Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates near the Acropolis of Athens was erected by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theater of Dionysus, to commemorate the award of first prize in 335/334 BCE to one of the performances he had sponsored. The choregos was the sponsor who supervised the training of the dramatic dance-chorus; the monument is known as the first use of the Corinthian order on the exterior of a building. It has been reproduced in modern monuments and building elements; the circular structure, raised on a high squared podium, is the first Greek monument built in the Corinthian order on its exterior. It was crowned with an elaborate floral support for the bronze tripod, the prize Lysicrates' chorus won, its frieze sculptures depict episodes from the myth of Dionysus, the god whose rites developed into Greek theatre. It stands now in its little garden on the Tripodon Street, which follows the line of the ancient street of the name, which led to the Theater of Dionysus and was once lined with choragic monuments, of which foundations were discovered in excavations during the 1980s.
In 1658, a French Capuchin monastery was founded by the site. It was called "Lantern of Diogenes". A reading of its inscription by Jacob Spon established its original purpose; the young British architects James "Athenian" Stuart and Nicholas Revett published the first measured drawings of the monument in their Antiquities of Athens, London 1762. The monument became famous in France and England through engravings of it, "improved" versions became eye-catching features in several English landscape gardens. Lord Byron stayed at the monastery during his second visit to Greece. In 1818, friar Francis planted in its gardens the first tomato plants in Greece. In 1821 the convent, which had enclosed the monument, used as a storage for books, was burned by the Ottomans during the Greek War of Independence, subsequently demolished, the monument was inadvertently exposed to the weather. In 1829, the monks offered the structure to an Englishman on tour, but it proved to be too cumbersome to disassemble and ship.
Lord Elgin negotiated unsuccessfully for the monument, by an icon in the Greek Revival. French archaeologists cleared the rubble from the half-buried monument and searched the area for missing architectural parts. In 1876–1887, the architects François Boulanger and E. Loviot supervised a restoration under the auspices of the French government. In June 2016, anarchists vandalised the monument with spray paint, writing: "Your Greek monuments are concentration camps for immigrants". Famous British versions of the Choragic Monument include the Dugald Stewart Monument and Burns' Monument both on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, on the towers of the former North Kirk in Aberdeen and St Giles Church in Elgin and in the gardens at Shugborough and Alton Towers among many others; the Grade I-listed St John the Evangelist's Church, now redundant, is topped with a "preposterous miniature" of the monument. In the US, the Choragic Monument was William Strickland's model for the cupola of the Merchants' Exchange in Philadelphia and copied by him for the cupola atop the Tennessee State Capitol building in Nashville.
The design of the Portland Breakwater Light in Maine was inspired by the monument. It was adapted for Civil War memorials and capped many Beaux-Arts towers, such as The San Remo's towers in New York; the most prominent example is the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument designed by architects Charles and Arthur Stoughton and erected on Riverside Drive in New York City in 1902. A bronze miniature of the Choragic Monument is handed out for the Richard H. Driehaus Prize recognizing a living architect whose work exemplifies the values of traditional and classical architecture in a contemporary built environment; the University of Notre Dame's Walsh Family Hall of Architecture features a tower crowned by a replica of the Choragic Monument. In Australia, there is a version in Sydney in New South Wales, it is reproduced at the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne where it forms a crowning element at the top of the memorial's pyramid-like roof. Excerpts from guidebooks American Beaux-Arts uses of the Choragic Monument "Neoclassic architecture and the influence of Antiquity"
Downtown Presbyterian Church (Nashville)
The Downtown Presbyterian Church in Nashville, Tennessee, a part of the Presbyterian Church, was known as First Presbyterian Church. The church is located at the corner of Church Street; as Old First Presbyterian Church it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1993, for its distinctive Egyptian Revival architecture. The congregation began worshiping at this site in 1816; the first structure burned down in 1832, a second sanctuary was constructed the same year. The third sanctuary was constructed; the name was changed to "Downtown" after First Presbyterian moved out of downtown Nashville in 1955. The present sanctuary was designed by William Strickland, who designed the Tennessee State Capitol, in the Egyptian Revival style. Exterior design elements include a winged sun disk. Interior Egyptian style elements include stained glass windows and perspective renderings of Egyptian scenes on the sanctuary walls; the design was commissioned during an era when archaeological reports from Egypt were being reported in western publications.
The twin towers of Downtown Presbyterian Church are reminiscent of the twin towers of St. Stephen's Church in Philadelphia, the city that Strickland lived in before he moved to Nashville. Surviving drawings illustrate that he designed Second Presbyterian Church in Nashville, demolished in 1979. Downtown Presbyterian Church is one of the few examples of Egyptian Revival architecture in the United States, may be the best surviving ecclesiastical example. William Strickland designed the second Mikveh-Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia in 1825 with Egyptian Revival elements, but it has not survived. Two other churches in the United States with Egyptian architectural themes that have survived are the First Baptist Church of Essex and the First Presbyterian Church, New York known as the Whalers' Church. A virtual tour of the current Downtown Presbyterian Church is available on the church's website. Several historic events and persons of note have been associated with this church; when Downtown Presbyterian was still known as First Presbyterian Church, President Andrew Jackson was a member.
Tennessee Governor James K. Polk was inaugurated in the second sanctuary; the present church building was seized by Federal forces and served as a military hospital during the Civil War. It temporarily became Nashville's Union Hospital No. 8, with 206 beds. The church has continued to be used as a refuge by Nashville's citizens from floods in the 1920s, by soldiers during the Second World War and presently has an active social ministry to the less fortunate. List of National Historic Landmarks in Tennessee National Register of Historic Places listings in Davidson County, Tennessee Gilchrist, Agnes Addison. William Strickland - Architect and Engineer 1788-1854. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. OCLC 926163. Official site Church Photos National Register of Historic Places Tennessee Encyclopedia: William Strickland
John Neagle was a fashionable American painter of portraits, during the first half of the 19th century in Philadelphia. Neagle was born in Massachusetts, his training in art began with instruction from the drawing-master Pietro Ancora and an apprenticeship to Thomas Wilson, a well-connected painter of signs and coaches in Philadelphia. Wilson introduced him to the painters Bass Otis and Thomas Sully, Neagle became a protégé of the latter. In 1818 Neagle decided to concentrate on portraits, setting up shop as an independent master. Aside from brief sojourns in Lexington and New Orleans, Louisiana, he spent his career in Philadelphia, where he died. In May 1826 he married Sully's stepdaughter Mary, for a time the son-in-law and father-in-law dominated the field of portraiture in the city. Neagle served as Director of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, was a founder and president of the Artist's Fund Society of Philadelphia. Neagle's sitters included society figures, politicians and merchants, all of whom he treated with an incisive attention to psychology and an dazzling brushwork derived from van Dyck.
His most impressive works are, the full-length allegorical portrait of Henry Clay, the unconventional and brutally heroic "Pat Lyon at the Forge". Other Neagle sitters included Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson, Governor John Jordan Crittenden of Kentucky, Congressman James Harper and his wife Charlotte, the Marquis de Lafayette, Bishop William Meade, Dr. William Potts Dewees, author James Fenimore Cooper, fellow painter Gilbert Stuart, actor Edwin Forrest and the architects William Strickland, John Haviland and Thomas Ustick Walter as well as Pawnee Indian and hero of the whites Petalesharo, his papers are housed at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, which hosted a retrospective exhibition of his work in 1989. The John Neagle papers and related items, consisting of volumes related to his work and cased photographs, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place, now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes; the history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great; the Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs; the many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids and obelisks.
Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were copied, its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world, its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy; the Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization. Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, this is the period when many animals were first domesticated. By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs and beads; the largest of these early cultures in upper Egypt was the Badari, which originated in the Western Desert. The Badari was followed by the Amratian and Gerzeh cultures, which brought a number of technological improvements; as early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East Canaan and the Byblos coast.
Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley. Establishing a power center at Nekhen, at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile, they traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east, initiating a period of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, jewelry made of gold and ivory, they developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, used well into the Roman Per
Second Bank of the United States
The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836. The bank's formal name, according to section 9 of its charter as passed by Congress, was "The President and Company, of the Bank of the United States."A private corporation with public duties, the bank handled all fiscal transactions for the U. S. Government, was accountable to Congress and the U. S. Treasury. Twenty percent of its capital was owned by the federal government, the bank's single largest stockholder. Four thousand private investors held 80% of the bank's capital, including one thousand Europeans; the bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans. In its time, the institution was the largest monied corporation in the world; the essential function of the bank was to regulate the public credit issued by private banking institutions through the fiscal duties it performed for the U.
S. Treasury, to establish a sound and stable national currency; the federal deposits endowed the BUS with its regulatory capacity. Modeled on Alexander Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Second Bank was chartered by President James Madison in 1816 and began operations at its main branch in Philadelphia on January 7, 1817, managing twenty-five branch offices nationwide by 1832; the efforts to renew the bank's charter put the institution at the center of the general election of 1832, in which the bank's president Nicholas Biddle and pro-bank National Republicans led by Henry Clay clashed with the "hard-money" Andrew Jackson administration and eastern banking interests in the Bank War. Failing to secure recharter, the Second Bank of the United States became a private corporation in 1836, underwent liquidation in 1841; the political support for the revival of a national banking system was rooted in the early 19th century transformation of the country from simple Jeffersonian agrarianism towards one interdependent with industrialization and finance.
In the aftermath of the War of 1812 the federal government suffered from the disarray of an unregulated currency and a lack of fiscal order. A national alliance arose to legislate a central bank to address these needs; the political climate—dubbed the Era of Good Feelings—favored the development of national programs and institutions, including a protective tariff, internal improvements and the revival of a Bank of the United States Southern and western support for the bank, led by Republican nationalists John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky was decisive in the successful chartering effort; the charter was signed into law by James Madison on April 10, 1816. Subsequent efforts by Calhoun and Clay to earmark the bank's $1.5 million establishment "bonus", annual dividends estimated at $650,000, as a fund for internal improvements, was vetoed by President Madison, on strict constructionist grounds. Opposition to the bank's revival emanated from two interests. Old Republicans, represented by John Taylor of Caroline and John Randolph of Roanoke characterized the Second Bank of the United States as both constitutionally illegitimate and a direct threat to Jeffersonian agrarianism, state sovereignty and the institution of slavery, expressed by Taylor's statement that "...if Congress could incorporate a bank, it might emancipate a slave".
Hostile to the regulatory effects of the central bank, private banks—proliferating with or without state charters—had scuttled rechartering of the first BUS in 1811. These interests played significant roles in undermining the institution during the administration of U. S. President Andrew Jackson; the BUS was launched in the midst of a major global market readjustment as Europe recovered from the Napoleonic Wars The central bank was charged with restraining uninhibited private bank note issue—already in progress—that threatened to create a credit bubble and the risks of a financial collapse. Government land sales in the West, fueled by European demand for agricultural products, ensured that a speculative bubble would form; the national bank was engaged in promoting a democratized expansion of credit to accommodate laissez-faire impulses among eastern business entrepreneurs and credit hungry western and southern farmers. Under the management of the first BUS president William Jones, the bank failed to control paper money issued from its branch banks in the West and South, contributing to the post-war speculative land boom.
When the U. S. markets collapsed in the Panic of 1819—a result of global economic adjustments—the central bank came under withering criticism for its belated tight money policies—policies that exacerbated mass unemployment and plunging property values. Further, it transpired that branch directors for the Baltimore office had engaged in fraud and larceny. Resigning in January 1819, Jones was replaced by Langdon Cheves who continued the contraction in credit in an effort to stop inflation and stabilize the bank as the economy began to correct; the central bank's reaction to the crisis—a clumsy expansion a sharp contraction of credit—indicated its weakness, not its strength. The effects were catastrophic, resulting in a protracted recession with mass unemployment and a sharp drop in property values that persisted until 1822; the financial crisis raised doubts among the American public as to the efficacy of paper money, in whose interests a national system of finance operated. Upon this widespread disaffection the anti-bank Jacksonian Democrats would mobilize opposition to the BUS in the 1830s.
The national bank was in general disrepute among most Americans when Nicholas Biddle, the third and last president of the bank, was app
Egyptian Revival architecture
Egyptian revival is an architectural style that uses the motifs and imagery of ancient Egypt. It is attributed to the public awareness of ancient Egyptian monuments generated by Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and Admiral Nelson's defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798; the size and monumentality of the façades'discovered' during his adventure cement the hold of Egyptian aesthetics on the Parisian elite. Napoleon took a scientific expedition with him to Egypt. Publication of the expedition's work, the Description de l'Égypte, began in 1809 and was published as a series through 1826. However, works of art and architecture in the Egyptian style had been made or built on the European continent and the British Isles since the time of the Renaissance; the most important example is Gian Lorenzo Bernini's obelisk in the Piazza Navona in Rome. It influenced the obelisk constructed as a family funeral memorial by Sir Edward Lovatt Pierce for the Allen family at Stillorgan in Ireland in 1717, one of several Egyptian obelisks erected in Ireland during the early 18th century.
Others may be found at County Kildare. The Casteltown Folly in County Kildare is the best known, albeit the least Egyptian-styled. Egyptian buildings had been built as garden follies; the most elaborate was the one built by Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg in the gardens of the Château de Montbéliard. It included an Egyptian bridge across which guests walked to reach an island with an elaborate Egyptian-influenced bath house. Designed by the duke's court architect, Jean Baptiste Kleber, the building had a billiards room and a "bagnio". New after the Napoleonic invasion was a sudden increase of the number of works of art and the fact that, for the first time, entire buildings began to be built to resemble those of ancient Egypt. In France and Britain this was at least inspired by successful war campaigns undertaken by each country while in Egypt. According to David Brownlee, the 1798 Karlsruhe Synagogue, an early building by the influential Friedrich Weinbrenner was "the first large Egyptian building to be erected since antiquity."
According to Diana Muir Appelbaum, it was "the first public building in the Egyptian revival style." The ancient Egyptian influence was shown in the two large engaged pylons flanking the entrance. Among the earliest monuments of the Egyptian revival in Paris is the Fontaine du Fellah in Paris, built in 1806, it was designed by François-Jean Bralle. A well-documented example, destroyed after Napoleon was deposed, was the monument to General Louis Desaix in the Place des Victoires was built in 1810, it featured a nude statue of the general and an obelisk, both set upon an Egyptian revival base. Another example of a still standing site of Egyptian Revival is the Egyptian Gate of Tsarskoe Selo, built in 1829. A street or passage named the Place du Caire or Foire du Caire was built in Paris in 1798 on the former site of the convent of the "Filles de la Charité". No. 2 Place du Caire, from 1828, is in overall form a conventional Parisian structure with shops on the ground floor and apartments above, but with considerable Egyptianizing decoration including a row of massive Hathor heads and a frieze by sculptor J. G. Garraud.
One of the first British buildings to show an Egyptian revival interior was the newspaper office of the Courier on the Strand in London. It was built in 1804 and featured a cavetto cornice and Egyptian-influenced columns with palmiform capitals. Other early British examples include the Egyptian Hall in London, completed in 1812, the Egyptian Gallery, a private room in the home of connoisseur Thomas Hope to display his Egyptian antiquities, illustrated in engravings from his meticulous line drawings in his book Household Furniture, were a prime source for the regency style of British furnishings. Egyptian revival architecture enjoyed considerable popularity in other countries as well; the first Egyptian revival building in the United States was the 1824 synagogue building of Congregation Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania It was followed by a series of major public buildings in the first half of the 19th century including the 1835 Philadelphia County Prison, Pennsylvania, United States, the 1836 Fourth District Police Station in New Orleans and the 1838 New York City jail known as the Tombs.
Other public buildings in Egyptian style included the 1844 Old Whaler's Church in Sag Harbor, New York, the 1846 First Baptist Church in Essex, the 1845 Egyptian Building of the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond and the 1848 United States Custom House in New Orleans. The most notable Egyptian structure in the United States was the Washington Monument, begun in 1848, this obelisk featured doors with cavetto cornices and winged sun disks removed; the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri is another example of Egyptian revival architecture and art. The South African College in the then-British Cape Colony features an "Egyptian building" constructed in 1841; the Great Synagogue was Australia's first Egyptian revival building, followed by the Hobart Synagogue, the Launceston Synagogue and the Adelaide Hebrew Congregation, all by 1850. The earliest obelisk in Australia was erected at Macquarie Place, Sydney in 1818; the expeditions that led to the discovery in 1922 of the treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb by the a