Birdy is the debut novel of William Wharton, more than 50 years old when it was published. It won the U. S. National Book Award in category First Novel. Birdy was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 1980 losing to The Executioner's Song by Norman Mailer. Birdy was adapted as a film of the same name, directed by Alan Parker and starring Matthew Modine and Nicolas Cage. Naomi Wallace, a poet and playwright, adapted Birdy for the stage in 1997
Encinitas is a beach city in the North County area of San Diego County, California. Located within Southern California, it is 25 miles north of San Diego and about 95 miles south of Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 59,518, up from 58,014 at the 2000 census. Encinitas is a Spanish name meaning "little oaks"; the city was incorporated by 69.3% of the voters in 1986 from the communities of historic Encinitas, new Encinitas, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, Olivenhain. The communities retain distinctive flavors. Encinitas can be divided into five areas: Old Encinitas: a small beachside area featuring a mix of businesses and housing styles. Sitting along Coast Highway 101, the Encinitas welcome arch, the famous surf break Swamis, the early 20th century La Paloma Theater are located here. Old Encinitas is divided from New Encinitas by a low coastal ridge. New Encinitas: a newer region which features a golf course, many shopping centers, is composed of larger tract homes. Olivenhain: a semi-rural region in eastern Encinitas, composed of single family homes, an active 4-H Club, several private equestrian facilities.
Olivenhain connects to Rancho Santa Fe via Encinitas Boulevard. Leucadia: a coastal community of the city. Leucadia features tree-lined boulevards; the community features art galleries, unusual stores, restaurants, along with single family homes. This contains beaches such as Beacons and Grandview. Cardiff-by-the-Sea: Encinitas' southernmost oceanfront community, which features streets named after British cities and classical composers, the Lux Art Institute, the San Elijo Campus of Mira Costa College. Encinitas is located at 33°2′40″N 117°16′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles. 18.8 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water. The city's elevation ranges between 180 feet above sea level. Encinitas lies on rugged coastal terrain; the city is bisected by a low-lying coastal ridge that separates Old Encinitas. In the north of the city, the coast rises in elevation and the land is raised up in the form of many coastal bluffs.
The city is surrounded by Batiquitos Lagoon and San Elijo Lagoon to the north and south, respectively. Encinitas has a mild, Mediterranean climate. Average daily high temperature is 72 °F. Temperatures below 40 °F and above 85 °F are rare. Average rainfall is about 10 inches per year; the wet season lasts during the winter and spring, when temperatures are cool. Average daytime temperatures hit 65F in spring, when rain and marine layer are common. Nighttime lows range from 45-55F; the dry season lasts from summer through fall, with average daytime temperatures ranging from 75-85F, nighttime lows being from the upper 50s–60sF. Ocean water temperatures average 60F in winter, 64F in spring, 70F in summer, 66F in fall. In winter, strong Pacific storms can bring heavy rain. During the winter of 2015-2016, the area saw rounds of severe thunderstorms. Tornados touched down nearby; the 2010 United States Census reported that Encinitas had a population of 59,518. The population density was 2,977.5 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Encinitas was 51,067 White, 361 African American, 301 Native American, 2,323 Asian, 91 Pacific Islander, 3,339 from other races, 2,036 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8,138 persons; the Census reported that 58,990 people lived in households, 123 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 405 were institutionalized. There were 24,082 households, out of which 6,997 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,113 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,950 had a female householder with no husband present, 981 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,359 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 169 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,303 households were made up of individuals and 2,118 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45. There were 15,044 families; the population was spread out with 12,285 people under the age of 18, 3,767 people aged 18 to 24, 16,584 people aged 25 to 44, 19,239 people aged 45 to 64, 7,643 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. Females comprise the majority of Encinitas' population at 50.5% as of April 2010. There were 25,740 housing units at an average density of 1,287.7 per square mile, of which 15,187 were owner-occupied, 8,895 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 39,101 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,889 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 58,014 people, 22,830 households, 14,291 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,035.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,843 housing units at an average density of 1,247.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.60% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 3.10% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.28% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 14
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
John Uhler "Jack" Lemmon III was an American actor, nominated for an Academy Award eight times, winning twice. He starred in over 60 films, such as Mister Roberts, Some Like It Hot, The Apartment, Days of Wine and Roses, Irma la Douce, The Great Race, The Odd Couple, Save the Tiger, The China Syndrome and Glengarry Glen Ross. Lemmon was born on February 8, 1925, in an elevator at Newton-Wellesley Hospital in Newton, Massachusetts, he was the only child of Mildred Burgess LaRue and John Uhler Lemmon, Jr. the president of the Doughnut Corporation of America. John Uhler Lemmon II was of Irish heritage, his son was raised Catholic, his parents had a difficult marriage, separated permanently when Lemmon was 18, but never divorced. He attended the Rivers School in Weston, Massachusetts. Unwell as a child, Lemmon had three significant operations on his ears before he turned 10, he had spent two years in hospital by the time he turned 12. During his acceptance of his lifetime achievement award, he stated that he knew he wanted to be an actor from the age of eight.
He began to act in school productions. Lemmon attended Rivers Country Day School and Phillips Andover Academy, where he pursued track sports with success, Harvard College, where he lived in Eliot House At Harvard, he was president of the Hasty Pudding Club and vice-president of Dramatic and Delphic Clubs. Except for drama and music, however, he was an unexceptional student. Forbidden to act in theatres, Lemmon broke Harvard rules to appear in roles using pseudonyms like Timothy Orange, he was a member of the V-12 Navy College Training Program and Lemmon was commissioned by the United States Navy, serving as an ensign on an aircraft carrier during World War II before returning to Harvard after completing his military service. After graduation with a degree in War Service Sciences in 1947, He studied acting under coach Uta Hagen at HB Studio in New York City, he was a pianist, who became devoted to the instrument learned to play by ear. For about a year in New York City, he worked unpaid as a waiter and master of ceremonies at the Old Knick bar on Second Avenue.
He played the piano at the venue. Lemmon became a professional actor, working on Broadway, his film debut was a bit part as a plasterer in the film The Lady Takes a Sailor, but he was appearing in television shows, which numbered about 400 in the five years from 1948. Lemmon believed his stage career was about to take off when he was appearing on Broadway for the first time in a 1953 revival of the comedy Room Service, but the production closed after two weeks. Despite this setback, he was spotted by talent scout Max Arnow, working for Columbia, Lemmon's focus shifted to films and Hollywood. Columbia's head Harry Cohn wanted to change Lemmon's name, in case it was used to describe the quality of the actor's films, but he resisted, his first role as a leading man was in the comedy It Should Happen to You, which featured the established Judy Holliday in the female lead. Bosley Crowther in his review for The New York Times described Lemmon as possessing "a warm and appealing personality; the screen should see more of him."
The two leads soon reunited in Phffft. Kim Novak had a secondary role as a brief love interest for Lemmon's character. "If it wasn't for Judy, I'm not sure I would have concentrated on films", he told The Washington Post in 1986 saying early in his career he had a snobbish attitude towards films over the stage. He managed to negotiate a contract with Columbia allowing him leeway to pursue other projects, some of the terms of which he said "nobody had gotten before", he ended staying with Columbia for ten years. Lemmon's appearance as Ensign Pulver in Mister Roberts, with James Cagney and Henry Fonda, for Warner Bros. gained Lemmon the Best Supporting Actor Oscar. Director John Ford decided to cast Lemmon after seeing his Columbia screen test, directed by Richard Quine. At an impromptu meeting on the studio lot, Ford persuaded the actor to appear in the film, although Lemmon did not realise he was in conversation with Ford at the time. In the military farce Operation Mad Ball set in a U. S. Army base in France after World War II, Lemmon played a calculating private.
He met comedian Ernie Kovacs, who co-starred, they became close friends, appearing together in two subsequent films, as a warlock in Bell and Candle and It Happened to Jane, all three under the direction of Richard Quine. Lemmon starred in six films directed by Quine; the others were The Notorious Landlady and How to Murder Your Wife. Lemmon worked with Billy Wilder on seven films, their association began with Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe. His role required him to perform 80% of the role in drag, although people who knew his mother, Millie Lemmon, said he had mimicked her personality and her hairstyle; the critic Pauline Kael said. The sequence of films with Wilder continued with The Apartment and Irma la Douce, in which Lemmon co-starred with Shirley MacLaine, he was Oscar nominated for his roles in Some Like It The Apartment. MacLaine, observing the director's relationship with his male lead, believed it amounted t
A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
A Midnight Clear
A Midnight Clear is a 1992 American war drama film written and directed by Keith Gordon and starring an ensemble cast that features Ethan Hawke, Gary Sinise, Peter Berg, Kevin Dillon and Arye Gross. It is based on the eponymous novel by William Wharton. Set towards the end of World War II, the film tells the story of an American intelligence unit which finds a German platoon that wishes to surrender. In the early phase of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, a small US Army intelligence and reconnaissance squad, are sent to occupy a deserted chateau near the German lines to gather information on the enemy's movements. Losses from an earlier patrol has reduced the squad to just six men: Sgt. Knott, Avakian, Shutzer and Mundy. On their way to the chateau, they discover the frozen corpses of a German and an American in a standing embrace arranged by the Germans as a grim joke. Settling into their temporary home, they soon discover they are not alone. A group of German soldiers has occupied a position nearby.
While out on patrol, Knott and Shutzer see a trio of German soldiers aiming their weapons at them, but the enemy vanish without shooting. The Germans more skilled and experienced than the young GIs, soon leave calling cards, start a snowball fight one evening and offer a Christmas truce. At first, the Americans think the Germans are taunting them but it becomes clear that the enemy want to parley. Shutzer speaks enough German to communicate with the enemy who turn out to be a small group of youngsters still in their teens, commanded by an aging NCO. Having survived the Russian front, the Germans say, but they ask that the Americans pretend that they were captured in combat so as to protect their families back home from possible retribution for their desertion. The Americans agree, but keep the plan from Wilkins, mentally unstable since learning of the death of his child back home; the two groups proceed to fire their weapons into the air as planned. However Wilkins thinks the engagement is real.
Arriving at the scene, Wilkins opens fire at the Germans whereupon the latter, thinking they have been tricked shoot back. The situation goes out of control and Knott's squad are forced to kill all of the enemy soldiers but not before Mundy is fatally hit and Shutzer is badly wounded. Mundy's final words are to beg the others not to tell Wilkins that the skirmish was intended to be fake; the squad's superior officer arrives, reprimanding them for their conduct, before taking Shutzer back for treatment. Left alone again, the four remaining soldiers reflect as they try and celebrate Christmas, cleaning Mundy's body in a bathtub. Shortly afterwards, the squad is forced to flee. Carrying Mundy's corpse, they disguise themselves as medics and escape back to American lines. There Knott is informed that Wilkins has been recommended for the Bronze Star and transferred to the motor pool, while the rest of the squad will be sent into the front line to fight as regular infantry. Peter Berg as Bud Miller Kevin Dillon as Mel Avakian Arye Gross as Stan Shutzer Ethan Hawke as Will Knott Gary Sinise as Vance "Mother" Wilkins Frank Whaley as Paul "Father" Mundy John C.
McGinley as Maj. Griffin David Jensen as Sgt. Hunt Larry Joshua as Lt. Ware Curt Lowens as older German NCO Rachel Griffin as Janice Timothy Shoemaker as Eddie Parts of the film were shot in Park City, Utah; the film received positive reviews, with an 88% favorable rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 40 reviews. A reviewer from The Washington Post lauded it as "a war film unlike any other, a compelling accomplishment that's more soul than blood and bullets." Vincent Canby of The New York Times praised the film's solid construction, concluding that "In A Midnight Clear, just about everything works."Reviewing the film's 2012 DVD release in The Observer, Philip French described the film as "an ironic, at times surreal fable.....and the plot's twists are matched by the sharpness of its moral insights." Nominations1993 Independent Spirit Award – Best Screenplay for Keith Gordon A Midnight Clear on IMDb A Midnight Clear at Rotten Tomatoes A Midnight Clear at Box Office Mojo
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t