click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William Vickrey

William Spencer Vickrey was a Canadian-born professor of economics and Nobel Laureate. Vickrey was awarded the 1996 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with James Mirrlees for their research into the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information, becoming the only Nobel laureate born in British Columbia; the announcement of his Nobel prize was made just three days prior to his death. Vickrey died while traveling to a conference of Georgist academics that he helped found and never missed once in 20 years, his Columbia University economics department colleague C. Lowell Harriss accepted the posthumous prize on his behalf. There are only three other cases. Vickrey was born in Victoria, British Columbia and attended high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After obtaining his B. S. in Mathematics at Yale University in 1935, he went on to complete his M. A. in 1937 and Ph. D. in 1948 at Columbia University, where he remained for most of his career. Vickrey was the first to use the tools of game theory to explain the dynamics of auctions.

In his seminal paper, Vickrey derived several auction equilibria, provided an early revenue-equivalence result. The revenue equivalence theorem remains the centrepiece of modern auction theory; the Vickrey auction is named after him. Vickrey worked on congestion pricing, the notion that roads and other services should be priced so that users see the costs that arise from the service being used when there is still demand. Congestion pricing gives a signal to users to adjust their behavior or to investors to expand the service in order to remove the constraint; the theory was partially put into action in London. In public economics, Vickrey extended the Georgist marginal cost pricing approach of Harold Hotelling and showed how public goods should be provided at marginal cost and capital investment outlays financed with land value tax. Vickrey wrote that replacing taxes on production and labor with fees for holding valuable land sites "would improve the economic efficiency of the jurisdiction". Vickrey further argued that land value tax had no adverse effects and that replacing existing taxes in this way would increase local productivity enough that land prices would rise instead of fall.

He made an ethical argument for Georgist value capture, noting that owners of valuable locations still take local public goods if they choose not to use them, so without land value tax, land users have to pay twice for those public services. Vickrey's economic philosophy was influenced by John Maynard Henry George, he was critical of the Chicago school of economics and was vocal in opposing the political focus on achieving balanced budgets and fighting inflation in times of high unemployment. Working under General MacArthur, Vickrey helped accomplish radical land reform in Japan. Vickrey had many graduate students and protegés at Columbia University, including the economists Jacques Drèze, Harvey J. Levin, Lynn Turgeon. Vickrey married Cecile Thompson in 1951, he was a member of Scarsdale Friends Meeting. He died in New York in 1996 from heart failure. "Counterspeculation and Competitive Sealed Tenders", Journal of Finance, 1961. The paper originated a subfield of game theory. "Fifteen Fatal Fallacies of Financial Fundamentalism: A Disquisition on Demand Side Economics".

October 5, 1996. Arrow, Kenneth Joseph. Public Economics: Selected Papers by William Vickrey. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59763-0. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Warner, Aaron W.. Commitment to Full Employment: The Economics and Social Policy of William S. Vickrey. Armonk, N. Y: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-0633-4. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Pavlina R. Tcherneva. Full Employment and Price Stability: The Macroeconomic Vision of William S. Vickrey. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84376-409-0. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Electricity market London congestion charge Road pricing Vickrey auction Nobel Laureate Biography of William Vickrey IDEAS/RePEc William S. Vickrey; the Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. Liberty Fund. 2008. "William Vickrey". JSTOR

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Bis phthalate is an organic compound with the formula C6H42. DEHP is the most common member of the class of phthalates, it is the diester of the branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol. This colorless viscous liquid is soluble in oil, but not in water. Due to its suitable properties and the low cost, DEHP is used as a plasticizer in manufacturing of articles made of PVC. Plastics may contain 1% to 40% of DEHP, it is used as a hydraulic fluid and as a dielectric fluid in capacitors. DEHP finds use as a solvent in glowsticks. Three billion kilograms are produced annually worldwide. Industrial production entails the reaction of phthalic anhydride with 2-ethylhexanol: C6H42O + 2 C8H17OH → C6H42 + H2O2-Ethylhexanol is chiral, the resultant DEHP consists of a mixture of -, -, -isomers. Manufacturers of flexible PVC articles can choose among several alternative plasticizers offering similar technical properties as DEHP; these alternatives include other phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate, di-2-propyl heptyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, non-phthalates such as 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester, dioctyl terephthalate, citrate esters.

DEHP is a component of many household items, including tablecloths, floor tiles, shower curtains, garden hoses, dolls, shoes, medical tubing, furniture upholstery, swimming pool liners. DEHP is an indoor air pollutant in schools. Common exposures come from the use of DEHP as a fragrance carrier in cosmetics, personal care products, laundry detergents, scented candles, air fresheners; the most common exposure to DEHP comes through food with an average consumption of 0.25 milligrams per day. It can leach into a liquid that comes in contact with the plastic. Fatty foods that are packaged in plastics that contain DEHP are more to have higher concentrations such as milk products, fish or seafood, oils. Food and Drug Administration therefore permits use of DEHP-containing packaging only for foods that contain water. DEHP can leach into drinking water from discharges from chemical factories, it is commonly found in bottled water, but unlike tap water, the EPA does not regulate levels in bottled water.

DEHP levels in some European samples of milk, were found at 2000 times higher than the EPA Safe Drinking Water limits. Levels of DEHP in some European cheeses and creams were higher, up to 200,000 ppb, in 1994. Additionally, workers in factories that utilize DEHP in production experience greater exposure; the U. S. agency OSHA's limit for occupational exposure is 5 mg/m3 of air. DEHP is the most common phthalate plasticizer in medical devices such as intravenous tubing and bags, IV catheters, nasogastric tubes, dialysis bags and tubing, blood bags and transfusion tubing, air tubes. DEHP makes these plastics softer and more flexible and was first introduced in the 1940s in blood bags. For this reason, concern has been expressed about leachates of DEHP transported into the patient for those requiring extensive infusions or those who are at the highest risk of developmental abnormalities, e.g. newborns in intensive care nursery settings, kidney dialysis patients, premature babies and pregnant women.

According to the European Commission Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, exposure to DEHP may exceed the tolerable daily intake in some specific population groups, namely people exposed through medical procedures such as kidney dialysis. The American Academy of Pediatrics has advocated not to use medical devices that can leach DEHP into patients and, instead, to resort to DEHP-free alternatives. In July 2002, the U. S. FDA issued a Public Health Notification on DEHP, stating in part, "We recommend considering such alternatives when these high-risk procedures are to be performed on male neonates, pregnant women who are carrying male fetuses, peripubertal males" noting that the alternatives were to look for non-DEHP exposure solutions; the CBC documentary The Disappearing Male raised concerns about sexual development in male fetal development, miscarriage), as a cause of lower sperm counts in men. A review article in 2010 in the Journal of Transfusion Medicine showed a consensus that the benefits of a lifesaving treatments with these devices far outweigh the risks of DEHP leaching out of these devices.

Although more research is needed to develop alternatives to DEHP that gives the same benefits of being soft and flexible which are required for most medical procedures. If a procedure requires one of these devices and if patient is at high risk to suffer from DEHP a DEHP alternative should be considered if medically safe. DEHP hydrolyzes to mono-ethylhexyl phthalate and subsequently to phthalate salts; the released alcohol is susceptible to oxidation to the carboxylic acid. The acute toxicity of DEHP is low in animal models: 24 g/kg in rabbits. Concerns instead focus on its potential as an endocrine disruptor. DEHP, along with other phthalates, is believed to cause endocrine disruption in males, through its action as an androgen antagonist, may have lasting effects on reproductive function, for both childhood and adult exposures. Prenatal phthalate exposure has been shown to be associated with lower levels of reproductive function in adolescent ma

KF Tomori

KF Tomori is an Albanian football club based in the city of Berat. The club's home ground is the Tomori Stadium and they participate in the Albanian Second Division; the sport of football was introduced to the city of Berat in the early 1910s by students who had completed their studies abroad. They brought back footballs and the rules of the game from their travels which they passed onto the locals; as early as 1913 amateur neighbourhood teams were formed, such as Çunat e Lumit, Vakëfi, Kalaja and Opinga. In 1923 an artists and sports club was founded in Berat, under the name Tomori, named after the nearby Mount Tomorr, it was established in the neighbourhood facilities of a local school called Mangalem, the first team was formed with 18 teenage players. With the Albanian Football Association's foundation in 1930, the club participated in its first official tournament in the same year, the second tier of the newly established Albanian football system. Tomori gained promotion to the Albanian Superliga.

Prior to their debut season in the top flight the club changed its name from Tomori to Muzaka in 1931, during the 1931 season they finished in 7th and last place with a record of 1 draw and 5 losses, which led to their relegation. They returned to the Albanian First Division in 1932. In 1935 the Albanian Football Association did not organise any competitions so the club was not active for the year. In 1936 football resumed in Albania and the club changed its name back to Tomori and finished second in the Albanian First Division, achieving promotion to the Albanian Superliga for the second time. In the 1937 season the club again finished last in the top flight, level on points with Ismail Qemali Vlorë, who they lost 2–1 to in a relegation play off held in Kavajë at the end of the season to determine Tomori's immediate relegation once again.1936–1949: KS Tomori 1950: Berati 1951–1957: Puna 1957–deri tani: KS Tomori Members of the Presidency: Chairman: Zyhdi Doko Secretary: Shyqyri Lakra Other members: Lilo Xhimitiku Andon Myzeqari Vangjel Haxhistasa Alqiviadhi Shyti In 1964 Tomori was runner-up in the Albanian Cup, losing in the final to KS Partizani.

Tomori won the Albanian First Division championship four times: in 1930, 1950, 1970, 1977. In 1991–1992 F. K Tomori participated in the Balkans Cup but lost on aggregate to FC Oţelul Galaţi, who went on to be runners-up of the competition, their first participation in European football was in the UEFA Cup 2000-01, losing 2–5 on aggregate to Cypriot team APOEL F. C.. In 2000 F. K Tomori were runners-up in the championship, losing on penalty kicks against FK Tirana with the game having finished 1–1 after extra time had been played. Tomori Stadium holds 14,500 spectators; this is the third highest capacity stadium in Albania after Qemal Stafa Stadium and Loro Boriçi Stadium. The stadium completed its renovation in early 2012, where 13,000 tickets went on sale for the first game held there. Interest was high because the last Albanian Superliga game to be held there was in 2002. Tomori has some of the most fervent fans in Albania. Tomori have tifo-groups like Mistrecat, Berat Hooligans and Ultras Tomori.

Tomori's biggest rivals are Naftëtari, with Kuçovë only 20 kilometers down the road and with fans of both clubs working together in the textile industry during the 1970s. Lushnja and Apolonia Fier are in a small distance from each other. Albanian First Division: Winners: 1930, 1950–51, 1970–71, 1976–77Albanian Superliga: Runners-up: 1999–00Albanian Cup: Runners-up: 1963–64Balkans Cup: Semi-final: 1991–92Albanian Second Division: Winners: 2015-2016 QR1=1st Qualifying Round As of 21 September 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Theodhor Arbëri Arben Arbëri Përparim Kovaçi Klodian Arbëri Polizoi Arbëri Kliton Bozgo James Adeniyi Ilirjan Çaushaj Ola1

Sersic profile

The Sérsic profile is a mathematical function that describes how the intensity I of a galaxy varies with distance R from its center. It is a generalization of de Vaucouleurs' law. José Luis Sérsic first published his law in 1963; the Sérsic profile has the form ln ⁡ I = ln ⁡ I 0 − k R 1 / n, where I 0 is the intensity at R = 0. The parameter n, called the "Sérsic index," controls the degree of curvature of the profile; the smaller the value of n, the less centrally concentrated the profile is and the shallower the logarithmic slope at small radii is: d ln ⁡ I d ln ⁡ R = − R 1 / n. Today, it is more common to write this function in terms of the half-light radius, Re, the intensity at that radius, Ie, such that I = I e e x p, where b is 2n-1/3, it can be shown that b n satisfies γ = 1 2 Γ, where Γ and γ are the Gamma function and lower incomplete Gamma function. Many related expressions, in terms of the surface brightness exist. Most galaxies are fit by Sérsic profiles with indices in the range 1/2 < n < 10.

The best-fit value of n correlates with galaxy size and luminosity, such that bigger and brighter galaxies tend to be fit with larger n. Setting n = 4 gives the de Vaucouleurs profile: I ∝ e − b R 1 / 4, a rough approximation of ordinary elliptical galaxies. Setting n = 1 gives the exponential profile: I ∝ e − b R, a good approximation of spiral galaxy disks and a rough approximation of dwarf elliptical galaxies; the correlation of Sérsic index with galaxy morphology is sometimes used in automated schemes to determine the Hubble type of distant galaxies. Sérsic indices have been shown to correlate with the mass of the supermassive black hole at the centers of the galaxies. Sérsic profiles can be used to describe dark matter halos, where the Sérsic index correlates with halo mass; the brightest elliptical galaxies have low-density cores that are not well described by Sérsic's law. The core-Sérsic family of models was introduced to describe such galaxies. Core-Sérsic models have an additional set of parameters.

Dwarf elliptical galaxies and bulges have point-like nuclei that are not well described by Sérsic's law. These galaxies are fit by a Sérsic model with an added central component representing the nucleus; the Einasto profile is mathematically identical to the Sérsic profile, except that I is replaced by ρ, the volume density, R is replaced by r, the internal distance from the center. Elliptical galaxies Bulges Stellar systems following the R exp 1/m luminosity law A comprehensive paper that derives many properties of Sérsic models. A Concise Reference to Sérsic R1/n Quantities, Including Concentration, Profile Slopes, Petrosian Indices, Kron Magnitudes

(523759) 2014 WK509

2014 WK509, provisional designation 2014 WK509 is a trans-Neptunian object and possible dwarf planet form the scattered disc, located in the outermost regions of the Solar System. It was discovered on 14 September 2010, by Pan-STARRS at Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui, Hawaii, in the United States; the object's diameter has been estimated to measure 600 kilometers. 2014 WK509 belongs to the scattered disc population. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 40.1 -- 61.6 AU once 6 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 15 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the body's observation arc begins on 14 September 2011 at Haleakala, more than 3 years prior to its official first observation. Its orbit still has a high uncertainty; this minor planet was numbered by the Minor Planet Center on 25 September 2018. As of 2018, it has not been named. Based on an absolute magnitude of 4.4, an assumed albedo of 0.09, the Johnston's archive estimates a mean-diameter of 584 kilometers, while astronomer Michael Brown calculates a diameter of 574 kilometers using a fainter magnitude of 4.5.

Brown characterizes the object as a "likely dwarf planet", an intermediate category in his classification scheme. As of 2018, no rotational lightcurve of this object has been obtained from photometric observations; the object's rotation period and shape remain unknown. List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects, Minor Planet Center 2014 WK509 at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 2014 WK509 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Scottish heraldry

Heraldry in Scotland, while broadly similar to that practised in England and elsewhere in western Europe, has its own distinctive features. Its heraldic executive is separate from that of the rest of the United Kingdom; the Scottish heraldic executive is separate from that of the remainder of the United Kingdom and is vested in the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The earliest reference to the Lyon, as such, dates to the reign of Robert the Bruce in 1318, although with respect to certain of his functions he is considered the successor of royal officials dating to ancient Celtic times; the Lord Lyon exercises general jurisdiction over all matters armorial in Scotland and serves as a Judge of the Realm. He decides on questions relating to family representation and genealogies. In addition, he supervises all state and public ceremonies in Scotland; the Lord Lyon asserts the right to decide, Head of the Clan or Chief of the Family or Name, although his authority to determine chiefships has been challenged.

In carrying out his duties, he has been assisted, in recent times, by a staff of three heralds and pursuivants along with a Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records. The present Lyon Clerk, Elizabeth Roads MVO, Snawdoun Herald, is the first woman to serve as an Officer of Arms in the United Kingdom. Pursuant to Chapter 47 of the Act of 1672, the Lord Lyon is empowered to grant arms to "vertuous and well deserving persons." According to Innes of Learney: "A coat of arms is the outward indication of nobility and arms are described as'Ensigns of Nobility'. A patent of arms is... a Diploma of Nobility...." Clarifying this statement, a writer on Scottish heraldry has noted: "Technically, a grant of arms from the Lord Lyon is a patent of nobility. This does not constitute any title, it is a social distinction, has no legal privileges." The principal function of heraldry, whether personal or corporate, is to symbolise the identity of the owner of the armorial bearings. In Scotland the Clan, the Family, the Name have survived as significant entities in the social organization of Scottish society.

In Scottish heraldry there is no such thing as a "family coat of arms". Junior members of a family are assigned specific and relevant differences to the armorial bearings of an ancestor. Scottish heraldry operates under the supposition that all those who share the same surname are related, however distantly. Where a coat of arms for the head of a family exists, new grants of arms to individuals with the same surname will be variations on those arms. "he salient feature of Scottish heraldry is that, as compared with England and other countries, the basic coats of arms are few in number, but numerous differenced versions of each basic shield exist. The basic, or simple undifferenced arms and crest, are the property, not of the'family', but of the'Chief' of each clan or house …."The strict adherence to cadency, or the need for cadets to difference their arms from the chief of the family, is due to the permanence of the old families. From an early period the leading families of England were extinguished in the male line.

Some continue to exist in the male line, but are comparatively obscure, having sprung from untitled cadets of the ancient families. On the other hand, the Scoto-Norman barons were remarkable for their numerous progeny. Subinfeudation, prohibited in England since the time of the Plantagenet kings, was practised in Scotland. Whole districts of Scotland have their predominant names, which are those of the old feudal families. Surnames were for a long time after their introduction, used only by the gentry. In England new men emerged, founded new families. Hence it came to pass that while in England the multitude of distinct coats of arms is enormous, in Scotland the number of original coats is small; the earliest existing examples of Scots heraldry are Stewart coats of arms from seals of the last half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th, show the fess chequy, still a feature of 21st century Scots heraldry. The Lord Lyon King of Arms has a vital and continuing influence on the family organization in Scotland.

Depending on the terms of the original grant, armorial bearings are succeeded to by the heir—who may be the heir male, the heir female, or the heir by tailzie. One of the most obvious visual distinctions of Scottish heraldry from heraldic styles used elsewhere is that the scroll on which the motto is displayed is always positioned above the crest in Scottish bearings, as depicted in the illustration of the Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland above; this difference is more than visual, however. In Scottish heraldry mottoes are considered a component of the grant of arms and can be altered only by re-matriculating the arms. In English heraldry, while a motto is illustrated in the patent of arms, with rare exceptions, it is not included in the verbal grant of armorial bearings. English mottoes may be changed at will. Another difference between Scottish and English heraldry that may be discerned from the appearance of the shield itself lies in the systems employed to distinguish younger sons of an armiger, known as cadency.

English heraldry uses a series of small symbols, termed brisures, to differentiate between the senior rep