Second Bank of the United States
The banks formal name, according to section 9 of its charter as passed by Congress, was The President and Company, of the Bank of the United States. A private corporation with public duties, the bank handled all fiscal transactions for the U. S. Government, and was accountable to Congress, twenty percent of its capital was owned by the federal government, the banks single largest stockholder. Four thousand private investors held 80% of the capital, including one thousand Europeans. The bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans, in its time, the institution was the largest monied corporation in the world. The federal deposits endowed the BUS with its regulatory capacity, failing to secure recharter, the Second Bank of the United States became a private corporation in 1836, and underwent liquidation in 1841. A national alliance arose to legislate a central bank to address these needs, calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky was decisive in the successful chartering effort.
The charter was signed into law by Madison on April 10,1816, opposition to the banks revival emanated from two interests. if Congress could incorporate a bank, it might emancipate a slave. Hostile to the effects of the central bank, private banks—proliferating with or without state charters—had scuttled rechartering of the first BUS in 1811. These interests played significant roles in undermining the institution during the administration of U. S. President Andrew Jackson, Government land sales in the West, fueled by European demand for agricultural products, ensured that a speculative bubble would form. When the U. S. Further, it transpired that branch directors for the Baltimore office had engaged in fraud and larceny. Resigning in January 1819, Jones was replaced by Langdon Cheves who continued the contraction in credit in an effort to stop inflation and stabilize the bank, the central banks reaction to the crisis—a clumsy expansion, a sharp contraction of credit—indicated its weakness, not its strength.
The effects were catastrophic, resulting in a recession with mass unemployment. The financial crisis raised doubts among the American public as to the efficacy of paper money, upon this widespread disaffection the anti-bank Jacksonian Democrats would mobilize opposition to the BUS in the 1830s. The national bank was in disrepute among most Americans when Nicholas Biddle. Under Biddles guidance, the BUS evolved into a banking institution that produced a strong and sound system of national credit. From 1823 to 1833, Biddle expanded credit steadily, but with restraint, albert Gallatin, former Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, wrote in 1831 that the BUS was fulfilling its charter expectations. By the time of Jacksons inauguration in 1829, the bank appeared to be on solid footing. Public perceptions of the bank were generally positive
Original six frigates of the United States Navy
The United States Congress authorized the original six frigates of the United States Navy with the Naval Act of 1794 on March 27,1794, at a total cost of $688,888.82. After the Revolutionary War, a heavily indebted United States disbanded the Continental Navy, and in August 1785, lacking funds for repairs, sold its last remaining warship. But almost simultaneously began in the Mediterranean when Algiers seized two American merchant ships and held their crews for ransom. Shortly afterward, Portugal began blockading Algerian ships from entering the Atlantic Ocean, the American government could do little to resist. The formation of a force had been a topic of debate in the new America for years. Opponents argued that building a navy would only lead to calls for a department. This would further lead to more appropriations of funds, which would eventually spiral out of control and those opposed to a navy felt that payment of tribute to the Barbary States and economic sanctions against Britain were a better alternative.
In 1793 Portugal reached an agreement with Algeria, ending its blockade of the Mediterranean. By late in the year eleven American merchant ships had been captured and this, combined with the actions of Britain, finally led President Washington to request Congress to authorize a navy. On January 2,1794, by a margin of 46–44, the House of Representatives voted to authorize building a navy and formed a committee to determine the size, cost. Secretary of War Henry Knox submitted proposals to the committee outlining the design, the bill was presented to the House on March 10 and passed as the Naval Act of 1794 by a margin of 50–39, and without division in the Senate on the 19th. President Washington signed the Act on March 27 and it provided for acquisition, by purchase or otherwise, of four ships to carry forty-four guns each, and two ships to carry thirty-six guns each. It provided pay and sustenance for naval officers and sailors, the Act appropriated $688,888.82 to finance the work. With the formation of a Department of the Navy still several years away, responsibility for design and construction fell to the Department of War, as early as 1790 Knox had consulted various authorities regarding ship design.
Discussions of the designs were carried out in person at meetings in Philadelphia, Little is known about these discussions due to a lack of written correspondence, making determination of the actual designers involved difficult to assemble. Secretary Knox reached out to ship architects and builders in Philadelphia and this meant that many discussions of ship design took place in Knoxs office, resulting in few if any records of these discussions being available to historians. This gave the hull greater strength than the hulls of other navies frigates, the designers realized that the fledgling United States could not match the European states in the number of ships afloat. Therefore, the new frigates had the ability to overpower other frigates, Knox advised President Washington that the cost of new construction would likely exceed the appropriations of the Naval Act
Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer and fine arts educator. He is widely acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history and he painted several hundred portraits, usually of friends, family members, or prominent people in the arts, sciences and clergy. Taken en masse, the offer an overview of the intellectual life of Philadelphia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, individually. These active outdoor venues allowed him to paint the subject which most inspired him, in the process he could model the forms of the body in full sunlight, and create images of deep space utilizing his studies in perspective. Eakins took a keen interest in the new technologies of motion photography, No less important in Eakins life was his work as a teacher. As an instructor he was an influential presence in American art. Eakins was a figure whose work received little by way of official recognition during his lifetime. Since his death, he has been celebrated by American art historians as the strongest, most profound realist in nineteenth-, Eakins was born and lived most of his life in Philadelphia.
He was the first child of Caroline Cowperthwait Eakins, a woman of English and Dutch descent, and Benjamin Eakins, Benjamin Eakins grew up on a farm in Valley Forge, the son of a weaver. He was successful in his profession, and moved to Philadelphia in the early 1840s to raise his family. Thomas Eakins observed his father at work and by twelve demonstrated skill in precise line drawing, and he was an athletic child who enjoyed rowing, ice skating, wrestling and gymnastics—activities he painted and encouraged in his students. Eakins attended Central High School, the public school for applied science and arts in the city. He studied drawing and anatomy at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts beginning in 1861, for a while, he followed his fathers profession and was listed in city directories as a writing teacher. His scientific interest in the body led him to consider becoming a surgeon. Eakins studied art in Europe from 1866 to 1870, notably in Paris with Jean-Léon Gérôme, being only the second American pupil of the French realist painter, famous as a master of Orientalism.
He attended the atelier of Léon Bonnat, a realist painter who emphasized anatomical preciseness, a method adapted by Eakins. A letter home to his father in 1868 made his aesthetic clear, She is the most beautiful thing there is in the world except a naked man, already at age 24, nudity and verity were linked with an unusual closeness in his mind. Yet his desire for truthfulness was more expansive, and the home to Philadelphia reveal a passion for realism that included, but was not limited to
USS United States (1797)
USS United States was a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy and the first of the six original frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794. Joshua Humphreys designed the frigates to be the young Navys capital ships, Union forces raised the scuttled ship, and retained control of the ship until she was broken up in 1865. During the 1790s American merchant vessels began to fall prey to Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean, congresss response was the Naval Act of 1794. The Act provided funds for the construction of six frigates, joshua Humphreys design was long on keel and narrow of beam for mounting very heavy guns. The design incorporated a diagonal scantling scheme to limit hogging while giving the ships extremely heavy planking and this gave the hull greater strength than those of more lightly built frigates. Humphreys developed his design after realizing that the fledgling United States could not match the sizes of the European states. He therefore designed his frigates to be able to overpower other frigates, originally designated as Frigate A and subsequently named United States by President George Washington, her keel was laid down in 1795 at Humphreys shipyard in Philadelphia Pennsylvania.
Humphreys was assigned as her constructor and US Navy Captain John Barry as superintendent, as Philadelphia was at the time Americas capital, many visitors walked through observing her construction as it progressed. Humphreys personally led President Washington and First Lady Martha on a tour, the President expressed his admiration of the great size of the ship. Fearing sabotage, Humphreys was concerned about the nature of his ship yard which allowed anyone to wander in. He requested from the War Department a number of guards which were posted to keep out visitors, Construction slowly continued until a peace treaty was announced between the United States and Algiers in March 1796. In accordance with the clause in the Naval Act, construction of United States was discontinued, President Washington requested instructions from Congress on how to proceed. Several proposals circulated before a decision was reached allowing Washington to complete the three frigates nearest to completion, United States and Constitution were chosen.
On 10 May 1797 she was the first American warship to be launched under the Naval Act of 1794, and she was fitted out at Philadelphia during the spring of 1798 and, on 3 July ordered to proceed to sea. Relations with the French government had deteriorated, starting the Quasi-War, United Statess nominal rating was that of a 44-gun ship. However, she carried over 50 guns. United States was originally armed with a battery of 55 guns, thirty-two 24-pounder cannon, twenty-two 42-pounder carronades, unlike modern naval vessels, ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns. Guns were portable and often exchanged between ships as situations warranted, consequently, a vessels armament would change often during its career, records of the changes were not generally kept
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1805 and is the first and oldest art museum, the academys museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, and other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow and it opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were on display. The first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810, in 1876, former Academy student Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to what it remains today.
From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions from which significant acquisitions were made, harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution. Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, and Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is represented in the collection. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academys gold medal, rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, and some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuarts work acquired. The annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown, mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building almost unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns.
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and his unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, and his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour, during World War I, Academy students were actively involved in war work. About sixty percent of the men enlisted or entered Government service. A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned Captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive training in the United States. Realizing the rise in interest of women, this period between the mid-19th and early 20th century shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum originally chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval. The museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin, the various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts. The attendance figure for the museum was 751,797 in 2015, the museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. The museum administers the historic houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove. The museum and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia, as of 2017, the standard adult admission price is $20 which allows entrance to the main building and all annexes for two consecutive days. The museum is closed on Mondays except on some holidays, several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad.
Special exhibitions may have a charge for entrance. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the 1876 Centennial Exposition and its art building, Memorial Hall, was intended to outlast the Exhibition and house a permanent museum. The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10,1877 and its permanent collection began with objects from the Exhibition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exhibitions ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the Museums library were among the first donations, the location outside of Center City, was fairly distant from many of the citys inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881, was dropped until 1962, starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings. The Countess de Brazzas lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection, in 1893 Anna H.
Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, and an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years, in the early 1900s, the Museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program. Fiske Kimball was the director during the rapid growth of the 1920s. After World War II the collections grew with gifts, such as the John D. McIlhenny, early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections. The gift of Philadelphian Grace Kellys wedding dress is perhaps the best known gift of the 1950s, extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections,71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, in 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the Museum and the bicentennial of the nation
National Portrait Gallery (United States)
The National Portrait Gallery is a historic art museum located between 7th, 9th, F, and G Streets NW in Washington, D. C. in the United States. Founded in 1962 and opened to the public in 1968, it is part of the Smithsonian Institution and its collections focus on images of famous Americans. The museum is housed in the historic Old Patent Office Building, the two museums are the eponym for the Gallery Place Washington Metro station, located at the corner of F and 7th Streets NW. The first portrait gallery in the United States was Charles Willson Peales American Pantheon, in 1859, the National Portrait Gallery in London opened, but few Americans took notice. The idea of a federally owned national portrait gallery can be traced back to 1886, president of the Massachusetts Historical Society, visited the National Portrait Gallery in London. Upon his return to the United States, Winthrope began pressing for the establishment of a museum in America. In January 1919, the Smithsonian Institution entered into a cooperative endeavor with the American Federation of Arts, the committees goal was to commission portraits of famous leaders from the various nations involved in World War I.
The portraits commissioned went on display in the National Museum of Natural History in May 1921 and this formed the nucleus of what would become the National Portrait Gallery Collection. In 1937, Andrew W. Mellon donated his collection of classic and modernist art to the United States. The collection included a number of portraits. Mellon asked that, should a portrait gallery be created, the portraits be transferred to it, in 1957, a proposal was made by the federal government to demolish the Old Patent Office Building. After a public outcry and an agreement to save the historic structure and this committee was created in 1960. The National Portrait Gallery was authorized and founded by Congress in 1962, the legislation specified, that the museums collection be limited to painting, prints and engravings. Despite the Smithsonians own extensive collection of art and Mellons collection, to found a portrait gallery in the 1960s, Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley said, was difficult because American portraiture has already reached the zenith in price and the nadir in supply.
Ripley, whose leadership of the Smithsonian began in 1964, was a supporter of the new museum. He encouraged the museums curators to build a collection from scratch based on individual pieces chosen through high-quality scholarship rather than buying complete collections from others, the NPGs collection was slowly built over the next five years through donations and purchases. The museum had little money at this time, often, it located items it wanted and asked the owner to simply donate it. The first NPG exhibit, Nucleus for a National Collection, went on display in the Arts, the following year, the NPG completed the Catalog of American Portraits, the first inventory of portraiture held by the Smithsonian
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Museum of the American Revolution
The Museum of the American Revolution is a non-partisan, non-profit 501 organization that is building a museum to tell the complete story of the American Revolution. The museum will open to the public on April 19,2017, the museum owns a distinguished collection of several thousand objects including artwork and sculpture and weapons, manuscripts and rare books. The museum expects to serve 500,000 tourists, regional visitors, the President and CEO is Michael C. Quinn and Philadelphia area media entrepreneur and philanthropist H. F. “Gerry” Lenfest serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors, the museum will be located in the historic heart of Philadelphia, the city that served as the headquarters of Americas founding. On June 12,2012, architect Robert A. M. Stern unveiled designs for the permanent location, groundbreaking for the museum occurred in fall 2014 and construction is underway. The museum will rise three stories above the street and, with a basement, will encompass 118,000 total square feet.
The design plans for the building include a shop and café which opens to the sidewalk. The first floor interior is organized around a central interior court and features a cross-vaulted ticketing lobby, a multi-use theater. The second floor features 18,000 square feet of galleries, the museum intends to seek Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver certification. The museum plans to open in 2017, the Museums outdoor plaza will open on 25 September 2016. Visitors follow a chronological journey from the roots of conflict in the 1760s to the rise of armed resistance and he holds an M. A. and Ph. D. in American History from the University of Virginia. Dr. Stephenson is a specialist in colonial and revolutionary American history, supporting the exhibition process is Dr. Philip C. He holds an M. A. and Ph. D. in American History from Harvard University, the Museum of the American Revolution has a rich collection of several thousand objects. Much of the collection is in storage awaiting display in the Museum of the American Revolution.
A Dreadful Scene of Havock, Xavier della Gatta’s painting of the Battle of Paoli The Battle of Germantown, Museum of the American Revolution Official site
Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a polymath and a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, civic activist, statesman. As a scientist, he was a figure in the American Enlightenment. As an inventor, he is known for the rod, bifocals. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphias fire department and the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin earned the title of The First American for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation, in the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat. To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin the most accomplished American of his age, Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23.
He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richards Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, after 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British policies. He pioneered and was first president of The Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and he organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. Franklin became a hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France, during the Revolution, he became the first US Postmaster General.
He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, from 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective, Franklins father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a soap-maker and a candle-maker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23,1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith-farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15,1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, Mary Morrill, Josiah Franklin had seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683, after her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9,1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their child, was Josiah Franklins fifteenth child and tenth
Yale University Art Gallery
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Although it embraces all cultures and periods, the gallery emphasizes early Italian painting, African sculpture, the Yale University Art Gallery is the oldest university art museum in the western hemisphere. The gallery was founded in 1832, when patriot-artist, John Trumbull, donated more than 100 paintings of the American Revolution to Yale College and this building, on the universitys Old Campus, was razed in 1901. The gallerys main building was built in 1953, and was among the first designed by Louis Kahn, a complete renovation, which returned many spaces to Kahns original vision, was completed in December 2006, by Polshek Partnership Architects. The older Tuscan romanesque portion was built in 1928, and was designed by Egerton Swartwout, the Gallery reopened on December 12,2012, after a 14-year renovation and expansion project at a cost of $135 million.
The expanded space totals 69,975 sq ft, the museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. On the second floor was a valuable collection of paintings by John Trumbull. Among them were his paintings of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery before Quebec, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, Declaration of Independence. Trumbull gave the paintings to Yale in consideration of an annuity of $1,000 and subject to the condition that he, the Gallery’s encyclopedic collections number more than 185,000 objects ranging in date from ancient times to the present day. The permanent collection includes, African Art, over 1000 objects in wood, ivory, American Decorative Arts, about 18,000 objects in silver, wood and textile with an emphasis on the colonial and early federal periods. Ancient Art, over 13,000 objects from the Near East, Greece, Art of the Ancient Americas and Olmec figurines and sculptures. Prints and Photographs In 2005, the announced that it had acquired 1,465 gelatin silver prints by the influential American landscape photographer.
In 2009, the museum mounted an exhibition of its collection of Picasso paintings and drawings. For the first time, portions of the Yale University Librarys, as an affiliate of Yale University, the gallery maintains a robust roster of education programs for university students, New Haven schools, and the general public. One such program is the Gallery Guide program, founded in 1998, the Yale Art Gallery charges no admission