1948 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1948 was held on June 7, 1948, to elect the 90 members of the 23rd Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by George Drew, won a third consecutive term in office, winning a solid majority of seats in the legislature—53, down from 66 in the previous election. Despite winning a majority, Drew lost his own seat to temperance crusader Bill Temple. Instead of seeking a seat in a by-election, Drew left provincial politics to run for, win, the leadership of the federal Progressive Conservative Party. Drew was replaced as Ontario PC leader and premier by Thomas Kennedy on an interim basis, by Leslie Frost; the Ontario Liberal Party, led by Farquhar Oliver, increased its caucus from 11 to 14, but lost the role of official opposition. Only one of the three Liberal-Labour MPPs sitting with the Liberal caucus, James Newman, was re-elected; the social democratic Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, led by Ted Jolliffe, formed the official opposition by increasing its caucus from 8 to 21 seats.
Two Toronto seats were won by Labor-Progressive Party MPPs J. B. Salsberg and A. A. MacLeod; the LPP was the official name of the Communist Party of Ontario. The LPP only ran two candidates and MacLeod, in 1948 down from 31 candidates in 1945. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition
Edgar "Eddie" Francis is the former mayor of Windsor, Ontario. He was 29 years old when he was elected mayor in 2003, the youngest mayor in Windsor's history and one of the youngest mayors elected in Canada, he is Windsor's first Lebanese-Canadian mayor. Francis was born in Windsor to Lebanese Maronite Catholic parents who had immigrated to Canada from Lebanon, he speaks Arabic. Francis is an alumnus of Notre Dame Elementary School and Holy Names Catholic High School, both in Windsor. While in high school, Francis was a major contributor to student life while participating in the student council, held the office of student body president, he holds a combined honour's degree in chemistry and biochemistry from the University of Western Ontario. He graduated from the University of Windsor Law School and was called to the Bar in 2002. Prior to entering politics, Francis operated Royal Pita Baking Company with his brothers. Under their stewardship the "mom and pop" operation's distribution expanded to other markets, including London, Toronto and 12 U.
S. states. In 2003, he was awarded the Windsor Chamber of Commerce Business Excellence Award as the Young Entrepreneur of the Year for his work with Royal Pita. Francis was first elected to Windsor City Council in a by-election in June 1999, following the resignation of Rick Limoges, he became the youngest city councillor in Windsor's history, beating a record held by Limoges, when he was chosen to represent Ward 5 at the age of 25. Shortly after being elected to city council, Francis enrolled in the University of Windsor Law School, he graduated in 2002 and articled with the international law firm of Miller Canfield Paddock and Stone. Subsequently, Francis was called to the Bar of the Law Society of Upper Canada. In the November 2000 general election, Francis was re-elected to his Ward 5 seat with the largest majority recorded in a Windsor municipal election; as an active member of city council, Francis was involved in many of the city's major committees and boards. He held the positions of director of Windsor Canada Utilities, member of the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel Commission, chair of the Windsor Licensing Commission and chair of the International Relations Committee.
Francis was first elected mayor in the 2003 municipal election, winning narrowly over fellow councillor Bill Marra. One of his first acts as mayor was to join the planning committee for the 2006 Super Bowl festivities in Detroit, ensuring that Windsor would receive some of the economic benefits of participating in a major tourist event, he was subsequently re-elected in the 2006 election, garnering 77.56 per cent of the votes cast in the mayoral race, for which 38.2 per cent of registered voters cast a ballot. He won again with 56.17 % of the vote. During Francis' mayoralty, Windsor has reduced municipal debt and passed six consecutive budgets with zero tax increases. Francis announced in March 2014 that he will not run for a fourth term as mayor, will instead take a job as executive vice-president of the Windsor Family Credit Union beginning on December 1, 2014. On July 29, 2008, Francis announced one of the most ambitious projects of his mayoral term, a waterfront redevelopment proposal which would transform a struggling section of downtown Windsor into a waterfront park by converting the block bounded by Crawford and University Avenues — an area which consists of parking lots and a disused section of railway track — into an inland marina cut back from the Detroit River, converting either Chatham Street or Pitt Street into a canal and adjoining boardwalk, which would extend easterly for three blocks from the marina to a spot near the Art Gallery of Windsor, from there back to the river at the eastern edge of Dieppe Park.
He appointed Dave Cooke, a former Member of Provincial Parliament, to chair a feasibility study on the proposal. On August 19, councillor Alan Halberstadt criticized Francis for being secretive about the plan, in response Cooke was brought in to speak to city council about the plan on September 2; the project was never commissioned, lacking public funding. On August 7, 2008, Detroit mayor Kwame Kilpatrick in the midst of pending felony charges, was jailed for violating his bail conditions after travelling to Windsor on July 23 for a meeting with Francis regarding a proposed deal pertaining to the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, which would have seen the city of Windsor take over operational control of the tunnel in exchange for a $75 million loan to the cash-strapped city of Detroit. Kilpatrick stated that Francis had requested the meeting on short notice, while Francis and other city bureaucrats indicated that the meeting had in fact been at Kilpatrick's request; the meeting resulted in a 14-month investigation by Windsor's Integrity Commissioner, Earl Basse, who cleared Francis of wrongdoing in his relationship with Kilpatrick.
Francis stated that he was confident that Kilpatrick's resignation on September 4 would not threaten the tunnel deal, indicating that he had a strong working relationship with Kilpatrick's successor, Ken Cockrel. However, Cockrel himself indicated that he would prefer to renegotiate an alternate agreement to maintain joint management of the tunnel between the two cities. Following Detroit's July 2013 bankruptcy filing, Francis said that his city would consider purchasing Detroit's half of the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel if it was offered for sale
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
William "Billy" Riggs is a professor of Management at University of San Francisco and an international expert in the areas of sustainable transportation, digital technology and real estate. He is the author of the book, Disruptive Transport: Driverless Cars, Transport Innovation and the Sustainable City of Tomorrow, he resides in Palo Alto and serves a strategic consultant for various technology firms including OppSites and ReStreet. He has worked as a recording artist and music producer, having worked on award-winning projects with Frances England, Gabriel Riggs and Carlos Villarreal. Riggs was born in the Kentucky metro, he is of German-Jewish descent and his great-great grandfather, a baker from Frankfort, Kentucky fled Germany in the late 1800s to avoid persecution and mandatory military service. He is said to have some Native American heritage in addition to having relatives from Ireland and the former Austro-Hungarian empire, his maternal grandfather was William Gorman managed an oil business for Palm Springs developer, Ray Ryan.
Riggs grew up on a farm outside Louisville where he was exposed to art and education including "his father's eclectic record collection" which included work ranging from Icarus by Paul Winter Consort to The Planets by Gustav Holst. He attended Graceland Christian High School in New Albany and where he excelled academically and athletically, being honored as both Valedictorian and Athlete of the Year in his senior year, he played in two bands during this period, the Hermits, Just Visiting. He attended Ball State University and studied history with a focus on art and architecture while participating in NCAA Division I Cross Country and Track and Field, his senior thesis attempted to understand the social cultural influences of modern religious music. As a student athlete he was selected to represent Ball State the 2000 NCAA national leadership conference. In 2009 he was honored with a Graduate of the Last Decade award. After graduating from Ball State he studied for a Master's of Urban Planning at University of Louisville.
While at Louisville he continued to be involved with athletics but began to hone his design and technology skills. Riggs worked as an intern at the Robert Doughty Consultancy in Lincolnshire, England during this period. After five years of work for the US Coast Guard he attended Berkeley for a PhD in City and Regional Planning, studying under Dr. Robert Cervero, Dr. William Satariano, Dean Sam Davis and Dr. Malo Hutson. While at Berkeley, Riggs focused on work in walkability and housing, featured in the San Francisco Chronicle, the Wall Street Journal, he became influenced by Rich Lyons, Dean of the Haas School of Business, on the topics of leadership, behavioral economics and human capital. He wrote about those in a 2010 article talking about economic development, the information economy and the lack of jobs in his hometown of Louisville, KY. Riggs has worked as an urban designer, environmental land use and transportation planner for the UC Berkeley, the international consulting firm Arup, the US Coast Guard.
While at Berkeley he worked as the Transportation Program manager and was praised for his efforts in promoting bicycle transportation and acquiring a $1.8M grant from the Federal Highway Administration to improve parking and transportation systems in Berkeley. Riggs was a professor of City Planning at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, from 2013-2017, he was awarded campus research grants in 2013 and 2014, was selected as a Service Learning Faculty Fellow in 2014. He served as a Commissioner for the City of San Luis Obispo's Planning Commission. In addition to his role as a professor at University of San Francisco, he consults for Sustinere.co and advises numerous technology companies in the San Francisco Bay Area. He serves on Transportation Research Board's Standing Committee on Transportation Law and Standing Committee on Transportation Economics and on the City of Palo Alto's Planning & Transportation Commission. Riggs is an active researcher, he was awarded the University of San Francisco, Outstanding Research Award in 2018, for "his prodigious stream of work bridging urban planning, public administration and policy analysis toward more livable communities."
His work has been featured in The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Governing Magazine, Courier Journal, The Atlantic, Planetizen.com and many more. He issued an noteworthy report on City Planning Websites that called cities to rethink their web strategies and was an author of the American Planning Association's national policy guidance on autonomous vehicles, Planning for Autonomous Mobility, he is an expert on future cities and self-driving cars and was featured in a 2018 special report in The Economist, talking about the "social equity implications around the fringes of cities." He has written more about autonomy and cities in a Planetizen series called Autonomous Future. Dr. Riggs' ReStreet app was featured by CityLab as a tool to rethink streets for autonomous vehicles, his research on street design is of note and has received nationwide attention in that it called for conversion of multi-lane one-way streets as one part of an economic development strategy but cautioned for a balanced approach to comprehensive economic development.
Riggs has been quoted as wanting to design streets to create, "a more livable environment" and argued that traffic calming can have an "economic development benefit... we can focus on livability and environmental sustainability at the same time as economic vitality." Urban thinker Richard Florida has featured his work on spatial inequity and walkability, stating that it "reminds us tha
1945 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1945 was held on June 4, 1945, to elect the 90 members of the 22nd Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by George Drew, won a second consecutive term in office, winning a solid majority of seats in the legislature—66, up from 38 in the previous election; the Ontario Liberal Party, led by former premier Mitchell Hepburn, was returned to the role of official opposition with 11 seats, plus 3 Liberal-Labour seats that it won, out of 6 contested, in coalition with the Labor-Progressive Party, in an effort to marginalize the CCF. The three new Liberal-Labour MPPs were James Newman of Rainy River, Joseph Meinzinger of Waterloo North and Alexander Parent of Essex North; the social democratic Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, led by Ted Jolliffe, was reduced from 34 seats to only 8. Two seats were won by the Labor-Progressive Party on its own with the re-election of A. A. MacLeod and J. B. Salsberg.
The LPP contested a total of 31 ridings under the leadership of Leslie Morris, defeated in the Toronto riding of Bracondale. As well, the Labor-Progressive Party ran several joint candidates with the Liberals under the Liberal-Labour banner; the Drew government called the election in an attempt to get a majority government. By exploiting increasing Cold War tensions, the PC Party was able to defeat Jolliffe's CCF by stoking fears about communism. Jolliffe replied by giving a radio speech that accused Drew of running a political gestapo in Ontario, alleging that a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police was acting as a political police spying on the opposition and the media; this accusation led to a backlash, loss of support for the CCF, including the loss of Jolliffe's own seat of York South. This helped Drew win his majority, although in the 1970s, archival evidence was discovered proving the charge. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition