Stade Montois is a French rugby union team, playing in Pro D2, the second level of the country's professional league system. They play in yellow and black, they are based in Mont-de-Marsan, the capital of the Landes département, in New Aquitaine, play at the Stade Guy Boniface. Stade Montois is a multi-sports club but its rugby team has always been its flagship. After winning a few regional titles between the two world wars, it reached the top of French club rugby four times in 15 years, it lost its first three French championship finals to Castres Olympique in 1949, to FC Lourdes in 1953, to Racing Club de France in 1959. Their finest hour came in 1963 in an all Landes-final against US Dax, won by the Yellow and Black 9-6, they had won one, whereas their Dax neighbours would lose all five finals they would play in. It finished in the bottom table in the first-tier Top 14 in the 2008–09 season, they had just been promoted to the Top 14 after winning the Pro D2 promotion playoffs. They remained in Pro D2 for three seasons before navigating the 2012 promotion playoffs.
Stade Montois' players include the Boniface brothers, Thomas Castaignède, Christian Darrouy, Benoît Dauga, Laurent Rodriguez. Former Leicester Tigers and Fiji scrum-half wizard Waisale Serevi played for them as well as other notable Fijians such as Viliame Satala and Vilimoni Delasau. French championship:: Champions: 1963 Runners-up: 1949, 1953, 1959 Challenge Yves du Manoir/Coupe de France: Champions: 1960, 1961, 1962 Runners-up: 1958, 1966 Rugby Pro D2: Champions: 2002 Promotion playoff winners: 2008, 2012 Second Division: Champions: 1998 The current table for the 2018–19 Rugby Pro D2 is: The squad for the 2017–18 season:Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. André Boniface Guy Boniface Thomas Castaignède Fernand Cazenave Christian Darrouy Benoît Dauga Beka Gorgadze Tamaz Mchedlidze Irakli Machkhaneli Trevor Leota List of rugby union clubs in France Rugby union in France Stade Montois Official website Blog "Marine et Jaune"
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
Rugby sevens, known as seven-a-side rugby, is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves. Rugby sevens is administered by the body responsible for rugby union worldwide; the game is popular at all levels, with amateur and club tournaments held in the summer months. Sevens is one of the most well distributed forms of rugby, is popular in parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas, in the South Pacific. Rugby sevens originated in Scotland in the 1880s; the popularity of rugby sevens increased further with the development of the Hong Kong Sevens in the 1970s and was followed by the inclusion of the sport into the Commonwealth Games for the first time in 1998 and the establishment of the annual World Rugby Sevens Series in 1999 and the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series in 2012. In 2016, rugby sevens was contested in the Summer Olympics for the first time, it has been played in regional events such as the Pan American Games and the Asian Games, in 2018 a women's tournament was played for the first time at the Commonwealth Games.
Rugby sevens is sanctioned by World Rugby, is played under similar laws and on a field of the same dimensions as the 15 player game. While a regular rugby union match lasts at least 80 minutes, a normal sevens match consists of two halves of seven minutes with a two-minute half-time break; the final of a competition can be played over two halves of ten minutes each. Sevens scores are comparable to regular rugby scores, but scoring occurs much more in sevens, since the defenders are more spaced out; the scoring system is the same as regular rugby union, namely five points for a try, three points for a drop goal and two points for a post-try conversion. The shorter match length allows rugby sevens tournaments to be completed in a weekend. Many sevens tournaments have a competition for a cup, a plate, a bowl, a shield, allowing many teams of different standards to avoid leaving empty-handed. Sevens tournaments are traditionally known for having more of a relaxed atmosphere than fifteen-a-side games, are known as "festivals".
Sevens tournaments gained their "popularity as an end of season diversion from the dourer and sterner stuff that provides the bulk of a normal season's watching." Fans attend in fancy dress, entertainment is put on for them. The Hong Kong Sevens tournament has been important in popularising the game in Asia, rugby sevens has been important as a form of international rugby "evangelism", hence is the most played form of the game, with tournaments in places as far apart as Bogota and Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Kenya and Scandinavia, as well as the countries in which rugby union is well known. Sevens is played on a standard rugby union playing field; the field measures up to 100 metres long and 70 metres wide. On each goal line are H-shaped goal posts; the goal posts are on the goal line. This is unlike American football. Teams are composed of seven players -- four backs. Scrums are made up of three players from each team; because of the faster nature of the game, sevens players are backs or loose forwards in fifteens rugby.
Substitutes are with only five substitutes on the bench. A typical defensive formation in open play involves a line of six defenders, with one sweeper behind the line. Rugby sevens tends to be played at a faster pace than rugby fifteens; the differences are most notable on game restarts. Because scrums in sevens involve three players forming one row instead of eight players forming three rows, scrums tend to assemble more require fewer restarts, the ball exits the scrum more quickly. Penalties in sevens are taken with a quick tap, instead of a kick for touch and a line out, resulting in the ball being put back in play more quickly. There are several variations in laws which apply to rugby sevens to speed up the game and to account for the reduced number of players; the main changes can be summarised. Five substitutes, with five interchanges. Seven minute halves. Maximum of two minutes half-time. Matches drawn after regulation are continued into sudden-death extra time, in multiple 5-minute periods.
All conversion attempts must be drop-kicked. Conversions must be taken within 30 seconds of scoring a try. Prior to 2016, the limit had been 40 seconds. Three player scrums. Kick-offs: in sevens, the team which has just scored kicks off, rather than the conceding team, as in fifteen-a-side. Yellow cards net a 2-minute suspension to the offender. Referees decide on advantage quickly. In major competitions, there are additional officials present to judge success of kicks at goals, which means the game is not delayed waiting for touch judges to move into position to judge conversion attempts. Rugby sevens was conceived in 1883 by Ned Haig and David Sanderson, who were butch
Fiji national rugby sevens team
The Fiji national rugby sevens team is one of the most successful rugby sevens teams in the world. Fiji has won the Hong Kong Sevens a record eighteen times since the tournament's inception in 1976. Fiji has won the Rugby World Cup Sevens twice — in 1997 and 2005. Fiji won the gold medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil, the country's first Olympic medal in any event. Fiji is known for its style of play — the "Flying Fijians" play with Fijian flair, their passing and offloads can be unorthodox for traditional rugby coaching, more similar to basketball style. The International Rugby Board expanded the sevens rugby competition to become a series of 11 tournaments around the world; the debt the FRU incurred from the 2000 sevens series were significant. At the end of December 2000, the FRU was burdened with accumulated losses of F$933,306. Fiji appealed to the IRB for funding arguing that the sevens tournament was built around Fiji and they would not be able to participate without such funding.
From that appeal flowed participation funds that enabled the islands teams to play in the World Sevens Series funded. By the end of November 2001, the FRU was sitting on a surplus of F$560,311 compared with the previous year's net loss of F$675,609; the FRU again ran out of money in 2013 to support the national sevens team. The IRB had temporarily suspended funding due to concerns with FRU financial management and governance; the head coach went unpaid for months, other staff were terminated, the team lacked funds for basic supplies such as rugby balls and bottled water. Waisale Serevi is regarded as the best player in sevens rugby. Nicknamed the "maestro", played in this side from 1989 to 2006 leading them to countless tournament victories, two Sevens World Cups in 1997 and 2005. Fiji has won the World Rugby Sevens Series three times — first in 2005-06, most in 2015-16. Fiji are one of only two teams — along with New Zealand — to finish in the top four of the World Series every season since its inception.
Fiji secured their first Olympic medal with a 43–7 win over Great Britain at the Deodoro Stadium in Rio, Brazil. The opening minute saw Osea Kolinisau left one and one with Tom Mitchell and although his fellow captain halted his progress, Kolinisau was still able to stretch and touch the ball down behind his head. Straight away, Fiji had a second try when Samisoni Viriviri muscled his way past two players before offloading to Jerry Tuwai to score under the posts. After that Britain were shell Fiji racked up a further five tries. Fiji has twice won the Rugby World Cup Sevens — first in 1997, again in 2005. Both times, Waisale Serevi was chosen as player of the tournament. World Sevens Series Winners Summer Olympics Gold Rugby World Cup Sevens Champions Commonwealth Games: Silver. In addition to the players listed above, other notable players include: Gareth Baber Ben Ryan Waisale Serevi — Serevi coached/played in the side from 2005-2007 guiding Fiji to their first World Sevens Series title in the 2005/2006 season.
Etuwate Waqa Ratu Kitione Vesikula Alifereti Dere Pauliasi Tabulutu Rupeni Ravonu Peni Veidreyaki Alifereti Cawanibuka Josateki Sovau Tomasi Cama Sanivalati Laulau Tevita Wainiqolo Fiji Rugby Union Fiji national rugby union team McLaren, Bill A Visit to Hong Kong in Starmer-Smith, Nigel & Robertson, Ian The Whitbread Rugby World'90 Official website WorldRugby profile
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Rugby sevens at the 2006 Commonwealth Games
The rugby sevens at the 2006 Commonwealth Games was the third Commonwealth Games at which rugby sevens was played. It is one of the male-only sports at the other being boxing; the venue for the rugby competition was the Telstra Dome, on the western edge of Melbourne's Central Business District. Preliminary matches were held on 16 March, with the finals the following day; the gold medal was won by New Zealand who defeated England 29–21 in the final on 17 March 2006. Fiji won the bronze medal; the game was overshadowed by a fit suffered by Australian Scott Fava after a legitimate tackle. Fava recovered and was released from hospital the following day. New Zealand continued its undefeated streak at the Commonwealth Games in 2006. Kenya 21–5 Niue Island Uganda 24–12 Sri Lanka Tonga 31–12 Cook Islands Scotland 26–12 Namibia Kenya 29–0 Uganda Tonga 12–5 Scotland South Africa 17–14 Canada Wales 26–17 Samoa Kenya 26–12 Tonga Wales 29–28 South Africa Commonwealth Rugby Sevens Championships Rugby sevens
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s