West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, to the south the English Channel. West Sussex is the western part of the historic county of Sussex a medieval kingdom. With an area of 1,991 square kilometres and a population of over 800,000, West Sussex is a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Chichester in the south-west is the only city in West Sussex. West Sussex has a range of scenery, including wealden and coastal; the highest point of the county is at 280 metres. It has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark, castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking and other recreational opportunities. Although the name Sussex, derived from the Old English'Sūþsēaxe', dates from the Saxon period between AD 477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the Old Stone Age; the oldest hominin remains known in Britain were found at Boxgrove.
Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devil's Jumps, a group of Bronze Age burial mounds, the Iron Age Cissbury Ring and Chanctonbury Ring hill forts on the South Downs; the Roman period saw the building of Fishbourne Roman Palace and rural villas such as Bignor Roman Villa together with a network of roads including Stane Street, the Chichester to Silchester Way and the Sussex Greensand Way. The Romans used the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale; the foundation of the Kingdom of Sussex is recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year AD 477. The foundation story is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century; the Kingdom of Sussex became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex, the county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes.
By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions. These were administered by a separate county council from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the administrative counties of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a single ceremonial county with the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time a large part of the eastern rape of Lewes was transferred into West Sussex; until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, near the M23/A23 corridor; the town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600. The coastal settlement of Worthing follows with a population of 104,600; the seaside resort of Bognor Regis and market town Horsham are both large towns.
Chichester, the county town, has a cathedral and city status, is situated not far from the border with Hampshire. Other conurbations of a similar size are Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and Haywards Heath in the Mid Sussex district, Littlehampton in the Arun district, Lancing and Shoreham in the Adur district. Much of the coastal town population is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county. There are several more towns in West Sussex; the smaller towns of the county are Arundel, Petworth and Steyning. The larger villages are Billingshurst, Crawley Down, Henfield, Hurstpierpoint, Lindfield and Storrington; the current total population of the county makes up 1.53% of England's population. West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east; the English Channel lies to the south. The area has been formed from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock strata, part of the Weald–Artois Anticline.
The eastern part of this ridge, the Weald of Kent and Surrey has been eroded, with the chalk surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Wealden Group. In West Sussex the exposed rock becomes older towards the north of the county with Lower Greensand ridges along the border with Surrey including the highest point of the county at Blackdown. Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald leaving a north facing scarp slope of the chalk which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the River Arun and River Adur. In addition to these two rivers which drain most of the county a winterbourne, the River Lavant, flows intermittently from springs on the dip slope of the chalk downs north of Chichester; the county makes up 1.52% of the total land of England, making it the 30th largest county in the country. West Sussex is the sunniest county in the United Kingdom, according to Met Office records. Over the last 29 years it has averaged 1902 hours of sunshine per year.
Sunshine totals are highest near the coast wi
Roehampton is a large suburban district in southwest London, takes up a far western strip running north to south of the London Borough of Wandsworth. It occupies high land in the south that adjoins: its northern part, Richmond Park/Richmond Park Golf Courses and Putney Heath; as to its southern extreme it forms a minute east-west strip heritage conservation area and a street built in the 1980s comprising Roehampton Vale. The Vale straddles the A3 which in turn adjoins many sports pitches, Putney Vale from which it is difficult in nomenclature and in history to separate, Wimbledon Common. Altogether Roehampton takes up a long area between the former village of Barnes to the north, Putney to the east, the green areas around its southern part, beyond which are Kingston Vale and Raynes Park, uniquely in its borough distant from a railway station. Roehampton's most densely populated area has a long border with the largest of London's Royal Parks, Richmond Park; the area is centred about 6.3 miles southwest of Charing Cross and gained its first church in the 19th century in its narrow central conservation area between its notable Alton Estate and Dover House Estate in 20th century government planning.
The Roe in Roehampton is thought to refer to the large number of rooks. Few cottagers worked the land at Roehampton, in large part forested and heath, thus with so little built upon it emerged as a favoured residential outlying suburb for large houses of the 18th and 19th centuries following the opening of Putney Bridge in 1729 and the more intensive developments of these "parks" or more modest grounds. Several of the original houses survive. Roehampton House by Thomas Archer was built between 1710–12 and enlarged by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1910. Parkstead House built in 1750 for William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of Bessborough, now forms part of the University of Roehampton. Mount Clare built in 1772 for George Clive, cousin of Lord Clive, which forms part of the University of Roehampton, along with Grove House, built for Sir Joshua Vanneck in 1777. Capability Brown is reputed to have laid out the grounds; the university owns Downshire House. The Society of Jesus founded St Joseph Church in Roehampton in 1869 from the novitiate that became Whitelands College.
Roehampton Village has widespread tree conservation and public small lawns has a hedged-lined cottage conservation area with rustic Georgian charm. The King's Head Inn, at the foot of Roehampton High Street and the Montague Arms, Medfield Street are 17th century in origin. Change swept the far east and west large gardens/woodlands when London County Council built the Roehampton Estate in the 1920s and 1930s and the Alton Estate in the 1950s. Dover House Road Estate is one of a number of important London County Council cottage estates inspired by the Garden City Movement; the land was the estates of two large houses, Dover House and Putney Park House, which were purchased by the LCC soon after World War I. Dover House was demolished for the new estate; the common characteristic of the LCC cottage estates is picturesque housing influenced by the Arts and Crafts style. It was the intention at Dover House Estate to create housing in groups that overlooked or had access to open space, to provide a sense of intimacy and individuality, the estate was laid out with communal green spaces.
Allotments were provided in three backland areas behind houses, two of which remain, the third subsequently infilled by housing. The notable Alton Estate, one of the largest council estates in the UK, occupies an extensive swathe of land west of Roehampton village and runs between the Roehampton Lane through-road and Richmond Park Golf Courses, as can be seen on the map above; the estate is renowned for its mix of low and high-rise modernist architecture consisting of Alton East styled a subtle Scandinavian-influenced vernacular and its later brutalist counterpart: Alton West. At Highcliffe Drive on Alton West the LCC retained the Georgian landscape and placed within it five ultra modern slab blocks: Binley, Dunbridge and Denmead Houses, inspired by Le Corbusier's Unite d'Habitation; the installation and construction of a pedestrian entrance to Richmond Park from the Alton Estate was secured by Justine Greening in 2007 although it has not yet materialised. The estate is now part of a regeneration scheme with a number of government initiatives such as SureStart helping to tackle issues of poverty and social exclusion.
Roehampton was a village which evolved as a popular residential area for the wealthy within easy reach of London. Roehampton House was built in 1710 and was until 2008 the administrative centre for Queen Mary's Hospital, it is now being developed into private flats. Parkstead House was built in 1763 by the second Earl of Bessborough, was the home of the socialite Caroline Lamb before being acquired in 1861 for use as a seminary by the Jesuits and renamed Manresa House. Gerard Manley Hopkins, the Jesuit poet, lived there. Many other 18th century aristocratic summer villas were set in parkland near Richmond Park and Putney Heath. Parkstead House, Downshire House, Grove House and Mount Clare are now all part of the University of Roehampton campus. Much of the old village of Roehampton still remains dominated by large detached houses. An old watering trough for Victorian carriage-horses exists at the junction of Medfield Street and Roehampton Lane; the university has campaigned to have nearby Bar
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. In Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. In the 2011 census, the Parliamentary constituency of Birkenhead had a population of 88,818; the recorded history of Birkenhead began with the establishment of Birkenhead Priory and the Mersey Ferry in the 12th century. During the 19th century Birkenhead expanded becoming a town as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with Birkenhead Park and Hamilton Square being examples of the era. Around the same time, Birkenhead gained the first street tramway in Britain; the Mersey Railway connected Birkenhead and Liverpool, with the world's first tunnel beneath a tidal estuary. Birkenhead is best known for the shipbuilding of Cammell Laird, for the town's seaport. In the second half of the 20th century, the town suffered a significant period of decline, with containerisation causing a reduction in port activity.
During the first half of the 21st century, the Wirral Waters development is planned to regenerate much of the dockland. The name Birkenhead means "headland overgrown with birch", from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree, of which many once grew on the headland which jutted into the river at Woodside; the name is not derived from the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe. The Birket is a name, introduced by Ordnance Survey; the earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, when Benedictine monks under the leadership of Hamon de Mascy built a priory there. The priory was visited in 1275 and 1277 by Edward I. In a royal charter of 13 April 1330, Edward III granted the priory further rights. Distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services. In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, began operation between Liverpool and Woodside.
Shipbuilding started in 1829. An iron works was established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828; the business became Cammell Laird. Notable naval vessels built at Birkenhead include HMS Achilles, HMS Affray, CSS Alabama, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Birkenhead, HMS Caroline, Huáscar, the pioneer submarine Resurgam, HMS Thetis, HMS Conqueror and HMS Prince of Wales. Merchant vessels were built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle. In 1833 an act was passed to introduce street paving and other improvements in the town; these included regulating the police force. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886; the Grange Road West drill hall was completed in 1900. In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the local branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters. In addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool.
This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. Bolstered by migration from rural Cheshire, southern Ireland and Wales, the town's population had grown from 110 in 1801 to 110,912 one hundred years and stood at 142,501 by 1951. Birkenhead was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. A township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888; the borough included the parish of Birkenhead St. Mary and the townships of Bidston, Claughton with Grange, Oxton and part of Bebington known as Rock Ferry; the townships of Landican and Thingwall were added in 1928, followed by Noctorum and Woodchurch in 1933. Prior to 1 April 1974, Birkenhead and the rest of the Wirral Peninsula were part of the county of Cheshire; the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972 caused Birkenhead to lose its county borough status.
The town has since been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The Birkenhead and Tranmere electoral ward had a population of 15,879 in 2011; the current Member of Parliament for Birkenhead is Frank Field. The Birkenhead Urban Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics, includes Birkenhead, Bebington, Ellesmere Port and the contiguous built-up areas which link those towns. In the 2011 Census, the area so defined had a total population of 325,264, making it the 19th largest conurbation in England and Wales. Shipbuilding and ship repair has featured prominently in the local economy since the 19th century. Cammell Laird entered receivership in 2001; the shipyard was sold and became'Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders', which grew into a successful business specialising in ship repair and conversion, including maintenance contracts for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. In September 2007 NS&S acquired the rights to use the Cammell Laird name.
The company was renamed'Cammell Laird Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders' on 17 November 2008, seeing the famous name return to Birkenhead after a seven-year hiatus. In 2010, Cammell Laird secured a
Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.
Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club referred to as Brighton, is a professional football club from Brighton where they play in the edge of the city in Falmer, England. They compete in the top tier of the English football league system. Brighton's home ground is the 30,750-capacity Falmer Stadium. Founded in 1901, nicknamed the "Seagulls" or "Albion", Brighton played their early professional football in the Southern League, before being elected to the Football League in 1920; the club enjoyed greatest prominence between 1979 and 1983 when they played in the First Division and reached the 1983 FA Cup Final, losing to Manchester United after a replay. They were relegated from the First Division in the same season. By the late 1990s, Brighton had slipped to the fourth tier of English football and were in financial trouble. After narrowly avoiding relegation from the Football League to the Conference in 1997, a boardroom takeover saved the club from liquidation. Successive promotions in 2001 and 2002 brought Brighton back to the second tier, in 2011, the club moved into the Falmer Stadium after 14 years without a permanent home ground.
In the 2016–17 season, Brighton finished second in the EFL Championship and were thus promoted to the Premier League, ending a 34-year absence from the top flight. Brighton & Hove Albion F. C. were founded in 1901 and 19 years in 1920, they were elected to the Football League's new Third Division – having been members of the Southern League. In the Southern League they won their only national honour to date, the FA Charity Shield, which at that time was contested by the champions of the Southern League, the Football League, by defeating Football League Champions Aston Villa in 1910. Mike Bamber was the chairman of Brighton from October 1972 until 1983, he famously brought Brian Clough to the club in 1973 and appointed former England player Alan Mullery as manager. Brighton's life as a Football League club had brought little in the way of success and headlines until 1979, under Mullery's management, they were promoted to the First Division as Second Division runners-up; the 1982/83 season saw a wildly inconsistent start for the club, with victories over Arsenal and Manchester United mixed in with heavy defeats.
Manager Mike Bailey lost his job at the start of December 1982. Jimmy Melia took over as manager, but was unable to turn the situation around and Brighton, after four seasons in the top flight, were relegated in 1983, finishing in bottom place. Despite their relegation, that season Brighton reached their first FA Cup final and drew 2–2 with Manchester United in the first match. Brighton's goals were scored by Gary Stevens; this was the final that featured the "miss" by Gordon Smith with the last kick of the game in extra time, prompting the BBC commentator Peter Jones to utter the well known phrase "...and Smith must score". However, Smith's kick was saved by the Manchester United goalkeeper, Gary Bailey. In the replay, Manchester United won 4–0. After four seasons, relegation to Division Three came in 1987, but the Albion bounced back the next season. In 1991 they lost the play-off final at Wembley to Notts County 3–1, only to be relegated the next season to the newly named Division Two. In 1996 further relegation came to Division Three.
The club's financial situation was becoming precarious, the club's directors decided that the Goldstone Ground would have to be sold to pay off some of the club's huge debts. Manager Jimmy Case was sacked after a poor start to the 1996–97 season saw Brighton stuck at the bottom of the league by a considerable margin; the club's directors appointed a relative unknown in Steve Gritt, the former joint manager of Charlton Athletic. Brighton's league form improved under Gritt, although their improving chances of survival were put under further threat by a two-point deduction imposed as punishment for a pitch invasion by fans who were protesting against the sale of the Goldstone ground. A lifelong fan named Dick Knight took control of the club in 1997 having led the fan pressure to oust the previous board following their sale of the club's Goldstone Ground to property developers. By the last day of the season, after being 13 points adrift at one stage, they were off the bottom of the table and had to play the team directly below them, Hereford United – the game was in their hands.
If Brighton won or drew, they would be safe. Brighton defender Kerry Mayo scored an own goal in the first half and it looked as though their 77-year league career was over, but a late goal from Robbie Reinelt ensured that Brighton retained their league status on goals scored, Hereford's 25-year league run was instead over. The sale of the Goldstone Ground went through in 1997, leading to Brighton having to play some 70 miles away at Gillingham's Priestfield stadium for two seasons. Micky Adams was appointed Brighton's manager in 1999. For the start of the 1999–2000 season the Seagulls secured a lease to play home games at Withdean Stadium, a converted athletics track in Brighton owned by the local council. 2000–01 was Brighton's first successful season for 13 years. They were promoted to Division Two. Adams left in October 2001 to work as Dave Bassett's assistant at Leicester, being replaced by former Leicester manager Peter Taylor; the transition proved to be a plus point for Brighton, who maintained their good form and ended the season as Division Two champions – winning a second successive promotion.
Just five years after succumbing to the double threat of losing their Football League status and going out of bus
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Royal Sussex Regiment
The Royal Sussex Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, in existence from 1881 to 1966. The regiment was formed in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 35th Regiment of Foot and the 107th Regiment of Foot; the regiment saw service in the Second Boer War, both World War I and World War II. On 31 December 1966, the Royal Sussex Regiment was amalgamated with the other regiments of the Home Counties Brigade – the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, the Middlesex Regiment – to form the Queen's Regiment; the regiment was formed in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 35th Regiment of Foot and the 107th Regiment of Foot. The 1st Battalion was sent to Egypt as part of General Garnet Wolseley's expedition to crush the ‘Urabi Revolt and conquer Egypt in the name of the Khedive; the 1st battalion was part of the Nile Expedition, an unsuccessful attempt to save General Charles Gordon and his garrison at Khartoum during the Mahdist War.
Twenty men of the regiment, led by Lieutenant Lionel Trafford, constituted the advanced party which marched towards Khartoum. The battalion took part in the Battle of Abu Klea in January 1885. After a couple of years back in England, the battalion was stationed in Ireland from 1891 to 1896 at Malta in 1899; the 2nd Battalion was stationed at Malta from 1882 moved to India in 1885 and took part in the Hazara Expedition in 1888 and the North-West Frontier campaign 1897–1898. The battalion stayed in India until early 1902; when the Second Boer War required more troops to reinforce British forces in South Africa, the 1st Battalion was sent there in February 1900, fought at the Battle of Doornkop in May 1900. A 3rd Militia Battalion was formed of the Royal Sussex Light Infantry Militia, it was embodied in December 1899 and embarked for South Africa to take part in the Second Boer War in March 1901. Most of the officers and men returned home on the SS Dominion in August 1902, after the war had ended two months earlier.
Following the end of the war in South Africa, the 1st battalion transferred to India, where they were stationed at Sitapur in Bengal Presidency. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the 1st Battalion, which formed part of the 1st Brigade in the 1st Division, was one of the few infantry battalions that remained in India throughout the whole war, being stationed at Peshawar. The 2nd Battalion landed in France as part of 2nd Brigade in the 1st Division in August 1914 and fought through the war on the Western Front, it took part in the Battle of Mons in August 1914, the Battle of the Marne in September 1914, the Battle of the Aisne in September 1914 and the First Battle of Ypres in November 1914 as well as the Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. During the Battle of Loos in September 1915 Sergeant Harry Wells was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross, when the battalion took part in an attack.
The battalion took part in the Battle of the Somme in Autumn 1916, the British pursuit to the Hindenburg Line in Spring 1917, the Battle of Passchendaele in October 1917, the Battle of the Lys in April 1918 and the Second Battle of Arras in August 1918. The 1/4th Battalion landed at Suvla Bay as part of the 160th Brigade in the 53rd Division in August 1915; the 1/5th Battalion landed in France as Army Troops attached to the Home Counties Division in early 1915, seeing action at the Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915 and moved to Italy in November 1917. The 7th Battalion was formed in September 1914 by men volunteering for Lord Kitchener's New Armies and landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 36th Brigade in the 12th Division in June 1915 for service on the Western Front; the 8th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 54th Brigade in the 18th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 9th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 73rd Brigade in the 24th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front.
The 11th, 12th and 13th Battalions were all raised in late 1914 as part of the 116th Brigade of the 39th Division. All three battalions landed at France in March 1916 for service on the Western Front. All three battalions took part in the Battle of the Boar's Head in June 1916. After a bombardment of the German trenches the 12th and 13th Battalions went over the top and, under heavy fire, attacked the enemy trenches and bayoneting their way in; the 11th Battalion supplied carrying parties. They succeeded in taking the German front line trench, holding it for some four hours, briefly took the second line trench for about half an hour, beating off repeated counterattacks, only withdrew from the shortage of ammunition and mounting casualties. In regimental history this is known. Edmund Blunden, a second lieutenant in the 11th Battalion, wrote an excellent account of his experiences in his memoirs, Undertones of War. After the war, St George's Chapel, in Chichester Cathedral, was restored and furnished as a memorial to the fallen of the Royal Sussex Regiment.
The Barrack-Room Ballads are a series of songs and poems by Rudyard Kipling, dealing with the late-Victorian British Army and written in a vernacular dialect. The series contains some of Kipling's most well-known work, including the poems "Gunga Din", "Tommy", "Mandalay", "Danny Deever", helping consolidate his early fame as a poet; the first poems were published in the Scots Observer in the first half of 1890, collected in Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses in 1892. Kipling returned to the theme in a group of poems collected in The Seven Seas under the same title. A third group of vernacular Army poems from the Boer War, titled "Service Songs" and published in The Five Nations, can be considered part of the Ballads, as can a number of other uncollected pieces. While two volumes of Kipling's poems are labelled as "Barrack-Room Ballads", identifying which poems should be grouped in this way can be complex; the main collection of the Ballads was published in the 1890s, in two volumes: Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses and The Seven Seas, sometimes published as The Seven Seas and Further Barrack-Room Ballads.
In both books, they were collected into a specific section set aside from the other poems, can be identified. A third group of poems, published in 1903 in The Five Nations, continued the theme of military vernacular ballads. Charles Carrington produced the first comprehensive volume of the Ballads in 1973 drawn from these three collections but including five additional pieces not collected under the title. Three of these date from the same period: an untitled vernacular poem taken from a short story, The Courting of Dinah Shadd, in Life's Handicap; the remaining two date from the First World War. Both were published in The Years Between. Kipling wrote profusely on military themes during the war, but from a more detached perspective than the first-person vernacular he had adopted. There are some confusingly captioned pieces. Many of Kipling's short stories were introduced with a short fragment of poetry, sometimes from an existing poem and sometimes an incidental new piece; these were identified "A Barrack-Room Ballad", though not all the poems they were taken from would otherwise be collected or classed this way.
This includes pieces such as the introductory poem to My Lord the Elephant collected in Songs from Books but not identified as a Ballad. It is not clear if these were deliberately omitted by Carrington or if he explicitly chose not to include them. From Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses From The Seven Seas UncollectedBobs "My girl she gave me the go onst..." T. S. Eliot, in his essay on Kipling for his 1941 anthology of Kipling's verse, writes that many writers have written verse without writing poetry, but that Kipling was unusual in that he did write poetry without setting out to do so. In Eliot's view, this makes Kipling a'ballad-writer', and, he thought, more difficult in 1941 than in Kipling's time, as people no longer had the music hall to inspire them. Eliot thought Kipling's ballads unusual in that Kipling had been careful to make it possible to absorb each ballad's message on a single hearing. But, wrote Eliot, Kipling had more to offer than that: he had "a consummate gift of word and rhythm", never repeated himself, used short, simple stanzas and rhyming schemes.
What is more The variety of form which Kipling manages to devise for his ballads is remarkable: each is distinct, fitted to the content and the mood which the poem has to convey. Nor is the versification too regular... List of the works of Rudyard Kipling 1892 in poetry 1896 in poetry The Whiffenpoof Song Eliot, TS. A Choice of Kipling's Verse, made by T. S. Eliot with an essay on Rudyard Kipling. Faber and Faber.--- paperback edition and Faber Barrack-Room Ballads - Free e-book #2819 at Project Gutenberg