Roger Long was an English astronomer, and Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge between 1733 and 1770. Roger Long was the son of Thomas Long of Croxton, Norfolk and he was educated at Norwich School and admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1696/7. Graduating BA in 1700/1, he became a fellow of Pembroke and he was ordained in 1716, and became Rector of Orton Waterville. He became a Doctor of Divinity in 1728, and Master of Pembroke in 1733, from 1750 until 1770 he was the first holder of the Lowndean Professorship of Astronomy. One of the characters of eighteenth-century Cambridge, he built a water-work in his garden
Westminster School is an English independent day and boarding school located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. It has the highest Oxford and Cambridge university acceptance rates of any school or college in the world. With origins before the 12th century, the tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as AD960. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the school at age thirteen. The school has around 750 pupils, around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends and it is one of the original seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK. In 1540, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in England, including that of the powerful Abbots of Westminster, the Royal College of St. Peter carried on with forty Kings Scholars financed from the royal purse.
By this point Westminster School had certainly become a public school, during Mary Is brief reign the Abbey was reinstated as a Roman Catholic monastery, but the school continued. Elizabeth I refounded the School in 1560, with new statutes to select 40 Queens Scholars from boys who had attended the school for a year. Queen Elizabeth frequently visited her scholars, although she never signed the statutes nor endowed her scholarships, Elizabeth I appointed William Camden as headmaster, and he is the only layman known to have held the position until 1937. Regardless of politics, he thrashed Royalist and Puritan boys alike without fear or favour, Busby took part in Oliver Cromwells funeral procession in 1658, when Robert Uvedale, a Westminster schoolboy, succeeded in snatching the Majesty Scutcheon draped on the coffin. Busby remained in office throughout the Civil War and the Commonwealth, when the school was governed by Parliamentary Commissioners, and well into the Restoration. In 1679, a group of scholars killed a bailiff, ostensibly in defence of the Abbeys traditional right of sanctuary, dr Busby obtained a royal pardon for his scholars from Charles II and added the cost to the school bills.
Until the 19th century, the curriculum was made up of Latin and Greek. After the Public Schools Act 1868, in response to the Clarendon Commission on the financial and other malpractices at nine pre-eminent public schools, the school began to approach its modern form. It was legally separated from the Abbey, although the organisations remain close, there followed a scandalous public and parliamentary dispute lasting a further 25 years, to settle the transfer of the properties from the Canons of the Abbey to the School. School statutes have been made by Order in Council of Queen Elizabeth II, the Dean of Christ Church and the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge are ex officio members of the schools governing body. Westminster Under School was formed in 1943 in the school buildings in Westminster
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL was a British barrister and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland and he was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincolns Inn on 23 November 1730 and he became involved in politics in 1742, beginning with his election as a Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge, and appointment as Solicitor General. With the promotion of Sir Dudley Ryder to Lord Chief Justice in 1754, he became Attorney General, the most powerful British jurist of the century, his decisions reflected the Age of Enlightenment and moved England on the path to abolishing slavery and the slave trade. He advanced commercial law in ways that establish the nation as the world leader in industry, finance. He modernised both English law and the English courts system, he sped up the system for submitting motions and reformed the way judgments were given to reduce time and expense for the parties.
For his work in Carter v Boehm and Pillans v Van Mierop, he has been called the founder of English commercial law. Murray was born on 2 March 1705, at Scone Palace in Perthshire, the son of the 5th Viscount of Stormont and his wife, Margaret, née Scott. Both his parents were supporters of the Jacobite cause. The Jacobite sympathies of Murrays family were glossed over by contemporaries and this was incorrect, as Murray was educated at Perth Grammar School, where he was taught Latin, English grammar, and essay writing skills. He said that this gave him an advantage at university, as those students educated in England had been taught Greek and Latin. The distance from Perth to London was around 400 miles, Murray flourished at Westminster and was made a Kings Scholar on 21 May 1719. After an examination in May 1723, Murray was accepted into Christ Church and his older brother James was a barrister in Scotland, and his family decided that a career as a barrister was best for Murray. The Scottish Bar at the time was overcrowded, which made it difficult for a young barrister to build a reputation, yet qualifying for the English Bar was extremely expensive.
Thanks to the patronage of Thomas Foley, 1st Baron Foley, who gave Murray £200 a year to live on, Murray could afford to study at the bar, and became a member of Lincolns Inn on 23 April 1724. After George I died on 11 June 1727, Murray entered and his actions were seen as a show of support for the House of Hanover and the political status quo, something odd considering the strong Jacobite sympathies of his family. He probably did this because, having no income, he wished to secure patronage to help him advance politically. Another entrant was William Pitt, who was a constant rival to Murray until Pitts death in 1778
Viscount Montagu was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 2 September 1554 for Anthony Browne and it became extinct on the death of the ninth Viscount in 1797. The title Viscount Montagu was chosen from line of descent from John Neville and his daughter Lucy Neville was the mother of Anthony Browne. He was made a Viscount to correlate to the wealth of the Browne family, Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu Hon
Thomas Tenison was an English church leader, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1694 until his death. During his primacy, he crowned two British monarchs and he was born at Cottenham, the son and grandson of Anglican clergymen, who were both named John Tenison, his mother was Mercy Dowsing. He was educated at Norwich School, going on to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and he graduated in 1657, and was chosen fellow in 1659. For a short time he studied medicine, but in 1659 was privately ordained, as vicar of St Andrew-the-Great, Cambridge, he set an example by his devoted attention to the sufferers from the plague. In 1667 he was presented to the living of Holywell-cum-Needingworth, Huntingdonshire, by the Earl of Manchester, to whose son he had been tutor, and in 1670 to that of St Peter Mancroft, Norwich. In 1680 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and was presented by King Charles II to the important London church of St Martins-in-the-Fields. Being a strenuous opponent of the Church of Rome, and Whitehall lying within that parish, Tenisons reputation as an enemy of Romanism led the Duke of Monmouth to send for him before his execution in 1685, when Bishops Thomas Ken and Francis.
A sermon he preached on the commission was published the same year and he preached a funeral sermon for Nell Gwyn in 1687, in which he represented her as truly penitent – a charitable judgment that did not meet with universal approval. The general liberality of Tenisons religious views won him royal favour and he attended Queen Mary during her last illness and preached her funeral sermon in Westminster Abbey. When William in 1695 went to command of the army in the Netherlands. After Marys death, Tenison was one of those who persuaded the King that his long and bitter quarrel with her sister Anne must be ended, along with Gilbert Burnet he attended the King on his deathbed. Only with great difficulty did he persuade her to appoint his nominee William Wake, increasingly he lost influence to John Sharp, Archbishop of York, whom the Queen found far more congenial. Tenison died in London a year and he was instrumental in the last years of his life in the literary executorship of Sir Thomas Brownes manuscript writings known as Christian Morals.
He married Anne, daughter of Richard Love, but died without issue, edward Tenison LL. B, his cousin, became Bishop of Ossory. Another relative, Richard Tennison, became Bishop of Meath, Thomas is said to have advanced Richard in his career, in his will he left legacies to all of Richards five sons. In appearance he was described as a large, hulking figure, very strong when young, the personal coat of arms of Archbishop Tenison consist of the arms of the see of Canterbury impaled with the Tenison family arms. The former, placed on the side of honour, are blazoned as, Azure. The arms of Tenison, placed on the side of the escutcheon are blazoned as, Gules
George Payne (Freemason)
For other articles titled George Payne, see George Payne. George Payne was a Freemason and the second Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1718, after being succeeded by John Desaguliers in 1719, he was again Grand Master in 1720. During this time he compiled The Constitutions of the Free-masons, which was printed in 1722 or 1723 and he was deputy Master in 1725, when the Duke of Richmond was both Master of the Lodge and Grand Master. George Payne of the Exchequer - appointed Secretary to the Tax Office 20 July 1732, Head Secretary 8 April 1743 - was the son of Samuel Payne of Chester, George Payne and his wife Anne Martha Batson had no surviving children. They lived in St Stephens Court, New Palace Yard and his brother Thomas Payne was rector of Holme Lacy Herefordshire for Frances Scudamore wife of Henry Scudamore, 3rd Duke of Beaufort and the wife of Charles FitzRoy-Scudamore. Thomass nine recorded children included Frances Compton Countess of Northampton and Catherine Seymour, the First Grand Lodge 10,000 Famous Freemasons, W R Denslow History of the Grand Lodge of England 1723-1760
Lincoln Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, and sometimes St. Marys Cathedral in Lincoln, England is the seat of the Anglican bishop. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in phases throughout the medieval period. It was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain after St Pauls and York Minster and it is highly regarded by architectural scholars, the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared, I have always held. That the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles, laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1088 and it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building. Though he could not complete the whole before his death, winkles, It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it.
Up until St. Marys Church in Stow was considered to be the church of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese that stretched from the Thames to the Humber, Bishop Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1141, the roofing was destroyed in a fire. Bishop Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years later. The earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK, some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was probably exaggerated by poor construction or design, with the actual collapse most probably caused by a vault collapse. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed and he was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a rebuilding and expansion programme. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210, the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style.
Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time – pointed arches, flying buttresses and this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, and five in the central tower, accompanying the cathedrals large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock. The clock was installed in the early 19th century, the two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Deans Eye and Bishops Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Deans Eye in the transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh
Charles Yorke PC was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. The second son of Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, he was born in London and his literary abilities were shown at an early age by his collaboration with his brother Philip in the Athenian Letters. In the following year he was called to the bar and he quickly made his mark in the House of Commons, one of his earliest speeches being in favour of his fathers reform of the marriage law that led to the Marriage Act 1753. In 1750 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and he resigned with Pitt in 1761, but in 1762 became Attorney-General under Lord Bute. He continued to hold office when George Grenville became Prime Minister. Yorke refused to describe the libel as treasonable, while pronouncing it a high misdemeanour, in the following November he resigned office. He supported the repeal of the Stamp Act, while urging the simultaneous passing of the Declaratory Act and his most important measure was the constitution which he drew up for the province of Quebec, and which after his resignation of office became the Quebec Act of 1774.
On the accession to power of Chatham and Grafton in 1766, Yorke resigned office, in 1770 he was invited by the Duke of Grafton, when Camden was dismissed from the Chancellorship, to take his seat on the woolsack. He had, explicitly pledged himself to Rockingham and his party not to take office with Grafton, the King exerted all his personal influence to overcome Yorkes scruples, warning him finally that the Great Seal if now refused would never again be within his grasp. Yorke yielded to the Kings entreaty, and he was appointed Lord Chancellor and he went to his brothers house, where he met the leaders of the Opposition, and feeling at once overwhelmed with shame, fled to his own house, where three days he committed suicide. The patent raising him to the peerage as Baron Morden had been made out, caroline Yorke, who married John Eliot, 1st Earl of St Germans. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Yorke. The first edition of text is available as an article on Wikisource, Yorke.
The Life and Correspondence of Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny KG, KB, PC, FRS was a British nobleman and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, and he held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the early patrons. Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his fathers dukedom and he inherited his fathers love of sports, particularly cricket. He had an accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt. They were married at The Hague, in 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second. He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723, a feature of Richmonds career was the support he received from his wife Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters. Their marriage was a success, especially by Georgian standards. The 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early crickets greatest patron, although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom.
He captained his own team and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, when he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers. His earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gages XI on 20 July 1725, Records have survived of four matches played by Richmonds team in the 1727 season. Two were against Gages XI and two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick and these last two games are highly significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points and it is believed that this was the first time that rules were formally agreed, although rules as such definitely existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744, essentially the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains.
In 1728, Richmonds Sussex played twice against Edwin Steads Kent, in 1730, Richmonds team played two matches against Gages XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury. The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was put off on account of Waymark, in 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by one Thomas Chambers at a venue in Chichester. Chambers team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, and a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August
John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers was a French-born British natural philosopher, clergyman and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as experimental assistant to Isaac Newton. He had studied at Oxford and popularized Newtonian theories and their applications in public lectures. Desaguliers’s most important patron was James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, as a Freemason, Desaguliers was instrumental in the success of the first Grand Lodge in London in the early 1720s and served as its third Grand Master. Desaguliers was born in La Rochelle, several months after his father Jean Desaguliers, Jean Desaguliers was ordained as an Anglican by Bishop Henry Compton of London, and sent to Guernsey. Meanwhile, the baby was baptised Jean Théophile Desaguliers in the Protestant Temple in La Rochelle, in 1694 the family moved to London where Jean Desaguliers set up a French school in Islington. He attended lectures by John Keill, who used innovative demonstrations to illustrate difficult concepts of Newtonian natural philosophy, when Keill left Oxford in 1709 Desaguliers continued giving the lectures at Hart Hall, the forerunner of Hertford College, Oxford.
He obtained a degree there in 1712. In 1719 Oxford granted him the degree of Doctor in Civil Laws. His doctorate was incorporated by Cambridge University in 1726, Desaguliers was ordained as a deacon in 1710, at Fulham Palace, and as a priest in 1717, at Ely Palace in London. In 1712 Desaguliers moved back to London and advertised courses of lectures in Experimental Philosophy. He was not the first to do this, but became the most successful, offering to speak in English, by the time of his death he had given over 140 courses of some 20 lectures each on mechanics, pneumatics and astronomy. In 1717 Desaguliers lodged at Hampton Court and lectured in French to King George I, Desaguliers promoted Newton’s ideas and maintained the scientific nature of the meetings when Hans Sloane took over the Presidency after Newton died in 1727. Desaguliers contributed over 60 articles to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and he received the Society’s prestigious Copley Medal in 1734,1736 and 1741.
The last award was for his summary of knowledge to date on the phenomenon of electricity and he had worked on this with Stephen Gray, who at one time lodged at the Desaguliers home. Desaguliers’s “Dissertation concerning Electricity”, in which he coined the terms conductor and insulator, was awarded a medal by the Bordeaux Academy of Sciences. James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos appointed Desaguliers as his chaplain in 1716 and he was gifted the living of St Lawrence Church, Little Stanmore, which was close to the Duke’s mansion called Cannons, under construction at nearby Edgware. The church was rebuilt in the style in 1715. The Cannons estate benefited from Desaguliers scientific expertise which was applied to the water garden there
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. It had a population of 166,252 in 2015 together with Kempston, Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, and is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224, Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265. It is well known for its population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, and express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains. The name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, and a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Wessex and Danelaw and it was the seat of the Barony of Bedford.
In 919 Edward the Elder built the towns first known fortress, on the side of the River Great Ouse. This fortress was destroyed by the Danes, William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a new, strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons and it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains, in 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol. It was here that he wrote The Pilgrims Progress, the River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming an industry in the town. The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub, in 1832 gas lighting was introduced, and the railway reached Bedford in 1846. The first corn exchange was built 1849, and the first drains, Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford.
The borough council is led by an elected mayor who holds the title Mayor of Bedford. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party, Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards, Castle, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham and Queens Park
Edmund Gibson PC was a British divine who served as Bishop of Lincoln and Bishop of London and antiquary. He was born in Bampton, Westmorland, in 1686 he was entered a scholar at Queens College, Oxford. In 1716 Gibson was presented to the see of Lincoln, whence he was in 1723 translated to London, for twenty-five years he exercised influence, being consulted by Sir Robert Walpole on ecclesiastical affairs. While a conservative in politics, and opposed to Methodism, he was no persecutor. He exercised oversight over the morals of his diocese, and his denunciation of the masquerades which were popular at court finally lost him the royal favour and he served as a founding governor of a charity called the Foundling Hospital. His endorsement can be seen as significant since the Foundling Hospital, Gibson died in 1748, and is buried at All Saints Church, London. In 1692 Gibson published an edition of the Saxon Chronicle with a Latin translation and notes and his substantial collection of pamphlets on which his research is based are house at Lambeth Palace Library, as part of the Sion College Collection.
Folio, a compilation of numerous writings of eminent Anglican divines. A second edition of the Codex juris and improved, besides the works already mentioned, Gibson published a number of Sermons, and other works of a religious and devotional kind. The Vita Thomae Bodleii with the Historia Bibliothecae Bodleianae in the Catalogi librorum manuscriptorum and correspondence This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed