Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering.
Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, 100 acres of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall. Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act.
Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities; this ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White's resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy, former U. S. President Benjamin Harrison was serving on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time.
The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.
In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.
After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened
Televangelism is the use of media radio and television, to communicate Christianity. Televangelists are Christian ministers, whether official or self-proclaimed, who devote a large portion of their ministry to television broadcasting; some televangelists are regular pastors or ministers in their own places of worship, but the majority of their followers come from their TV and radio audiences. Others do not have a conventional congregation as such and work through television; the term is used derisively by critics as an insinuation of aggrandizement by such ministers. Televangelism began as a uniquely American phenomenon, resulting from a deregulated media where access to television networks and cable TV is open to anyone who can afford it, combined with a large Christian population, able to provide the necessary funding, it became popular among Evangelical Protestant audiences, whether independent or organized around Christian denominations. However, the increasing globalisation of broadcasting has enabled some American televangelists to reach a wider audience through international broadcast networks, including some that are Christian in nature, such as Trinity Broadcasting Network and The God Channel.
Domestically produced televangelism is present in some other nations such as Brazil. Some countries have a more regulated media with either general restrictions on access or specific rules regarding religious broadcasting. In such countries, religious programming is produced by TV companies rather than private interest groups; the word televangelism is a portmanteau of television and evangelism and it was coined in 1958 as the title of a television miniseries by the Southern Baptist Convention. Jeffrey K. Hadden and Charles E. Swann have been credited with popularising the word in their 1981 survey Prime Time Preachers: The Rising Power of Televangelism. However, the term televangelist was employed by Time magazine in 1952, when telegenic Roman Catholic Bishop Fulton Sheen was referred to as the "first televangelist". An association of American Evangelical Protestant religious broadcasters, the National Religious Broadcasters, was founded in 1944. Christianity has always emphasized preaching the gospel to the whole world, taking as inspiration the Great Commission.
This was achieved by sending missionaries, beginning with the Dispersion of the Apostles, after the invention of the printing press, included the distribution of Bibles and religious tracts. Some Christians realized that the rapid uptake of radio beginning in the 1920s provided a powerful new tool for this task, they were amongst the first producers of radio programming. Radio broadcasts were seen as a complementary activity to traditional missionaries, enabling vast numbers to be reached at low cost, but enabling Christianity to be preached in countries where this was illegal and missionaries were banned; the aim of Christian radio was to both convert people to Christianity and to provide teaching and support to believers. These activities continue today in the developing world. Shortwave radio stations with a Christian format broadcast worldwide, such as HCJB in Quito, Family Radio's WYFR, the Bible Broadcasting Network, among others. In the U. S. the Great Depression of the 1930s saw a resurgence of revival-tent preaching in the Midwest and South, as itinerant traveling preachers drove from town to town, living off donations.
Several preachers began radio shows as a result of their popularity. One of the first ministers to use radio extensively was S. Parkes Cadman, beginning in 1923. By 1928, Cadman had a weekly Sunday afternoon radio broadcast on the NBC radio network, his powerful oratory reaching a nationwide audience of five million persons. Aimee Semple McPherson was another pioneering tent-revivalist who soon turned to radio to reach a larger audience. Radio gave her nationwide notoriety in the 1920s and 1930s and she built one of the earliest Pentecostal megachurches. In the 1930s, a famous radio evangelist of the period was Roman Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin, whose anti-Communist and antisemitic radio programs reached millions of listeners. Other early Christian radio programs broadcast nationwide in the U. S. beginning in the 1920s–1930s include: Bob Jones, Sr. Ralph W. Sockman, G. E. Lowman and the Spoken Word, The Lutheran Hour, Charles E. Fuller. Time magazine reported in 1946 that Rev. Ralph Sockman's National Radio Pulpit on NBC received 4,000 letters weekly and Roman Catholic archbishop Fulton J. Sheen received between 3,000–6,000 letters weekly.
The total radio audience for radio ministers in the U. S. that year was estimated to be 10 million listeners. Although television began in the 1930s, it was not used for religious purposes until the early 1950s. Jack Wyrtzen and Percy Crawford switched to TV broadcasting in the Spring of 1949. Another television preacher of note was Fulton J. Sheen, who switched to television in 1951 after two decades of popular radio broadcasts and whom Time called "the first'televangelist'". Sheen would win numerous Emmy Awards for his program that ran from the early 1950s, until the late 1960s. After years of radio broadcasting in 1952 Rex Humbard became the first to have a weekly church service broadcast on television. By 1980 the Rex Humbard programs spanned the globe across 695 stations in 91 languages and to date the largest coverage of any evangelistic pro
Farmington Hills, Michigan
Farmington Hills is the second largest city in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan. Its population was 79,740 at the 2010 census, it is part of the northwestern suburbs of Metropolitan Detroit and is about 30 miles northeast of downtown Ann Arbor. Farmington Hills ranks as one of the safest cities in the United States, as well as in the state of Michigan. In 2010, the area ranked as the 30th safest city in the U. S. Farmington Hills ranks as the 36th highest-income place in the United States with a population of 50,000 or more and ranks as 14th America's best cities to live by 24/7 Wall St. Although the two cities have separate services and addresses and Farmington Hills are thought of as the same community. Features of the community include a renovated downtown, boutiques, a vintage cinema, numerous restaurants, exotic car dealerships, art galleries, public parks including Heritage Park. There are several historical sites including the Governor Warner Mansion. Both cities are served by Farmington Public Schools.
Farmington Hills serves as a major business center for the greater Detroit area. Farmington Hills is the home of the Holocaust Memorial Center, the only Holocaust Memorial in the State of Michigan; the Center's mission is to educate evils of the Holocaust. The Holocaust Memorial Center was located in neighboring West Bloomfield Township, but has since expanded and moved to its current facility. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.31 square miles, of which 33.28 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. The first white settler in what became Farmington Township was a Quaker from Farmington, New York, named Arthur Power, he purchased land in 1823 and returned in 1824 with a group of families and associates to clear the land. The settlement became known as Quakertown. A post office was established in February 1826 with the name of Farmington; the original post office is still standing today, is a designated historical site. The township of Farmington was organized in 1827, the settlement was incorporated as the village of Farmington in the winter of 1866-67.
A fire on October 9, 1872 destroyed many buildings in the village center. Farmington was incorporated as a city in 1926. A small settlement was developed in Clarenceville, in the extreme southeast corner of the township on the boundary with Livonia in Wayne County. Stephen Jennings built a tavern and a general store to accommodate travelers on the plank road between Detroit and Howell; the name remains in the Clarenceville School District. Though the school buildings for Clarenceville are in Livonia in Wayne County, the school district serves a portion of Farmington Hills. In 1847, a post office named North Farmington was established a mile south of the township line as Wolcott's Corners. After the death of postmaster Chauncey D. Walcott in 1865, the office moved to the township line in the northeast quarter of section 4; the post office functioned until September 1902. In 1839, a post office named East Farmington was opened, but it closed in 1842. Before the remainder of Farmington Township was incorporated as the city of Farmington Hills, there were two other incorporated entities within its boundaries.
The first began as a subdivision named Quaker Valley Farms, incorporated as the village of Quakertown in 1959. The other was Wood Creek Farms, developed in 1937 as a subdivision by George Wellington of Franklin, who named it after a New England estate, it was incorporated as a village in 1957. The villages, together with the remainder of Farmington Township, were incorporated into the City of Farmington Hills in 1973. In 1964, the city of Farmington started a tradition; the festival is held in mid-July each summer, a fair is held in downtown Farmington which has exhibits of arts and crafts, stage entertainment, street food and family, a fun atmosphere. Gale, an educational publishing company owned by Cengage Learning, the auto loan company TD Auto Finance, are located in Farmington Hills. Other large corporations have branches in newly-built office buildings; the Nissan Technical Center North America and Nissan Trading Corp. are located in Farmington Hills. The Nissan technical center handled project engineering of vehicle bodies used in North America and Latin America.
It has a small laboratory, where as of 2012, several scientists were doing research on fuel cells. The company planned to add electrical battery and recharging of electrical vehicle research to the laboratory; as of January 2012 the technical center had 800 full-time employees. At that time Nissan planned to hire 150 more engineers to work in the technical center; the technical center opened in November 1991 at a cost of $80 million. In 2005 Nissan opened a $14 million design studio in Farmington Hills, the Nissan AZEAL was the first car to be designed there. Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc. operates the Farmington Hills Office in Farmington Hills. Hino Motors Manufacturing U. S. A. Inc. has its headquarters in Farmington Hills. The office is a sales and service office of a truck subsidiary of Toyota. In 2005 Governor of Michigan Jennifer Granholm celebrated the office's opening. A business park in the 12 Mile and Halsted area houses offices of Panasonic and Mercedes Benz. Panasonic moved into 90,000 square feet of leased space there in 2012, with plans to hire 60 full-time employees for a research and design center.
That space was unoccupied for four years and was leased by Motorola. Mango Languages, a language learning software compa
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Albion College is a private liberal arts college located in Albion, Michigan. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church, it was founded in 1835 and was the first private college in Michigan to have a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, its student population during the 2013-14 academic year was approx. 1,350. The College's athletic teams are nicknamed the Britons and their colors are purple and gold, they participate in the Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Albion College is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Michigan Campus Compact, an organization dedicated to encouraging student volunteerism; as of 2013, Albion College was ranked No. 100 in the U. S. News & World Report list of national liberal arts colleges, 115th in the Forbes list of America's Top Colleges, which includes universities as well as colleges. U. S. News includes a high school counselor ranking, in which Albion placed 85th among national liberal arts colleges; the origin of Albion College lies not in the city of Albion, but about 10 miles southeast of the present location of the college.
On March 23, 1835, Methodist Episcopal settlers in Spring Arbor Township obtained a charter for the Spring Arbor Seminary from the Michigan Territorial Legislature. Foundations for a building were begun in 1837 at a location about 3 miles southwest of the current village of Spring Arbor but were soon abandoned due to the economic turmoil caused by the Panic of 1837. No classes were held at the Spring Arbor location; the trustees applied to move the seminary to Albion in 1838, the legislature approved the move in 1839. With 60 acres of land donated by Albion pioneer Jesse Crowell, the cornerstone was laid for the first building in 1841; the seminary, now named the Wesleyan Seminary, first held classes in 1843, in the local Methodist Church. In 1844, classes began in the newly constructed Central Building, rebuilt as the present Robinson Hall in 1907; the Albion Female Collegiate Institute was founded in 1850 by the Wesleyan Seminary Corporation. The two schools merged in 1857 under the name The Wesleyan Female College at Albion.
On February 25, 1861, both schools were merged under the name Albion College when the school was authorized by the State legislature to confer a full four-year college degree upon both men and women. The Albion College student body is composed of 1,500 students; the student–to–faculty ratio is 11:1. The average class size of under 19 is comparable to other small liberal arts colleges. Albion College employs more than 100 full-time faculty, of whom more than 95% have earned the highest degree offered in their field. Albion College appears on the U. S. News & World Report list of America's Top Liberal Arts Colleges. Albion is a member of The Princeton Review's 376 Best Colleges and Best Midwestern Colleges list. Albion College offers 30 academic majors leading to Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees. In addition to the academic majors, numerous concentrations, academic institutes, special programs are offered; these include the Prentiss M. Brown Honors program, The Center for Sustainability and the Environment, Fritz Shurmur Education Institute, the Gerald R. Ford Institute for Public Policy and Service at Albion College, the Carl A. Gerstacker Institute for Business and Management, pre-professional programs in engineering and law.
In addition to the expansive facilities on Albion's campus, Albion College offers many opportunities for students to travel and study at other institutions. Programs are offered in Philadelphia, London, Heidelberg, Tübingen, Seoul, Cape Town, Aix-en-Provence, Athens and Paris, to name a few. Albion offers more than 100 different off-campus programs in over 60 countries on six continents. Of the numerous academic buildings at Albion College, the largest is the Science Complex; the Albion College Science Complex comprises four academic buildings: Norris Hall, Kresge Hall, Putnam Hall, Palenske Hall, which house the Departments of Biology, Geology, Physics and Computer Science. The four buildings are connected by a 7,000-square foot Atrium. Kresge Hall features labs for introductory chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry on the third floor. Downdraft hoods in the intro and inorganic chemistry spaces help to maintain air quality; the organic labs are equipped with 12 six-foot ventilation hoods so students can learn chemical techniques and transformations in state-of-the-art facilities.
Research space for organic and inorganic chemistry faculty can be found on the third floor. Biochemistry research and teaching spaces are found on the second floor; these spaces were designed to share a central preparation space that houses equipment used in both research and teaching applications. Proximity to the biology department encourages collaboration between students and faculty in the different disciplines; the first floor contains various classrooms and zoology and research labs for the biology department, as well as a greenhouse. The ground floor contains a majority of the biology labs, including an aquatic lab and temperature-control suite. Putnam Hall features research labs for analytical and physical chemistry, an analytical chemistry teaching lab on the third floor; the second floor has three "Enhanced Classrooms" with fixed projectors for computers, DVDs, a port to plug in additional equipment, as well as the building's primary computer lab. All four levels of Putnam Hall feature faculty and staff offices, with the third floor home to chemistry faculty offices, second floor home to biology and computer science offices, the first floor home to the main building office.
Grand Valley State University
Grand Valley State University is a public liberal arts university in Allendale, Michigan. The university was established in 1960 and its main campus is situated on 1,322 acres 12 miles west of Grand Rapids. Classes are offered at the university's campus in Downtown Grand Rapids, its international campus in Holland, through Traverse City established in cooperation with local community colleges. GVSU is a comprehensive coeducational university serving nearly 25,000 students as of fall 2018, from all 83 Michigan counties and dozens of other states and foreign countries, it is one of America's 100 largest universities, employs more than 3,000 people with about 1,780 academic faculty and 1,991 support staff. The university has alumni in all 50 U. S. states, 25 countries around the world. GVSU's NCAA Division II sports teams are called the Lakers, compete in the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference in all 19 intercollegiate varsity sports, they have won 20 NCAA Division II National Championships since 2002 in seven different sports.
In January 2019, the GVSU Board of Trustees announced that Dr. Philomena V. Mantella, senior vice president at Northeastern University, will be GVSU's fifth president and the first woman to serve in the position, her term will start July 1, 2019. In 1958 the Michigan Legislature commissioned a study that demonstrated a need for a four-year college in the Grand Rapids area, Michigan's second largest metropolitan region. Local businessman Bill Seidman created a committee to study the report and spearhead the planning and promotion to create such an institution. In the following year the Michigan Legislature established the college. A naming contest was held, out of 2500 submissions, "Grand Valley State College" was chosen. Private donations, including $350,000 to purchase land and $1,000,000 for construction, were secured from 5,000 individuals and business throughout West Michigan. In 1961, the Grand Valley State College Board of Control chose a 876-acre site in Ottawa County near the Grand River for the new campus, construction of academic buildings began the following year.
Grand Valley State College accepted its first class of 225 students in 1963 and held its first graduation of 138 students on June 18, 1967. The middle-late 1960s saw the addition of the first dormitories and construction of new academic buildings, including the Zumberge Library, named for the university's first president, James Zumberge. In 1969, the Grand Valley Lanthorn printed an issue containing several obscenities. After complaints from some at Grand Valley State College and the surrounding communities, the Ottawa County, sheriff arrested the editor, the prosecutor closed down the newspaper office; the university a co-ed college, sued the sheriff and prosecutor for closing the Lanthorn offices. Michigan's Attorney General settled the case out of court, ruling in favor of Grand Valley State College. Which cited. During the 1970s Grand Valley used a multiple college concept: "College of Arts and Sciences," "Thomas Jefferson College," "William James College," "Seidman College of Business," and "College IV."
Former Michigan Governor William Milliken signed into law for the name to be changed to Grand Valley State Colleges in 1973. However the "s" was dropped and the name was reverted to Grand Valley State College in 1983 when the academic programs were reorganized into divisions. In 1987 the Michigan Legislature passed a law renaming the college to "Grand Valley State University." The 1980s and 1990s saw addition of satellite campuses or centers in downtown Grand Rapids, Muskegon and Traverse City. In 2004, the Board of Control reorganized the University structure again into a college system consisting of College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, College of Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Community and Public Service, College of Education, College of Health Professions, Kirkhof College of Nursing, Seidman College of Business, Seymour and Esther Padnos College of Engineering and Computing; the fall semester 2010 began a year-long celebration of the university's first 50 years of history and change.
Grand Valley completed its first 50 years with a comprehensive campaign that raised $100 million from over 17,000 donors, making it the university's largest campaign to date. Money raised from the campaign has helped fund many new construction projects on campus, including the Mary Idema Pew Library and L. William Seidman Center. In 2012, GVSU announced several land purchases. Future buildings to be constructed include a new biology laboratory building and an addition and renovation to the Zumberge Library on the Allendale campus. Land purchases in 2012 included property in downtown Grand Rapids adjacent to the medical mile for healthcare program expansion. In 2013, GVSU announced that it would be adding onto Au Sable Hall as well as construct a new building to house the GVSU Laker Store, with expanded dining facilities. Grand Valley has three campuses: the main campus in Allendale and two satellite campuses in the surrounding area. Smaller centers in Muskegon and Traverse City exist; the Interurban Transit Partnership operates several The Rapid bus routes under contract with the university.
The public can ride these buses by paying the fare, but rides are free to Grand Valley students and staff on all Rapid routes with a valid I. D. card. The University's main and original campus in Allendale is the location of most of the university's programs; the Allendale campus is composed of 1,322 a
Alma College is a private liberal arts college in Alma, Michigan. It enrolls 1,400 students and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, it is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. Alma College offers five degrees in 41 majors. Academic programs that produce the most graduates are Business Administration, Psychology, Integrative Physiology and Health Science, Education and History. Students are encouraged to participate in service learning and study abroad opportunities designed to enhance classroom learning; the College was founded by Michigan Presbyterians in 1886, received funding from lumber magnate Ammi Wright, for whom Wright Hall on campus and Wright Avenue in the city of Alma are named. Prior to 1934, the Alma mascot was the Fighting Presbyterians, which became the subject of debate in 1931 due to a series of stories by The Almanian, a student-run newspaper, expressing discontent over the limitation on cheers to "Go Presbyterians" or "Go Campbellites", the latter in support of current football coach, Royal Campbell.
While still maintaining a close relationship with the Presbyterian Church, Alma College offers an environment that welcomes students of all religious backgrounds. The college's 13th President, Dr. Jeff Abernathy, assumed leadership in June 2010. In January 1997, then-president of Alma College, Alan Stone, asked 480 colleges to boycott the U. S. News and World Report Rankings due to the peer assessment survey which counts for 25% of a college's ranking. According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, in 1996, Alma College surveyed 158 colleges about the rankings; the result of the survey indicated that "84 percent of the respondents admitted that they were unfamiliar with some of the institutions they had been asked to rank. 44 percent indicated that they'tended to leave responses for unfamiliar schools blank.'" Stone stated, "this makes me wonder just how many votes are being considered for each school's academic-reputation ranking". After a June 2007 meeting of the Annapolis Group, Alma college joined others who would be boycotting the rankings.
According to a June 22, 2007 article for The Morning Sun: President Dr. Saundra Tracy said she agreed with a majority of her peers at a meeting this week to stop participating in the personality assessment portion of the annual college rankings published by U. S. News and World Report. A consensus was taken at the end of an annual meeting of the Annapolis Group, an association of liberal arts colleges. Tracy supported the action and criticized the magazine's unscientific process to rate the popularity and reputation of a school based on what presidents and admission deans say in a survey; the following thirteen individuals have served as president of Alma College from the creation of the office to the present. Those marked with their names in bold had graduated from Alma. Where years do not overlap there was a gap of a few months while a suitable candidate was found. George F. Hunting August Bruske Thomas Blaisdell Harry M. Crooks John Wirt Dunning Roy W. Hamilton Dale Welch Stanley Harker Robert Swanson Oscar E. Remick Alan Stone Saundra Tracy Jeff Abernathy Alma utilizes a 4-4-1 academic calendar with 14-week terms in the fall and winter and a four-week term in May, which students use for travel classes and internships.
The College has a Nationally Competitive Scholarship Committee, designed to help juniors and seniors apply for funding opportunities for graduate and professional school. This has produced winners of the Fulbright, Gates-Cambridge and Udall Scholarships, as well as finalists for the Marshall and Rhodes Scholarships. Since 2003, 45 students have received nationally competitive scholarships and fellowships, including 24 Fulbright scholarships; the Posey Global Fellowship program and the Responsible Leadership Institute are designed to further students' awareness of ethical leadership and service in an global economy and political landscape. In addition, the Presidential Honors Program is an intellectual community centered on collaborative research and a conscious commitment to the liberal arts. Alma College offers a four-year graduation promise, the Alma Commitment, a pledge that each interested student can participate in an experiential learning opportunity, such as an internship, research fellowship, or study abroad, backed by up to $2,500 in Alma Venture funding from the college.
The Alma Commitment, offered for the first time to the entering fall 2013 class, applies to all 136-credit majors. If a student meets program requirements but is not able to graduate in four years, the college will pay the tuition cost for the student's ninth term. Since 2010, Alma has created several new majors, including Health Care Administration, Environmental Studies, Biotechnology, New Media Studies and Special Education-Learning Disabilities. A new Integrated Health Studies Institute brings together students from across the disciplines with health-related career interests to gain practical experience in health fields and discuss cross-disciplinary issues related to health. In February 2014, the College received state approval to offer the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, or BSN, program. In April 2014, the Alma faculty approved new majors in accounting, finance and marketing that build on existing foundations and supplement the business administration majors that Alma has had for decades.
In addition to traditional majors, students may opt to create a Program of Emphasis. Students w