La Martiniere Calcutta
La Martinière Calcutta is an independent private day school located in Kolkata, West Bengal. It comprises two single-gender girls schools, it was established in 1836 in accordance with the will of the French soldier of fortune and philanthropist, Major General Claude Martin. They are Christian schools, controlled by the Protestant Church of North India and independent from the Government, with English as the primary language of instruction. La Martiniere Calcutta is ranked among the best day schools in the country, has produced a distinguished list of alumni in all walks of Indian and British society, it has an annual meet with La Martiniere Lucknow hosted in September, as well as occasional meets with its sister school La Martiniere Lyon in France. Jaidip Mukerjea, tennis Chhanda Gain, first Bengali woman to climb Mount Everest Leander Paes, tennis: till Class VII only. Iconic'voice' and television anchor. Managing Trustee, Public Service Broadcasting Trust. Jug Suraiya and journalist Pritish Nandy, poet and film producer.
Swapan Dasgupta, political commentator and Member of Parliament. Chandan Mitra, Ex-Member of Parliament, owner of The Pioneer newspaper. Paranjoy Guha Thakurta, Editor of EPW. Prannoy Roy, television broadcaster. Suhel Seth, advertising professional and TV personality. Catchick Paul Chater, Father of modern Hong Kong, benefactor to the College. Chater was a Foundation Scholar. Vijay Mallya, Chairman of the United Breweries Group and ex Rajya Sabha member Harshavardhan Neotia, Chairman and CEO, Bengal Ambuja Group Pramod Bhasin and first CEO of Genpact. Hemant Kanoria and Chairman of SREI Infrastructure Finance John Mason, educationist. Mason was a Foundation Scholar and teacher. Nirmalya Kumar, business writer and Director for Aditya V. Birla India Centre at London Business School. Rahul Banerjee, activist Ashok Malik, official press spokesman for the President of India Rajit Gadh, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles Nafisa Ali, actress/ model, Miss India in 1975 a National Swimming champion Bickram Ghosh, tabla pandit Merle Oberon, Hollywood actress Kiran Rao, film producer Kumar Mukherjee, Hindustani Classical singer") Kamakhya Prasad Singh Deo, Union Cabinet minister in the 1980s Anuvab Pal, comedian and scriptwriter Ramit Tandon, Asian Games'18 squash bronze medalist Official website
Wrangler (University of Cambridge)
At the University of Cambridge in England, a "Wrangler" is a student who gains first-class honours in the third year of the University's undergraduate degree in mathematics. The highest-scoring student is the Senior Wrangler, the second highest is the Second Wrangler, so on. At the other end of the scale, the person who achieves the lowest exam marks while still earning a third-class honours degree is known as the wooden spoon; until 1909, the University made the rankings public. Since 1910 it has publicly revealed only the class of degree gained by each student. An examiner reveals the identity of the Senior Wrangler "unofficially" by tipping his hat when reading out the person's name, but other rankings are communicated to each student privately. Therefore, the names of only some 20th-century Senior Wranglers have become publicly known. Another notable was Philippa Fawcett, she was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge, co-founded by her mother. In 1890, Fawcett became the first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams.
Her score was 13 per cent higher than the second highest score. When the women's list was announced, Fawcett was described as "above the senior wrangler", but she did not receive the title of senior wrangler, as at that time only men could receive degrees and therefore only men were eligible for the Senior Wrangler title; the results were always publicised, with the top scorers receiving great acclaim. Women had been allowed to take the Tripos since 1881, after Charlotte Angas Scott was unofficially ranked as eighth wrangler; the strain of preparing for Tripos could lead to mental breakdown. Students found it necessary to build up their physical endurance, it was noted that "virtually every high wrangler participated in some form of regular physical exercise to preserve his strength and stamina."Obtaining the position of a ranked Wrangler created many opportunities for the individual's subsequent profession. They would become Fellows before moving on to other professions, such as law, the Church, or medicine.
Throughout the United Kingdom and the British Empire, university mathematics professors were among the top three Wranglers. The order of Wranglers was publicised and shaped the public perception of mathematics as being the most intellectually challenging of all subjects. According to Andrew Warwick, author of Masters of Theory, the term'Senior Wrangler' became "synonymous with academic supremacy". Top marks in the Cambridge mathematics exam did not always guarantee the Senior Wrangler success in life. Bragg was third, Hardy was fourth, Sedgwick fifth, Malthus was ninth, Bertrand Russell was seventh, Keynes was 12th, some fared worse: Klaus Roth was not a wrangler. Joan Clarke, who helped to break the Nazi Enigma code at Bletchley Park, was a wrangler at Cambridge and earned a double first in mathematics, although she was prevented from receiving a full degree based on the university's policy of awarding degrees only to men; that policy was only abandoned in 1948. The present Astronomer Royal, Martin Rees, a wrangler, would go on to become one of the world's leading scientists, while holding the posts of Master of Trinity College and President of the Royal Society.
Students who achieve second-class and third-class mathematics degrees are known as Senior Optimes and Junior Optimes. Cambridge did not divide its examination classification in mathematics into 2:1s and 2:2s until 1995 but now there are Senior Optimes Division 1 and Senior Optimes Division 2. "The Senior Wrangler" is a member of the faculty of Unseen University in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of novels. Roger Hamley, a character in Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, achieved the rank of Senior Wrangler at Cambridge. Vivie Warren, the headstrong heroine of George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession and daughter of the play's infamous madam, tied with the Third Wrangler, settling for that place because she recognized that "it was not worth while to face the grind" because she did not intend an academic career for herself. "Wrangler" is a jargon term applied to codebreakers in some of John Le Carré's spy novels, such as Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy. Thomas Jericho, the main character of Robert Harris's book Enigma, was Senior Wrangler in 1938.
In Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End, reference is made to the fact that Christopher Tietjens came out of Cambridge as "a mere Second Wrangler". In Rumer Godden's In This House of Brede, Dame Agnes is noted to have been Eighth Wrangler before entering the abbey. In C S Forester's book, The General, a member of the main characters staff, the deputy assistant quartermaster-general, Spiller, is described as a Second Wrangler. Galton, Francis. "Classification of Men According to their Natural Gifts". Pp. 14–36. D. O. Forfar What became of the senior wranglers?, Mathematical spectrum 29, 1-4. A survey of the subsequent careers of senior wranglers during the 157 years in which the results of Cambridge’s mathematical tripos were published in order of merit. Peter Groenewegen. A Soaring Eagle: Alfred Marshall 1842-1924. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85898-151-4. Gives the story about Rayleigh. C. M. Neale The Senior Wranglers of the University of Cambridge. Available online Andrew Warwick (2
Frederic Moore FZS was a British entomologist. He was an illustrator and produced six volumes of Lepidoptera Indica and a catalogue of the birds in the collection of the East India Company, it has been said that Moore was born at 33 Bruton Street but may be incorrect given that this was the address of the menagerie and office of the Zoological Society of London from 1826 to 1836. Moore was appointed an assistant in the East India Company Museum London from 31 May 1848 on a "disestablished basis" and became a Temporary Writer and an Assistant Curator at the East India Museum with a pension of £330 per annum from 31 December 1879, he had a daughter Rosa Martha Moore. He began compiling Lepidoptera indica, a major work on the butterflies of the South Asia in 10 volumes, completed after his death by Charles Swinhoe. Many of the plates were produced by his son while some others were produced by E C Knight and John Nugent Fitch. Many species of butterfly were described by him in this work. "Moore entered the doors of entomology by way of his artistic abilities.
Dr. T. Horsfield, long associated with the East India Museum, required someone capable of doing natural history drawings and, through an introduction, Frederic Moore obtained the post, thus began a lifetime association with Indian Lepidoptera"Moore's son F. C. Moore was an artist and prepared many of the plates in Lepidoptera Indica. Moore's brother T. J. Moore was a curator at the Liverpool Museum for forty years and his son Thomas Francis Moore was an osteologist at the National Museum at Melbourne. Moore was an associate of the Linnean Society of London, a member of the Entomological Society of London, a corresponding member of the Entomological Society of Stettin and of the Entomological Society of the Netherlands, his other works included A catalogue of the birds in the museum of the East-India Company and The Lepidoptera of Ceylon. Works by or about Frederic Moore at Internet Archive Thomas Horsfield. A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company. Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand Expedition Lepidoptera Indica.
Scanned volumes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Works by Frederic Moore online at Biodiversity Heritage Library
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden
The Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden known as Indian Botanic Garden is situated in Shibpur, Howrah near Kolkata. They are known as the Calcutta Botanical Garden, as the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta; the gardens exhibit a wide variety of rare plants and a total collection of over 12,000 specimens spread over 109 hectares. It is under Botanical Survey of India of Forests, Government of India; the gardens were founded in 1786 by Colonel Robert Kyd, an army officer of the British East India Company for the purpose of identifying new plants of commercial value, such as teak, growing spices for trade. Joseph Dalton Hooker says of this Botanical Garden that "Amongst its greatest triumphs may be considered the introduction of the tea-plant from China... the establishment of the tea-trade in the Himalaya and Assam is entirely the work of the superintendents of the gardens of Calcutta and Seharunpore."A major change in policy, was introduced by the botanist William Roxburgh after he became superintendent of the garden in 1793.
Roxburgh developed an extensive herbarium. This collection of dried plant specimens became the Central National Herbarium of the Botanical Survey of India, which comprises 2,500,000 items. During the early years of the garden Joseph Dalton Hooker writes:... contributed more useful and ornamental tropical plants to the public and private gardens of the world than any other establishment before or since.... I here allude to the great Indian herbarium, chiefly formed by the staff of the Botanic Gardens under the direction of Dr. Wallich, distributed in 1829 to the principal museums of Europe. Over the years attractive display gardens for the public have been developed and many kinds of plants have been cultivated for scientific observation. During the 1970s the garden initiated a program to introduce improved food plants and other varieties of economic benefit to the people of India; the Garden was designated the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden on June 25, 2009 in honor of Jagadish Chandra Bose, the Bengali polymath, natural scientist.
This garden is a No Plastic Zone. The best-known landmark of the garden is The Great Banyan, an enormous banyan tree, reckoned to be the largest tree in the world, at more than 330 metres in circumference, it inspired the novel Hothouse by Brian Aldiss. The gardens are famous for their enormous collections of orchids, bamboos and plants of the screw pine genus. Animals seen inside the Botanic Garden include Indian mongoose and the Indian Fox. A large numbers of varieties snakes are found in the garden. 225 years of Botanic History by Shakunt Pandey Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta Index, ca. 1830 Botanical Survey of India ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity
Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders Tibet in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is located close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park. The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century, it was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. It became a princely state of British India in 1890. After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Republic of India, it enjoyed per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyal's palace. In 1975, the monarchy was deposed by the people.
A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state. Modern Sikkim is a multilingual Indian state. Sikkim has 11 official languages: Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu, Rai, Magar and English. English is used in government documents; the predominant religions are Vajrayana Buddhism. Sikkim's economy is dependent on agriculture and tourism, as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, although it is among the fastest-growing. Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, is the world's second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to organic over the interval 2003 to 2016, the first state in India to achieve this distinction, it is among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles and styrofoam products. The origin theory of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two Limbu words: su, which means "new", khyim, which means "palace" or "house".
The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong, which means "valley of rice", while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means'"the hidden valley of rice". According to the folklore, after establishing Rabdentse as his new capital Bhutia king Tensung Namgyal built a palace and asked his Limbu Queen to name it; the Lepcha people, the original inhabitants of Sikkim, called it Nye-mae-el, meaning "paradise". In historical Indian literature, Sikkim is known as the garden of the war god Indra; the Lepchas are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. However the Limbus and the Magars lived in the inaccessible parts of West and South districts as early as the Lepchas lived in the East and North districts; the Buddhist saint Padmasambhava known as Guru Rinpoche, is said to have passed through the land in the 8th century. The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism, foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later. According to legend, Khye Bumsa, a 14th-century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet, received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes.
A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, became the founder of Sikkim's monarchy in 1642, when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal, or priest-king, of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse. In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, denied the throne; the Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans, who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. Between 1717 and 1733, the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east, culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese. In 1791, China sent troops to defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. Following the subsequent defeat of Gorkha, the Chinese Qing dynasty established control over Sikkim. Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal.
The Nepalese attacked Sikkim. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817. However, ties between Sikkim and the British weakened when the latter began taxation of the Morang region. In 1849, two British physicians, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Archibald Campbell, the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkimese governments, ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised; the doctors were detained by the Sikkimese government, leading to a punitive British expedition against the kingdom, after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to British India in 1853. The invasion led to the Chogyal of Sikkim becoming a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor. Sikkim became a British protectorate in the decades of the 19th century, formalised by a convention signed with China in 1890.
Sikkim was granted more sovereignty over the next three decades, became a member of the Chamber of Princes, the assembly representing the rulers of the Indian princely states, in 1922. Prior to the Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, as the Vice President of the Executive Council, pushed through a resolu
Arthur Grote was an English colonial administrator. He was born on 29 November 1814 at Beckenham in England, he was the son of George Grote, a London banker, Selina Peckwell, the daughter of the Rev. Dr Henry Peckwell and Bella Blosset of Co. Meath, from a well-connected Huguenot family, his elder brother George Grote became a distinguished historian of Greece. He was educated at Haileybury College, entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1834, where as a civil servant he was employed in Bengal from 1834 to 1868 and was commissioner and member of the Board of Revenue, Calcutta, 1861–8, he was served as President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1859–62 and 1865 and President of the Royal Agricultural Society of India. On his return to England in 1868, he became a prominent member of the Linnean Society of London and Royal Asiatic Society, wrote many papers on Natural History subjects. Grote was elected a member of the Society of Arts in 1886, he died on 4 December 1886 at his house in London. One of his portraits, painted by Knight, is in the collection of the Asiatic Kolkata.
Www.darwinproject.ac.uk janus.lib.cam.ac.uk George Grote janus.lib.cam.ac.uk George Grote "Grote, Arthur". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Obituary, Society of Arts, Journal, 35 p. 86