Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
St. Francis Xavier University
St. Francis Xavier University is a undergraduate university located in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada, it is a member of the Maple League, a group of undergraduate universities in Eastern Canada. St. Francis Xavier College was founded as Arichat College, a Roman Catholic Diocesan educational institution at Arichat, Nova Scotia, in 1853. Arichat College was moved to its present location in Antigonish, established as St. Francis Xavier College in 1855. On May 7, 1866, St. Francis Xavier College was given university status, becoming St. Francis Xavier University; the University awarded its first degrees in 1868. In 1883 Mount St. Bernard Academy was founded for female education, with girls from primary grades to grade 12 taught by the Sisters of Notre Dame. Architect Henry Frederick Busch designed the College building in 1888. In 1894, the academy affiliated with St. Francis Xavier University as Mount St. Bernard College. In 1897, the school became the first co-educational Catholic university in North America to grant degrees to women.
Four women were awarded university degrees in 1897. A metal plaque in the St. Francis Xavier University Chapel is dedicated to the thirty-three members of the college, now St. Francis Xavier University, who were killed in service during the First World War. In February 1922, St. Francis Xavier University's War Memorial Rink, with a brick exterior and wooden interior, opened. After the War Memorial Rink was closed on February 8, 2002, the building was torn down and a new science complex was built in the old rink's place. StFX’s extension department has engaged in community development in Antigonish since 1928 while the Coady International Institute at StFX has engaged in community development globally since 1959. A metal plaque, unveiled on 5 May 1984, was dedicated by the university's Class of 1984, in honour of those students killed in armed conflict while defending the liberty of Canadians. In 1985 the number of women students at St. Francis Xavier became equal to the number of men for the first time.
In 1990, the women's college existed as a residence only. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. The St. Francis Xavier tartan was designed as a university tartan in 1994. In 1996 StFX implemented Canada’s first Service Learning program, which provided opportunities for international learning. On March 21, 2014, the Board of Governors announced Kent MacDonald as incoming president of StFX, to assume office on August 1, 2014. Maclean's Magazine has ranked St. Francis Xavier as the top "Primarily Undergraduate" university in Canada for five consecutive years; the university has ranked first in alumni support for the period 2001–06.
In 2007, Maclean's changed the criteria of the "Primarily Undergraduate", resulting in St. Francis Xavier placing third in the category. In early 2009, Maclean's reported that St. Francis Xavier students ranked first in choosing to return to their current institution among other categories. Between the years 2000 and 2004, more St Francis Xavier students, on a per capita basis, have received Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council awards for post-secondary study than any other university in Canada. St Francis Xavier University is organized into the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science, the Gerald Schwartz School of Business, Faculty of Education, Coady International Institute; each faculty has subordinate departments under its administration appropriate to each discipline, for example the Department of Philosophy is part of the Faculty of Arts. Faculties are headed by a dean elected from among the constituent professors; the Faculty of Arts encompasses the following departments and programs: Anthropology, Aquatic Resources, Fine Arts, Canadian Studies, Catholic Studies, Celtic Studies, Classical Studies, Development Studies, English, Humanities Colloquium, Modern Languages, Political Science, Religious Studies, Social Justice Colloquium, Women's and Gender Studies and Jazz Studies.
The Faculty of Science offers the following departments and programs: Aquatic Resources, Chemistry, Computer Science, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Human Kinetics, Human Nutrition and Statistics, Nursing and Physics. The Gerald Schwartz School of Business offers degrees in Business Administration, with majors in Accounting, Enterprise Development, Information Systems, Leadership in Management, Marketing; the Faculty of Education offers degrees in Adult Education. The Music Department hosts one of North America's leading undergraduate jazz studies program; the current Dean of Arts is Richard Nemesvari, the Dean of Science is Petra Hauf, the Dean of Business is Tim Hynes, the Dean of Education is Jeff Orr. The university offers graduate programs leading to Master of Arts, Master of Science and Master of Education degrees. St. Francis Xavier offers over $2 million annually in merit-based scholarships and financial aid to its new and current undergraduates. Applicants with a Grade 12 average of at least 85% are automatically guaranteed an entrance scholarship worth at least $5000, at least $7,000 for those with Grade 12 averages above 90% ($1750 each year for four
Philosophy of religion
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy. The field is related to many other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics and ethics; the philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief system. It is designed such that it can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. Philosopher William L. Rowe characterized the philosophy of religion as: "the critical examination of basic religious beliefs and concepts." Philosophy of religion covers alternative beliefs about God, the varieties of religious experience, the interplay between science and religion, the nature and scope of good and evil, religious treatments of birth and death.
The field includes the ethical implications of religious commitments, the relation between faith, reason and tradition, concepts of the miraculous, the sacred revelation, mysticism and salvation. The term "Philosophy of Religion" did not come into general use in the West until the nineteenth century, most pre-modern and early modern philosophical works included a mixture of religious themes and "non-religious" philosophical questions. In Asia, examples include texts such as the Hindu Upanishads, the works of Daoism and Confucianism and Buddhist texts. Greek philosophies like Pythagoreanism and Stoicism included religious elements and theories about deities, Medieval philosophy was influenced by the big three Monotheistic Abrahamic religions. In the Western world, early modern philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Berkeley discussed religious topics alongside secular philosophical issues as well; the philosophy of religion has been distinguished from theology by pointing out that, for theology, "its critical reflections are based on religious convictions".
"theology is responsible to an authority that initiates its thinking and witnessing... philosophy bases its arguments on the ground of timeless evidence."Some aspects of philosophy of religion have classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, the prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. This, according to Aristotle, is the subject of study in theology. Today, philosophers have adopted the term "philosophy of religion" for the subject, it is regarded as a separate field of specialization, although it is still treated by some Catholic philosophers, as a part of metaphysics. Different religions have different ideas about Ultimate Reality, its source or ground and about what is the "Maximal Greatness". Paul Tillich's concept of'Ultimate Concern' and Rudolf Otto's'Idea of the Holy' are concepts which point to concerns about the ultimate or highest truth which most religious philosophies deal with in some way.
One of the main differences among religions is whether the Ultimate Reality is a personal God or an impersonal reality. In Western religions, various forms of Theism are the most common conceptions of the ultimate Good, while in Eastern Religions, there are theistic and various non-theistic conceptions of the Ultimate. Theistic vs non-theistic is a common way of sorting the different types of religions. There are several philosophical positions with regard to the existence of God that one might take including various forms of Theism and different forms of Atheism. Monotheism is the belief in a single deity or God, ontologically independent. There are many forms of monotheism. Keith Yandell outlines three kinds of historical monotheisms: Greek and Hindu. Greek monotheism holds that the world has always existed and does not believe in Creationism or divine providence, while Semitic monotheism believes the world is created by a God at a particular point in time and that this God acts in the world.
Indian monotheism meanwhile teaches that the world is beginningless, but that there is God's act of creation which sustains the world. The attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is one aspect of what is known as natural theology or the natural theistic project; this strand of natural theology attempts to justify belief in God by independent grounds. Most of philosophy of religion is predicated on natural theology's assumption that the existence of God can be justified or warranted on rational grounds. There has been considerable philosophical and theological debate about the kinds of proofs and arguments that are appropriate for this discourse. Common types of arguments for the existence of god include: Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument Teleological argument Argument from religious experience Argument from morality Wager arguments like Pascal's Wager attempts to rationally argue that one should believe in God. Skeptics and atheists have put forth various arguments against the existence of God including: The argument from inconsistent revelations The problem of evil, the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of a deity who is, in either absolute or relative terms, omnipotent and omnibenevolent.
Argument from poor design Argument from nonbelief or the argument from divine hiddenness Eastern Religions have included both theistic and other alternative positions about the ultimate nature of reality. One such v
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Soochow University (Taiwan)
Soochow University is a top private university in Taipei, Taiwan. Although Soochow University maintains a church and a Methodist minister in residence, it may be considered a secular institution; the university is noted for studies in comparative accounting. The original Soochow University was founded by Methodists in Suzhou, Qing dynasty in 1900 as a merger of three institutions: the Buffington Institute and the Kung Hang School in the city of Soochow, in Jiangsu Province, the Anglo-Chinese College in Shanghai. After the Chinese Civil War, members of the Soochow Alumni Association who fled to Taiwan established a new institution there in 1951. A law school was opened in 1954, a full university was certified in 1971; as a new Soochow University was founded on the original site in 1982, there would be a Soochow University in Taiwan and a Soochow University in Jiangsu. The campus is home to the tomb of the prominent Chinese politician and diplomat Wang Ch'unghui, who fled to Taiwan after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
In 1981, the first joint-issued class-made magazine founded by students, called Xu Ai, appeared in Soochow University. Students voiced political opinions as to temporal society, but the magazine was banned by the strong commend of the college. However, the next year, the political students published another critical magazine, Monthly Political Magazine of Soochow University, it was banned, a result from publishing an advertisement of Shen Geng, a magazine of the Chinese Nationalist Party control. On 9 September 1982, the Academic Conference of Political Department organized an audit for second year students about Taipei City Council, but the lead teacher Huang Erxuan was charged by leading a group of students to the council to listen the interpolation produced by the outside party senator. He was fired the next year. Soochow University is a member of the Excellent Long-Established University Consortium of Taiwan, an organization devoted to inter-school cooperation and sharing resources between schools.
The twelve union universities were all founded over half a century with each of their own strengths covering professional fields of science and technology, agronomy, media, education and design, etc.…. These schools allow students to have multiple options, cross-domain learning and a broader adaptive development for their education. Soochow University in Taiwan has two branches: a downtown branch near the Republic of China presidential office in Taipei's Zhongzheng district and the main campus near the National Palace Museum in Taipei's Shilin district; the law and business colleges are in the downtown campus. All other colleges are located in the main campus; the Shilin Campus 25.094067°N 121.546216°E / 25.094067. Faculty and student housing are available on the main campus. There are three female student dorms and two male student dorms with a total occupancy of 1,500. Many students commute to campus by the subway system; the Downtown Campus 25.038303°N 121.509637°E / 25.038303. Taiwan's first private university is headed by a board of trustees.
The University is divided into six schools or colleges, each having a variety of departments: Department of Chinese Literature Department of History Department of Philosophy Department of Political Science Department of Sociology Department of Social Work Department of Music Center for Teacher Education Department of English Department of Japanese Language and Literature Department of German Language and Literature Language Center Department of Mathematics Department of Physics Department of Chemistry Department of Microbiology Department of Psychology Department of Economics Department of Accounting Department of Business Administration Department of International Business Department of Computer and Information Science Undergraduate Program of Business Sports play an important role in campus life. The downtown campus has basketball courts; the main campus has indoor and outdoor basketball courts, tennis courts, a race track, a mini rock climbing wall, a field, used for softball and soccer.
Each year the university holds two major student athletic events. Much of the sports facilities on the main campus are on land owned by the Taipei city government rather than by the university; the city government has considered reclaiming the land to build an expressway but has decided to back off with this project. The university has societies, such as Association for Diplomacy Research. 24-hour International Ultramarathon: Runners from several countries, students and celebrities such as Ryoichi Sekiya and Mami Kudo participate in this annual event. Only few of the contestants venture running for the entire duration of the marathon. Portable toilets are set up near the race track with one or two toilets reserved for certain internationally renowned runners; some spectators set up tents near the camp the entire night watching the marathon. Campus Christmas Carol: Students from the music department visit the faculty residential apartment complexes sing Christmas carols on Christmas Eve. Having people singing carols in the neighborhood is a rare sight in Taiwan since Christians make up a small minority of the population.
Chen Chih-ching, Minister of Council of Agriculture Han Kuo-yu, mayor of Kaohsiung Jeffrey Koo Sr. businessman John Chiang, Vice Chairperson of Kuomintang John Deng, Minister of Economic Affairs Kevin Chu, film director Mandy Wei, actress and host Shih Jun-
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Catholic University of Lublin is located in Lublin, Poland. Presently it has an enrollment of over 19,000 students, it has eight faculties: Theology, Law, Canon Law and Administration, Social Sciences and Natural Sciences, Humanities and Economic Sciences in Tomaszów Lubelski, Social Sciences in Stalowa Wola. It is the only private college in Poland with the status of a "university". Father Idzi Radziszewski founded the university in 1918. Vladimir Lenin allowed the priest to take the library and equipment of the Saint Petersburg Roman Catholic Theological Academy to Poland to launch the university just as Poland regained its independence; the aim of the university was to be a modern place of higher education which would conduct research in the spirit of harmony between science and faith. The university sought to produce a new Catholic intelligentsia; the number of students increased from 399 in 1918–1919 to 1440 in 1937–1938. This growth was interrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War and Nazi Germany's occupation of Poland.
Of all the universities located in the German occupied territory, the University of Lublin was the only one to resume work in October 1939. On 23 November 1939, the Nazis executed a number of academic workers, among others, professors Michał Niechaj and Czesław Martyniak; the university was ordered shut down and its buildings were converted into a military hospital. The university carried on its teaching activities in secret. After the invasion of Lublin in July 1944 by the Red Army, the university reopened on 21 August 1944. Since the university has functioned without interruption; the university stayed open during the years Poland was under Communist control between 1944 and 1989, though some of its faculties did not. The faculties of law, social science and education were shut down between 1953 and 1956, it was the only independent, Catholic university in existence in the entire Soviet bloc. Given that the Communist governments all insisted on having a total monopoly of control over educational institutions, the preservation of its independence was a great achievement.
The university was harassed in various ways by the Communist authorities in the 1950s and the 1960s. The university faculty were under frequent surveillance by the secret police. Periodically some faculties were denied by the state the right to grant graduate degrees; the employment prospects of its graduates were limited. Despite the difficulties, the university's independence was maintained and it never adopted Marxist dogmas taught at all the other state universities, it served as a haven for students. After the fall of Communism in Poland in 1989 the university has flourished, quadrupling its student population and expanding its campus. In 2010 the university was involved in a scandal concerning the granting of PhDs by departments which were not allowed to grant them, due to not having the sufficient number of academic staff; the Institute of English Studies at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin offers courses connected with Celtic cultures and languages as part of BA and MA courses in the Department of Celtic Studies.
The Department was founded in 1989. A student of Celtic Studies can choose between courses in Old English, Celtic History and Culture, Celtic Linguistics, Irish and Welsh Literatures. BA students may opt for learning Welsh. There are Celtic Days that have been taking place since 2004; the event has two parts, namely the academic, the artistic one. In 2006 Newsweek Polska ranked the university 54th among all Polish universities. Another magazine, ranked it 15th among humanity universities. In 2011, it placed 8th among all Polish universities. In 2011–12, the university's philosophy program was ranked first in Poland by the Polish Accreditation Agency, distinguished twice, receiving 9 million PLN total in grants that year as a result. Pope John Paul II, the most famous person associated with the university. Wojtyła earned a licentiate in theology in July 1947, defended his doctoral thesis entitled Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce in philosophy on 19 June 1948 at the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome.
Although his doctoral work was unanimously approved in June 1948, he was denied the degree because he could not afford to print the text of his dissertation. In December of that year, a revised text of his dissertation was approved by the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Wojtyła was awarded the degree, he became a part-time teacher of philosophy at KUL starting in 1954, sharing his time between teaching in Lublin and doing his pastoral work in Kraków. After he became archbishop of Kraków in 1963 and a cardinal in 1967, his duties limited the time he was able to spend teaching in Lublin, his students commuted to his lectures in Kraków, his involvement with the university continued until he was elected pope in 1978. All of his philosophical works were published in Lublin. Stefan Wyszyński, Cardinal Primate of Poland Servant of God Jacek Woroniecki, philosopher, Dominican lecturer at the University of Lublin in moral theology, rector of the university Michał Heller, priest and philosopher, awarded with Templeton Prize in 2008 Józef Życiński, academic Edward Stachura and writer Janusz Krupski, historian Janusz Palikot, politician and businessman Wojciech Siemion and film act