Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
Richard Henry Singleton
Rev. Richard Henry Singleton led the Big Bethel AME Church in Atlanta, Georgia. He began his service to the church in 1893 and started at Big Bethel in 1916 and he was trustee of Morris Brown University and president of the local chapter of the NAACP. Singleton spoke at the 1921 opening of Joyland Park, Atlantas first amusement park for blacks
Jackson State University
Jackson State University is a historically Black college and university in Jackson, United States. It was founded during the Reconstruction era in 1877 in Natchez, the Society moved the school to the capital, Jackson, in 1882, renaming it Jackson College. It developed its present campus in 1902 and it became a state-supported public institution in 1940. The university is a member of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, Jackson State University is classified as a research university with high research activity. In the fall of 2015, Jackson State University reached a student population of nearly 10,000 students, the university ranked as the fourth-largest HBCU in the nation. The campus contains 51 academic and administrative buildings on 245 acres, the main campus is located on JR Lynch Street between Prentiss and Dalton streets in the central region of the city. Ayer Hall was constructed in 1903 and is the oldest structure on campus and it was named in honor of the first president of the institution.
The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, green-Gibb Pedestrian Walkway was named in honor of those who died in the Jackson State killings in 1970. The Walter Payton Health & Wellness Center was constructed in 2006. E. B, du Bois Honors College School of Life Long Learning In 2015, JSU became the first university in Mississippi approved by the legislature to establish a School of Public Health. JSU is the university in Mississippi to earn two consecutive Apple Distinguished School distinctions. Apple Inc. biennially acknowledges schools that uniquely incorporate technology into its curriculum, since 2012, Jackson State University has provided all first-time, full-time freshmen brand new iPads to increase technology usage on campus. JSU is the first and only HBCU in Mississippi to support a bachelors and masters level engineering program, JSU is one of only two universities in Mississippi with a comprehensive meteorology degree program. Diverse Issues in Higher Education ranked JSU as among the top universities in the nation for producing African Americans with bachelors degrees in education, biology, du Bois Honors College is a selective interdisciplinary college at the university that provides an unique academic experience for high-achieving undergraduate students.
Jackson State University consistently ranks in the top 20 of HBCUs out of over 100 in the according to the U. S. News & World Report annual HBCU ranking. Athletic teams are a member of the NCAA Division I-FCS Southwestern Athletic Conference, all SWAC sports are DI with Football being FCS. Currently, the university teams in mens and womens basketball, softball, tennis and bowling, womens volleyball. The universitys mascot is the Tiger, and the teams are referred to as the Blue Bengals. The Tiger mens football team has a history and sharing 16 SWAC titles
Sarah Allen (missionary)
Sarah Allen was an American abolitionist and missionary for the African Methodist Episcopal Church. She is known within the AME Church as The Founding Mother, Sarah Bass was born in 1764 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia as a slave. When she was eight she was sent to Philadelphia and she was no longer enslaved as of 1800. That year she met Richard Allen and they had six children, Richard Jr. James, Peter and Ann. Allen maintained the family finances and general homemaking tasks, the family purchased property for $35 in Philadelphia. The property housed a blacksmith shop, the shop was planning to relocate and the Allens used their team of horses to transport the shop to its new location. The property was renovated and made into a church, which would become the founding African Methodist Episcopal Church. Allen was highly involved in the AME Church, which Richard Allen founded, the family hid and cared for runaway slaves and their home was a part of the Underground Railroad. The couple used their home and the church to house enslaved people, by 1827, she had founded the Daughters of the Conference.
The Daughters supported the male ministers of the AME Church, the women fed and cared for the generally poor and untidy ministers. The women had a circle to help mend and make clothes for the ministers. Allen died on July 16,1849, at the house of her sister in Philadelphia. She is buried alongside Richard Allen at Mother Bethel A. M. E, the Daughters of the Conference was renamed Sarah Allen Womens Missionary Society. Encyclopedia of World Biography, Supplement #27 pp 12–13 Smith, Jessie Carney, freedom Facts & Firsts,400 Years of the African American Civil
In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in an area purchased by the United States federal government from Napoleonic France, the Louisiana Purchase. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th-, after the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation. The term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the Revolutionary War. The borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States. The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory. Indian Territory, known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans, the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834.
The territory was located in the Midwest, while Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States, in general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. The region never had a government until after the American Civil War. Therefore, the location commonly called Indian Territory was not a traditional territory. These re-written treaties included provisions for a legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to what is now Oklahoma, the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory, the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, and the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains, the territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, and land was ceded to the United States. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, the period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, in 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase Frances claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to congress. Indian removal became the policy of the United States government with the passage of the 1830 Indian Removal Act
The term is taken from Latin minister, which itself was derived from minus. In Catholic churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasised, many ministers are styled as The Reverend, however some use Pastor as a title, and others do not use any specific form of address. The Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows, Priests are called to be servants, with their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of Gods new creation. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christs name the absolution, with all Gods people, they are to tell the story of Gods love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit and they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, and to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lords table and lead his people in worship, offering them a spiritual sacrifice of praise.
They are to bless the people in Gods name and they are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, and intercede for all in need. They are to minister to the sick and prepare the dying for their death, guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all Gods people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. All denominations require that the minister has a sense of calling. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3, 1-16, moreover he must have a good report of them which are without, lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to wine, not greedy of filthy lucre. And let these first be proved, let them use the office of a deacon, even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, faithful in all things. Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children, the churches have three orders of ordained clergy, Bishops are the primary clergy, administering all sacraments and governing the church.
Priests administer the sacraments and lead local congregations, they cannot ordain other clergy, however, in some denominations, deacons play a non-sacramental and assisting role in the liturgy. Until the Reformation, the clergy were the first estate but were relegated to the estate in Protestant Northern Europe. After compulsory celibacy was abolished during the Reformation, the formation of an hereditary priestly class became possible, whereby wealth. Higher positioned clergy formed this clerical educated upper class, High Church Anglicanism and High Church Lutheranism tend to emphasise the role of the clergy in dispensing the Christian Sacrament. Bishops and deacons have traditionally officiated over of acts worship, rituals, among these central traditions have been baptism, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, the Mass or the Divine Service, and coronations
Benjamin W. Arnett
Benjamin W. Arnett was an African-American educator, minister and elected official. He was born a free man March 6,1838 in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in his youth, Arnett lost a leg to an infection suffered after an ankle injury while working on a steam boat between 1857-58. Arnett married May 25,1858 to Mary Louise Gordon from Geneva and Uniontown and they had seven children, Alonzo T, Benjamin W, Henry T, Annie L, Alphonso Taft, Flossy Gordon, and Daniel Payne. As a pastor in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Arnett served parishes in Toledo, Cincinnati and it has been designated as a historical landmark. In 1888, he was elected bishop, a position he held until his death in 1906 and he had an honorary Doctor of Divinity from Wilberforce University awarded in June 1883. In the 1860s, Arnett was active in the civil rights movement and he was a member of the Pennsylvania State Equal Rights League and in 1864 was a member of the national convention of colored men in Syracuse, New York. He was secretary of the National Convention of Colored Men in Washington, D. C.
in 1867 and chaplain of the convention in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1872 Arnett became the first black man to serve as foreman of an otherwise all-white jury. In 1885, he was elected to the Ohio General Assembly from a district with an 85 percent white majority and that same year another African-American, Jeremiah A. Brown, was elected from Cleveland, and the two frequently worked together. Arnett was particularly concerned that state law did not ensure that children had the same educational opportunities as white children. In 1887, statues regarding education were changed, the state was required to provide equal opportunities to all children regardless of race. A forceful and compelling speaker, Arnett was influential in Republican politics, thanks, in part, to his friendship with fellow legislator, Bishop Arnetts influence is felt in the Pentecostal community. His great-grandson, Right Reverend Benjamin Terwood Douglass of Cleveland, Ohio, is the Seventh Bishop elevated in the Pentecostal Churches of Christ, Bishop Douglass serves as Secretary-General of that Reformation which has its roots in Methodism
Kansas City, Kansas
Kansas City is the third-largest city in the state of Kansas, the county seat of Wyandotte County, and the third-largest city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. It is part of a consolidated city-county government known as the Unified Government, Wyandotte County includes the independent cities of Bonner Springs and Edwardsville. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 145,786 residents and it is situated at Kaw Point, which is the junction of the Missouri and Kansas rivers. In October 1872, old Kansas City, was incorporated, the first city election was held on October 22 of that year, by order of Judge Hiram Stevens of the Tenth Judicial District, and resulted in the election of Mayor James Boyle. The mayors of the city after its organization were James Boyle, C. A. Eidemiller, A. S. Orbison, Eli Teed, in June 1880, the Governor of Kansas proclaimed the city of Kansas City a city of the second class with Mayor McConnell present. In March 1886, new Kansas City, was formed through the consolidation of five municipalities, old Kansas City, Armourdale, the oldest city of the group was Wyandotte, which was formed in 1857 by Wyandot Native Americans and Methodist missionaries.
In the 1890s, the city saw a growth in population as a streetcar suburb of Kansas City, from which it takes its name. It was one of the nations 100 largest cities for many U. S. Census counts, from 1890 to 1960, including 1920, when it had a population of over 100,000 residents for the first time. As with adjacent Kansas City, the percentage of the citys most populous ethnic group, in 1997, voters approved a proposition to unify the city and county governments creating the Unified Government of Wyandotte County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 128.38 square miles. Neighborhoods of Kansas City, include the following, Downtown Argentine − former home to the silver smelter for which it was named, Armourdale − formerly a city, it was consolidated with the city of Kansas City in 1886. Armstrong − a town absorbed by Wyandotte, bethel − a neighborhood located generally along Leavenworth Rd. between 72nd and 77th Streets. It was never incorporated as a municipality, Fairfax District − an industrial area along the Missouri River.
Nearman Piper Pomeroy − a late-19th—early-20th-century Train Depot, Trading Post, Saw Mill, Riverview Rosedale − merged with Kansas City in 1922. Stony Point Strawberry Hill Turner − community around the Wyandotte-Johnson County border to the Kansas River north-south, unless otherwise stated, normal figures below are based on data from 1981 to 2010 at Downtown Airport. The warmest month of the year is July, with a 24-hour average temperature of 81.0 °F, the summer months are hot, but can get very hot and moderately humid, with moist air riding up from the Gulf of Mexico. High temperatures surpass 100 °F on 5.6 days of the year, the coldest month of the year is January, with an average temperature of 31.0 °F. Winters are cold, with 22 days where the high is at or below the mark and 2.5 nights with a low at or below 0 °F
African Methodist Episcopal Church
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A. M. E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the United States and it is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by black people in the world. It was founded by the Rt, Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists. Allen was consecrated its first bishop in 1816 and it began with 8 clergy and 5 churches, and by 1846 had grown to 176 clergy,296 churches, and 17,375 members. The 20,000 members in 1856 were located primarily in the North, AME national membership jumped from 70,000 in 1866 to 207,000 in 1876. The church was not founded in Africa, nor is it exclusively for people of African descent and it is open and welcoming to people of all ethnic groups, origins and colors, although its congregations are predominantly made of up Black Americans. Methodist The churchs roots are in the Methodist church, members of St.
Georges Methodist Church left the congregation when faced with racial discrimination, but continued with the Methodist doctrine and the order of worship. Episcopal The AME Church operates under a form of church government. The denomination leaders are bishops of the church, the AME Church grew out of the Free African Society, which Richard Allen, Absalom Jones, and other free blacks established in Philadelphia in 1787. They left St. Georges Methodist Episcopal Church because of discrimination, although Allen and Jones were both accepted as preachers, they were limited to black congregations. In addition, the blacks were made to sit in a gallery built in the church when their portion of the congregation increased. These former members of St. Georges made plans to transform their mutual aid society into an African congregation, although the group was originally non-denominational, eventually members wanted to affiliate with existing denominations. Allen led a group who resolved to remain Methodist.
They formed the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1793, in general, they adopted the doctrines and form of government of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1794 Bethel AME was dedicated with Allen as pastor and it began with 8 clergy and 5 churches, and by 1846 had grown to 176 clergy,296 churches, and 17,375 members The 20,000 members in 1856 were located primarily in the North. AME national membership jumped from 70,000 in 1866 to 207,000 in 1876 AME put a premium on education. By 1880, AME operated over 2,000 schools, chiefly in the South, with 155,000 students, after the Civil War Bishop Henry McNeal Turner was a major leader of the AME and played a role in Republican Party politics. In 1863 during the Civil War, Turner was appointed as the first black chaplain in the United States Colored Troops, afterward, he was appointed to the Freedmens Bureau in Georgia
Richard Allen (bishop)
Richard Allen was a minister, educator and one of Americas most active and influential black leaders. In 1794 he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination in the United States and he opened his first AME church in 1794 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He worked to upgrade the status of the black community, organizing Sabbath schools to teach literacy. Richard Allen was born into slavery on February 14,1760, when he was a child Allen and his family were sold to Stokeley Sturgis, who had a plantation in Delaware. When Sturgis had financial problems he sold Richards mother and three of his five siblings, Allen had an older brother and sister left with him and the three began to attend meetings of the local Methodist Society, which was welcoming to slaves and free blacks. They were encouraged by their master Sturgis, although he was unconverted, Richard taught himself to read and write. He joined the Methodists at age 17 and he began evangelizing and attracted criticism from local slave owners.
Allen and his brother redoubled their efforts for Sturgis so no one could say his slaves did not do well because of religion, the Reverend Freeborn Garrettson, who had freed his own slaves in 1775, began to preach in Delaware. He was among many Methodist and Baptist ministers after the American Revolutionary War who encouraged slaveholders to emancipate their people, when Garrettson visited the Sturgis plantation to preach, Allens master was touched by this declaration and began to give consideration to the thought that holding slaves was sinful. Sturgis was soon convinced that slavery was wrong and offered his slaves an opportunity to buy their freedom, Allen performed extra work to earn the money and bought his freedom in 1780, after which he changed his name from Negro Richard to Richard Allen. Allens first wife was named Flora and they were married on October 19,1790. She worked very closely with him during the years of establishing the church from 1787 to 1799. They attended church school and worked together purchasing land, which was donated to the church or rented out to families.
Flora Allen died on March 11,1801, after a long illness, scholars do not know if they had any children. After moving to Philadelphia, Allen married Sarah Bass, a slave from Virginia. She had moved to Philadelphia as a child and the couple met around 1800, Richard and Sarah Allen had six children. Sarah Allen was highly active in what became the AME Church and is called the Founding Mother, Allen was qualified as a preacher in 1784 at the Christmas Conference, the founding of the Methodist Church in North America at Baltimore, Maryland. He was one of the two black attendees of the conference along with Harry Hosier, but neither were permitted a vote during deliberations, Allen was subsequently allowed to lead services at 5 AM, which were attended mostly by blacks
Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and Johns brother Charles Wesley were significant leaders in the movement and it originated as a revival within the 18th century Church of England and became a separate Church after Wesleys death. Because of vigorous missionary work, the movement spread throughout the British Empire, Wesleys theology focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety and the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all, in theology and this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several others were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the latter position, Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the works of mercy. These ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens and schools to follow Christs command to spread the gospel, the movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are generally less ritualistic, Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition and Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. In Britain, the Methodist Church had an effect in the early decades of the making of the working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition. The Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, the Wesley brothers founded the Holy Club at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College.
The club met weekly and they set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting regularly, abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and frequently visited the sick, the fellowship were branded as Methodist by their fellow students because of the way they used rule and method to go about their religious affairs. John, who was leader of the club, took the attempted mockery, unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith. They looked for help to Peter Boehler and other members of the Moravian Church, at a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his heart strangely warmed. Charles had reported an experience an few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally.
Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, and Selina Hastings, George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was rapidly to become a national crusade