Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Panic of 1857
The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy. Because of the interconnectedness of the world economy by the 1850s, the financial crisis that began in late 1857 was the first worldwide economic crisis. In Britain, the Palmerston government circumvented the requirements of the Bank Charter Act 1844, which required gold and silver reserves to back up the amount of money in circulation. Surfacing news of this circumvention set off the Panic in Britain. Beginning in September 1857, the financial downturn did not last long; the sinking of SS Central America contributed to the panic of 1857, as New York banks were awaiting a much-needed shipment of gold. American banks did not recover until after the civil war. After the failure of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company, the financial panic spread as businesses began to fail, the railroad industry experienced financial declines, hundreds of workers were laid off.
Since the years preceding the Panic of 1857 were prosperous, many banks and farmers had seized the opportunity to take risks with their investments and as soon as market prices began to fall, they began to experience the effects of financial panic. In the early 1850s, there was much economic prosperity in the United States, to a major extent stimulated by the large amount of gold discovered and mined in the California Gold Rush, which expanded the money supply. By the mid 1850s, the amount of gold mined began to decline, causing western bankers and investors to become wary. Eastern banks became cautious with their loans to the west, some refused to accept western bank-issued paper currencies; the Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford was handed down in March 1857. After Scott sued for his freedom, Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was black and therefore did not have the right to sue in court; the ruling made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional by saying the federal government could not prohibit slavery, since it controlled the territories, could not ban slavery in them.
It was clear that the decision would have a significant impact on the further development of the western territories. Soon after the ruling, "the political struggle between'free soil' and slavery in the territories" began; the western territories north of the Missouri Compromise line were now opened to the possibility that slavery might expand into them, it was evident that this would have drastic financial and political effects. "Kansas land warrants and western railroad securities' prices declined just after the Dred Scott decision in early March." This fluctuation in railroad securities proved "that political news about future territories called the tune in the land and railroad securities markets". Before 1857, the railroad industry was booming due to large migrations of people to the west in Kansas. With the large influx of people, the railroads became a profitable industry and the banks seized the opportunity and began to provide railroad companies with large loans. Many of these companies never made it past the stage of a paper railroad and never owned physical assets necessary to run one.
Prices of railroad stocks as a whole began to experience a stock bubble, railroad stocks saw speculative entries into the fray, making the bubble worse. In the meantime, the aforementioned Dred Scott decision lent uncertainty to railroads in general. In July 1857, railroad stocks saw their peak values. On August 11, 1857, N. H. Wolfe and Company, the oldest flour and grain company in New York City, failed; the failure shook investor confidence and began a slow selloff in the market which continued into late August. On the morning of August 24, 1857, the president of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company announced that its New York branch had suspended payments. Ohio Life was an Ohio-based bank with a second main office in New York City; the company was the liaison to other Ohio investment banks. Ohio Life failed due to fraudulent activities by the company's management, its failure threatened to precipitate the failure of other Ohio banks or worse, to create a run on the banks. According to an article printed in the New York Daily Times, Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company's "New York City and Cincinnati suspended.
Luckily, the banks connected to Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company were reimbursed and "avoided suspending convertibility by credibly coinsuring one another against runs". The failure of Ohio Life brought attention to the financial state of the railroad industry and land markets, thereby causing the financial panic to become a more public issue. By the spring of 1858, "commercial credit had dried up, forcing debt-ridden merchants of the West to curtail new purchases of inventory"; the railroads "had created an interdependent national economy, now an economic downturn in the West threatened... economic crisis". Since many banks had financed the railroads and land purchases, they began to feel the pressures of the falling value of railroad securities; the Illinois Central. The Delaware and Western Railroad and the Fond du Lac Railroad companies were forced to declare bankruptcy; the Boston and Worcester Railroad Company experienced heavy financial difficulties. The employees were i
Swinburne, Smith and Company
Swinburne and Company was a railroad locomotive manufacturing company of the mid-19th century. The company was founded in 1845, in Paterson, New Jersey, by a partnership between William Swinburne and Samuel Smith. Swinburne had been a pattern maker for Rogers and Grosvenor of Paterson, who worked his way up to become shop foreman. Smith was foreman moulder at Rogers; the company's first major client was the Erie Railway. Other customers included the Delaware and Western Railroad and the Chicago and Alton Railroad. Swinburne remained in business for only a decade, failing with the Panic of 1857. Afterwards, the firm reorganized, with James Jackson joining the partnership, became the New Jersey Locomotive and Machine Company. John Brandt was principal design engineer. Among the engines produced by the firm is the William Crooks of the Great Northern Railway, the sole surviving engine built by the firm. In 1863 the company experienced financial difficulties. Banker David B. Grant took control of the company and changed its name to Grant Locomotive Works
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works was a 19th-century manufacturer of railroad steam locomotives based in Paterson, in Passaic County, New Jersey, in the United States. It built more than six thousand steam locomotives for railroads around the world. Most railroads in 19th-century United States rostered at least one Rogers-built locomotive; the company's most famous product was a locomotive named The General, built in December 1855, one of the principals of the Great Locomotive Chase of the American Civil War. The company was founded by Thomas Rogers in an 1832 partnership with Morris Ketchum and Jasper Grosvenor as Rogers and Grosvenor. Rogers remained president until his death in 1856 when his son, Jacob S. Rogers, took the position and reorganized the company as Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works; the younger Rogers led the company until he retired in 1893. Robert S. Hughes became president and reorganized the company as Rogers Locomotive Company, which he led until his death in 1900. Rogers avoided the American Locomotive Company merger in 1901 through closing and reopening as Rogers Locomotive Works.
The company remained independent until 1905. ALCO used the Rogers facilities through the 1920s as a parts storage facility and warehouse, but sold the property to private investors. Today, several Rogers-built locomotives exist in railroad museums around the world, the plant's erecting shop is preserved as the Thomas Rogers Building; the firm, to become Rogers Locomotive Works began in 1831. Thomas Rogers had been designing and building machinery for textile manufacturing for nearly 20 years when he sold his interest in Godwin, Rogers & Company in June of that year. Rogers set out on his own with a new company called Jefferson Works in New Jersey; the Jefferson Works built textile and agricultural machinery for a year before Rogers met the two men who would help transform the company into a major locomotive manufacturer. In 1832, Rogers partnered with two investors from New York City, Morris Ketchum and Jasper Grosvenor. Jefferson Works was renamed Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, the company began to diversify into the railroad industry.
The company soon manufactured springs and other small parts for railroad use. The first locomotive that Rogers' company assembled was built by Robert Stephenson and Company of England in 1835; this locomotive was the McNeil for the Hudson River Railroad. It took another two years. In 1837, the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad ordered two locomotives from Rogers to form the beginning of the railroad's roster; the first of these two locomotives was the Sandusky, which became the first locomotive to cross the Allegheny Mountains, the first locomotive to operate in Ohio. Sandusky included features designed by Thomas Rogers that had not been seen in locomotive construction to date, it was the first locomotive to use cast iron driving wheels, the wheels included built-in counterweights to reduce the amount of wear on the track caused by the weight of the driving rod and wheel all coming down at once during the wheels' rotations. Before Sandusky's construction, driving wheels were built with wooden spokes, much like wagon wheels.
Some accounts state that Sandusky was the first locomotive to feature a whistle, but this has since been proven false. Rogers was not working alone in American locomotive manufacturing. In 1837, in addition to building the company's first locomotive, Rogers filled orders from fellow locomotive builders Matthias W. Baldwin and William Norris for locomotive tires of various sizes. Once Rogers started working on his own locomotives, however, no further orders from either Baldwin or Norris were forthcoming. Within Rogers' own shop, William Swinburne worked as the shop foreman until he moved on to form his own locomotive manufacturing company, Swinburne and Company in 1845. After Swinburne left Rogers, John Cooke worked at the Rogers plant. Like Swinburne, Cooke went on to form his own locomotive manufacturing firm, Cooke & Company. Another engineer who worked at Rogers was Zerah Colburn, the well known locomotive engineer and editor and publisher. Colburn was, around 1854, "superintendent and/or consultant" at the works where he introduced a number of improvements in locomotive design.
His assistant was William S. Hudson who succeeded Rogers after he died in 1856, was responsible for further engineering enhancement. Hudson would remain with Rogers until his own death in 1881. Rogers locomotives were, from early in the company's history, seen as powerful, capable engines on American railroads; the Uncle Sam, serial number 11, a 4-2-0 built in 1839 for the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, was noted by American Railroad Journal for hauling a 24-car train up a grade of 26 feet per mile or 0.49% at 24.5 mph. In 1846, Rogers built. Arguably, the most famous locomotive to come out of the Rogers shops wa
Paterson, New Jersey
Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 146,199, making it New Jersey's third-most-populous city. Paterson has the second-highest density of any U. S. city with over 100,000 people, behind only New York City. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 148,678, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 enumeration, making the city the 174th-most-populous in the nation. Paterson is known as the "Silk City" for its dominant role in silk production during the latter half of the 19th century, it has since evolved into a major destination for Hispanic immigrants as well as for immigrants from India, South Asia, the Arab and Muslim world. Paterson has the second-largest Muslim population in the United States by percentage; the area of Paterson was inhabited by the Algonquian-speaking Native American Acquackanonk tribe of the Lenape known as the Delaware Indians.
The land was known as the Lenapehoking. The Dutch claimed the land as New Netherlands the British as the Province of New Jersey. In 1791 Alexander Hamilton, first United States Secretary of the Treasury, helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic River to secure economic independence from British manufacturers; the society founded Paterson. Paterson was named for William Paterson, signer of the Constitution and Governor of New Jersey, who signed the 1792 charter that established the Town of Paterson. Architect and city planner Pierre Charles L'Enfant, who had earlier developed the initial plans for Washington, D. C. was the first planner for the S. U. M. Project, his plan proposed to harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. The society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget, he was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794.
Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846. Paterson was formed as a township from portions of Acquackanonk Township on April 11, 1831, while the area was still part of Essex County, it became part of newly created Passaic County on February 7, 1837, was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1851, based on the results of a referendum held that day. The city was reincorporated on March 14, 1861; the industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot-high Great Falls and a system of water raceways that harnessed the falls' power, providing power for the mills in the area until 1914 and fostering the growth of the city around them. The district included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and the firearms and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 19th century silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City."In 1835 Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, but within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut.
In the 19th century Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by Irish-American inventor John Philip Holland. Two of Holland's early models—one found at the bottom of the Passaic River—are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in the former Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works near the Passaic Falls. Behind Newark and New York, the brewing industry was booming in Paterson in the late 1800s. Braun Brewery, Sprattler & Mennell, Graham Brewery, The Katz Brothers, Burton Brewery merged in 1890 to form Paterson Consolidated Brewing Company. Hinchliffe Brewing and Malting Company, founded in 1861, produced 75,000 barrels a year from its state-of-the-art facility at 63 Governor Street. All the breweries closed after Prohibition; the city was a mecca for immigrant laborers, who worked in its factories Italian weavers from the Naples region. Paterson was the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, the six-month-long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions.
It was defeated with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills; the factories moved to the South, where there were no labor unions, still moved overseas. In 1919 Paterson was one of eight locations bombed by self-identified anarchists. In 1932 Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 10,000-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, the city's mayor at the time. Hinchliffe Stadium served as the site for high school and professional athletic events. From 1933 to 1937 and 1939 to 1945, it was the home of the New York Black Yankees, from 1935 to 1936 the home of the New York Cubans of the Negro National League; the ballpark was a venue for professional football games and field events, boxing matches, auto and motorcycle racing. The comedy team of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello performed at Hinchliffe. Hinchliffe is one of only three Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium in 1963 and used it for public school events until 1997, but it is now in di