with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets, some encounters with humans are harmful to the dolphins, people hunt them for food, and dolphins are killed inadvertently as a bycatch of tuna fishing and by getting caught in crab traps. The deepest dive ever recorded for a dolphin was 300 meters. This was accomplished by Tuffy, a dolphin trained by the US Navy, scientists were long aware that Tursiops dolphins might consist of more than one species. Molecular genetics allowed much greater insight into this previously intractable problem, truncatus lives in the Black Sea, The Pacific bottlenose dolphin, another subspecies of T. truncatus and T. aduncus, but is not considered a separate species by the IUCN. The two ecotypes of the bottlenose dolphin within the western North Atlantic are represented by the shallower water or coastal ecotype. Their ranges overlap, but they have shown to be genetically distinct.
They are not currently described, however, as species or subspecies. In general, genetic variation between populations is significant, even nearby populations
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the position of the paddler. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a paddle to pull front-to-back on one side. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well, kayaks were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic regions. They used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, the main purpose for creating the kayak, which literally translates to hunters boat was for hunting and fishing. The kayaks stealth capabilities, allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline, by the mid-1800s the kayak became increasingly popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport, in 1931, a man named Adolf Anderle became the first person to kayak down the Salzachofen Gorge, this is where the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking is believed to have begun.
Kayak races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936, in the 1950s fiberglass kayaks were developed and commonly used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks came about. Kayaking progressed as a sport in the U. S. until the 1970s. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics, kayaks can be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, stability, kayaks can be made of metal, wood, plastic and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, and more recently expensive but feather light carbon fiber. Each material has its specific advantage, including strength, portability, resistance to ultraviolet, for example, wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame, inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and easily transported and stored, and considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats.
There are many types of kayaks used in water and white water kayaking. The sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on type of water to be paddled on. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water. These vary in length and depending on the intended use, height of the paddler and often. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wet suit or spray top help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures, sit on top kayaks place the paddler in an open, shallowly-concave deck above the water level
Human swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water or another liquid, usually for recreation, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the limbs, the body, humans can hold their breath underwater and undertake rudimentary locomotive swimming within weeks of birth, as an evolutionary response. Swimming is consistently among top public recreational activities, and in some countries, as a formalized sport, swimming features in a range of local and international competitions, including every modern summer Olympics, which takes place every four years. Swimming relies on the buoyancy of the human body. On average, the body has a density of 0.98 compared to water. However, buoyancy varies on the basis of body composition and the salinity of the water. Higher levels of fat and saltier water both lower the relative density of the body and increase its buoyancy. Since the human body is slightly less dense than water, water supports the weight of the body during swimming.
As a result, swimming is “low-impact” compared to land such as running. The density and viscosity of water create resistance for objects moving through the water, Swimming strokes use this resistance to create propulsion, but this same resistance generates drag on the body. Hydrodynamics is important to stroke technique for swimming faster, and swimmers who want to swim faster or tire less try to reduce the drag of the motion through the water. Just before plunging into the pool, swimmers may perform such as squatting. Squatting helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start by warming up the thigh muscles, human babies demonstrate an innate swimming or diving reflex from newborn until the age of approximately 6 months. Other mammals demonstrate this phenomenon, Swimming can be undertaken using a wide range of styles, known as strokes, and these strokes are used for different purposes, or to distinguish between classes in competitive swimming. It is not necessary to use a stroke for propulsion through the water.
There are four main strokes used in competition and recreation swimming, the front crawl, known as freestyle, the breaststroke, the backstroke, competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800, mostly using the breaststroke. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times, and the earliest records of swimming date back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC, some of the earliest references include the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible and other sagas
San Luis Obispo County, California
San Luis Obispo County, officially the County of San Luis Obispo, is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 269,637, the county seat is San Luis Obispo. San Luis Obispo County comprises the San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, the county is located along the Pacific Ocean in Central California, between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa in 1772, the mainstays of the economy are California Polytechnic State University with its almost 20,000 students and agriculture. San Luis Obispo County is the third largest producer of wine in California, surpassed only by Sonoma, wine grapes are the second largest agricultural crop in the county, and the wine production they support creates a direct economic impact and a growing wine country vacation industry. The town of San Simeon is located at the foot of the ridge where newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst built the famed Hearst Castle, other coastal towns include Cambria, Morro Bay, and Los Osos -Baywood Park.
These cities and villages are located northwest of San Luis Obispo city, and Avila Beach, just south of the Five Cities, borders northern Santa Barbara County. Inland, the cities of Paso Robles and Atascadero lie along the Salinas River, San Luis Obispo lies south of Atascadero and north of the Five Cities region. Important settlements existed, for example, in coastal areas such as Morro Bay. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was founded on September 1,1772 in the area that is now the city of San Luis Obispo, the namesake of the mission and county is Saint Louis of Toulouse, the young bishop of Toulouse in 1297. San Luis Obispo County was one of the counties of California. The Salinas River Valley, a region that figures strongly in several Steinbeck novels, the remote California Valley near Soda Lake is the region most untouched by modernity. Travels through this area and the hills east of highway 101 during wildflower season are very beautiful and can be incorporated with wine tasting at local vineyards.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,616 square miles. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 55,973 persons,17. 7% of San Luis Obispo County is Mexican,0. 3% Puerto Rican, and 0. 2% Salvadoran. As of the census of 2000, there were 246,681 residents,92,739 households, the population density was 75 people per square mile. There were 102,275 housing units at a density of 31 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84. 6% White,2. 0% Black or African American,1. 0% Native American,2. 7% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,6. 2% from other races, and 3. 4% from two or more races
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927, in New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping. It is an activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, a day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. However, in the United Kingdom, the walking is used, as well as rambling. In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, hiking sometimes involves bushwhacking and is sometimes referred to as such. This specifically refers to walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes.
In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are tramping, walking or bushwalking, trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America, Iran and in the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking, in North America, multi-day hikes, usually with camping, are referred to as backpacking. The idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, in earlier times walking generally indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. To this end he included various stations or viewpoints around the lakes, published in 1778 the book was a major success.
Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth, in 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude. His famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworths friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District. John Keats, who belonged to the generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland