Surveyor of the Fabric of St Paul's Cathedral
The post of Surveyor of the Fabric of St Paul's Cathedral was established in 1675. The role is an architectural one, with the current holder being responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the cathedral and its buildings. In the past, the role has involved overseeing new construction work as well as restoration and architectural conservation; the post has been held by the following people: Christopher Wren John James Henry Flitcroft Stiff Leadbetter Robert Mylne Samuel Pepys Cockerell Charles Robert Cockerell Francis Penrose Somers Clarke Mervyn Edmund Macartney Walter Godfrey Allen John Seely, Lord Mottistone Paul Edward Paget Bernard Feilden Robert Potter William Whitfield Martin Stancliffe Oliver Caroe For a fuller history of the 20th-century surveyorships, see Peter Burman's'Decoration and Art since 1900', forming chapter 23 of St. Paul's: The Cathedral Church of London, 604–2004 For more on the history of the surveyorships, see the lecture'St Paul's at 300', given at Gresham College in two parts in November 2011 by the retiring surveyor Martin Stancliffe
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site, it is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury. Founded in 597, the cathedral was rebuilt between 1070 and 1077; the east end was enlarged at the beginning of the 12th century, rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop, murdered in the cathedral in 1170. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late 14th century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the archbishop.
Christianity had started to become powerful in the Roman Empire around the 3rd century. Following the conversion of Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century, the influence of Christianity grew steadily; the cathedral's first bishop was Augustine of Canterbury abbot of St Andrew's Benedictine Abbey in Rome. He was sent by Pope Saint Gregory the Great in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine dedicated it to Jesus Christ, the Holy Saviour. Augustine founded the Abbey of St Peter and Paul outside the city walls; this was rededicated to St Augustine himself and was for many centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops. The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral and the ancient Church of St Martin. Bede recorded; the oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building, constructed across a Roman road. They indicate that the original church consisted of a nave with a narthex, side-chapels to the north and south.
A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations. During the 9th or 10th century this church was replaced by a larger structure with a squared west end, it appears to have had a square central tower. The 11th-century chronicler Eadmer, who had known the Saxon cathedral as a boy, wrote that, in its arrangement, it resembled St Peter's in Rome, indicating that it was of basilican form, with an eastern apse. During the reforms of Dunstan, archbishop from 960 until his death in 988, a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral, but the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c. 997 and the community only became monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards. Dunstan was buried on the south side of the high altar; the cathedral was badly damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Ælfheah, was taken hostage by the raiders and killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, the first of Canterbury's five martyred archbishops.
After this a western apse was added as an oratory of Saint Mary during the archbishopric of Lyfing or Aethelnoth. The 1993 excavations revealed that the new western apse was polygonal, flanked by hexagonal towers, forming a westwork, it housed the archbishop's throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east. At about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church; the cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1067, a year after the Norman Conquest. Rebuilding began in 1070 under Lanfranc, he cleared the ruins and reconstructed the cathedral to a design based on that of the Abbey of Saint-Étienne in Caen, where he had been abbot, using stone brought from France. The new church, its central axis about 5m south of that of its predecessor, was a cruciform building, with an aisled nave of nine bays, a pair of towers at the west end, aiseless transepts with apsidal chapels, a low crossing tower, a short choir ending in three apses.
It was dedicated in 1077. Under Lanfranc's successor Anselm, twice exiled from England, the responsibility for the rebuilding or improvement of the cathedral's fabric was left in the hands of the priors. Following the election of Prior Ernulf in 1096, Lanfranc's inadequate east end was demolished, replaced with an eastern arm 198 feet long, doubling the length of the cathedral, it was raised above a elaborately decorated crypt. Ernulf was succeeded in 1107 by Conrad, who completed the work by 1126; the new choir took the form of a complete church with its own transepts. A free standing campanile was built on a mound in the cathedral precinct in about 1160; as with many Gothic church buildings, the interior of the choir was richly embellished. William of Malmesbury wrote: "Nothing like it could be seen in England either for the light of its glass windows, the gleaming of its marble pavements, or the many-coloured paintings which led the eyes to the panelled ceiling above."Though named after the 6th-century founding archbishop, the Chair of St Augustine, the ceremonial enthronement chair of the Archbishop of Canterbury, may date from the Norman period.
Its first recorded use is in 1205. A pivotal moment in the history of the cathedral was the mu
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in County Durham, England. The town has a population of 85,000, with a population of 195,000 in the wider borough, according to 2017 estimates. Stockton is an Anglo-Saxon name with the typical Anglo-Saxon place name ending'ton' meaning farm, or homestead; the name is thought by some to derive from the Anglo-Saxon word Stocc meaning log, tree trunk or wooden post.'Stockton' could therefore mean a farm built of logs. This is disputed, because when the word Stocc forms the first part of a place name it indicates a derivation from the similar word Stoc, meaning cell, monastery or place.'Stoc' names along with places called Stoke or Stow indicate farms which belonged to a manor or religious house. It is thought that Stockton fell into this category and the name is an indication that Stockton was an outpost of Durham or Norton which were both important Anglo-Saxon centres; this is a matter of dispute, but Stockton was only a part of Norton until the eighteenth century, when it became an independent parish in its own right.
Today the roles have been reversed and Norton has been demoted to a part of Stockton. Stockton is known to be the home of the fossilised remains of the most northerly hippopotamus discovered on Earth. In 1958, an archeological dig four miles north-west of the town discovered a molar tooth from a hippo dating back 125,000 years ago. However, no-one knows where the tooth was discovered, who discovered it, or why the dig took place; the tooth was sent to the borough's librarian and curator, G. F. Leighton, who sent to the Natural History Museum, London. Since the tooth has been missing, people are trying to rediscover it. Stockton began as an Anglo-Saxon settlement on high ground close to the northern bank of the River Tees; the manor of Stockton was created around 1138 and was purchased by Bishop Pudsey of Durham in 1189. During the 13th century, the bishop turned the village of Stockton into a borough; when the bishop freed the serfs of Stockton, craftsmen came to live in the new town. The bishop had a residence in Stockton Castle, just a fortified manor house.
The first recorded reference to the castle was in 1376. Stockton's market can trace its history to 1310, when Bishop Bek of Durham granted a market charter – to our town of Stockton a market upon every Wednesday for ever; the town grew into a busy little port, exporting wool and importing wine, demanded by the upper class. However by the standards of the time, medieval Stockton-on-Tees was a small town with a population of only around 1,000, did not grow any larger for centuries; the Scots captured Stockton Castle in 1644 and occupied it until 1646. It was destroyed at the order of Oliver Cromwell at the end of the Civil War. A shopping centre, the Castlegate Centre, now occupies the castle area. No known accurate depictions of the castle exist; the Town House was built in 1735 and the first theatre in Stockton opened in 1766. In 1771, a five arch stone bridge was built replacing the nearby Bishop's Ferry; until the opening of the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge in 1911, this was the lowest bridging point on the Tees.
From the end of the 18th century the Industrial Revolution changed Stockton from a small and quiet market town into a flourishing centre of heavy industry. Shipbuilding in Stockton, which had begun in the 15th century, prospered in the 17th and 18th centuries. Smaller-scale industries began developing around this time, such as brick and rope making, the latter reflected in road names such as Ropery Street in the town centre. Stockton became the major port for County Durham, the North Riding of Yorkshire and Westmorland during this period, exporting rope made in the town, agricultural produce and lead from the Yorkshire Dales; the town grew as the Industrial Revolution progressed, with iron making and engineering beginning in the town in the 18th century. The town's population grew from 10,000 in 1851 to over 50,000 in 1901; the discovery of iron ore in the Eston Hills resulted in blast furnaces lining the River Tees from Stockton to the river's mouth. In 1820 an Act set up the Commissioners, a body with responsibility for lighting and cleaning the streets.
From 1822 Stockton-on-Tees was lit by gas. In 1822, Stockton witnessed an event which changed the face of the world forever and heralded the dawn of a new era in trade and travel; the first rail of George Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington Railway was laid near St. John's crossing on Bridge Road. Hauled by Locomotion No 1, the great engineer himself manned the engine on its first journey on 27 September 1825. Fellow engineer and friend, Timothy Hackworth acted as guard; this was the world's first passenger railway. The opening of the railway boosted Stockton, making it easier to bring coal to the factories. Stockton witnessed another discovery in 1827. Local chemist John Walker invented the friction match in his shop at 59 High Street; the first sale of the matches was recorded in his sales-book on 7 April 1827, to a Mr. Hixon, a solicitor in the town. Since he did not obtain a patent, Walker received neither fame nor wealth for his invention, but he was able to retire some years before his death.
He is buried in the parish churchyard in Norton village. The first bell for Big Ben was cast by John Warner and Sons in Norton on 6 August 1856, but became damaged beyond repair while being tested on site and had to be replaced by a foundry more local to Westminster. A hospital opened in Stockton in 1862 and a public library opened in 1877. Steam trams began running in the streets in 1881 and were replaced by electric trams in 1897. Buses repla
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Arthur Beresford Pite
Arthur Beresford Pite was a British architect known for creating Edwardian buildings in Baroque Revival, Byzantine Revival and Greek Revival styles. Arthur Beresford Pite was born on 2 September 1861 in London to Alfred and Hephzibah. Pite was educated at Kings College School. In 1877 he entered the office of The Builder's Journal doing literary work, he attended the Royal Architectural School. In 1882 he became a partner with the notable architect John Belcher, they had been friends for sometime. Architectural historian Alastair Service has described Beresford Pite as'a vividly original thinker' who together with Belcher developed the'striking yet intimate Baroque style' which Belcher became known for in the 1890s.. Pite worked in the Belcher office until he won the Royal Institute of British Architects Soane Medallion for his design for a West End Club House in 1882. Following this Pite travelled to the continent with his brother William and they were joined by Belcher and J W James for part of the trip.
Pite returned to Belcher's practice and the partnership lasted 12 years. The Pite family transferred to Ramsgate, Kent where Arthur and William shared rooms and an architectural office. In 1887 Arthur married Mary Kilvington Mowll and they moved back to Brixton, London, they had four children, Grace Sarah, Ion Beresford and Arthur Goodhart. Pite continued working on his commissions including the Burlington Arcade, Christ Church and one other church in Brixton, Kampala Cathedral, Uganda, a hospital in Jerusalem, the Chartered Accountants' Hall in Moorgate, the West Library in Islington and buildings in Marylebone to name but a few, he served as professor of architecture at the Royal College of Art from 1900 to 1923 and professor at Cambridge University where he was considered a gifted teacher and speaker. As an active church member he ran a bible school for young students and a weekly bible class for prisoners in Wormwood Scrubs Prison, he designed many notable non-conformist churches with Alfred Eustace Habershon, enumerated as a Greenwich resident in 1901 and had an office in Queen Street, Erith.
In 1889 he built "Earlywood" a large family house at Essex. Here he enjoyed many happy holidays with his wide circle of relatives. In 1903 he moved to York Gate, Regent's Park and it was there that his beloved wife Mary died in 1905. In 1906 Pite began his commission to build the headquarters of the London and Glasgow Assurance Company at 30 Euston Square, it was a magnificent building of Portland stone, spanning seven floors. The building took two years to build and was opened on 22 January 1908; the main entrance hall was decorated with yellow and sage green Doulton Parian ware, tiled arches and a curious ceiling of dentils. The mosaic floor features an astrological design; the director's boardrooms on the first floor are lined in oak with oak strip floors and stunning marble fireplaces as their focal point. The basement housed the records for the Assurance Company; the new office building was fitted with a passenger lift, electric lighting and oil-fired central heating. Modern for its time, Pite's detail was meticulous.
Five light wells lined in white glazed brick, flooded the lower floors with light. Further light was provided to the basement level by skylights. Pite was asked to add further extensions fronting Melton Street as soon as the Euston Square building was finished, he continued to enlarge the building for 20 years with the addition of the 9 Melton Street tower being his final work there. With the widening of Euston Road in the late 1920s the final expansion took place; the London and Glasgow Assurance Company had moved out in 1910, the new occupants were the National Amalgamated Approved Society. The building is Grade II* listed due to its significant architectural importance. At least half of Pite's smaller commissions were in the Marylebone area off Oxford Street, he always retained an office in this vicinity when he lived in Brixton and Beckenham. At 48 Harley Street, Pite was asked to make alterations on the property for Gibson Sankey, his trademark mosaic tiling, this time in blue glass, still remains today surrounding the entrance.
Pite built 82 Mortimer Street circa 1900 for Doctor Dudley Buxton as a family house and consulting rooms. It was constructed of red brick and Portland stone over 4 storeys with a basement and slated mansard; the sculptures flanking the 2nd floor, seated male and female figures, were not by Pite but produced by the firm of Farmer & Brindley, architectural sculptors. Arguably one of Pite's most revered works is 37 Harley Street in South East Marylebone. Built in 1897-9, architectural press at the time proclaimed it to be'nothing short of a revolution in Harley Street achitecture'. Pite attended the Nash-built All Souls Church in Langham Place, where he was invited to design the Peace Memorial floor of 1918/19, its Byzantine mosaic style is reminiscent of his floor in the London and Glasgow Assurance Company's entrance hall. In 1914 Pite moved his home to Hampstead. Following Mary's death his sister Annie cared for his family, his daughter Grace who suffered ill health spent most of her time at Earlywood with Sadler, the family's old nanny as she felt the coastal air more beneficial.
In 1930, Pite moved to Becken
Richmond House was until 2017 the headquarters building of the Department of Health and Social Care of the United Kingdom at 79 Whitehall, London, SW1A 2NS. It is where the ministerial team and key National Health Service officials were based until November 2017; the building is located behind New Scotland Yard and across Richmond Terrace from the Ministry of Defence. The design was by Sir William Whitfield and was completed in 1987. In January 2018, the House of Commons voted to move to Richmond House in 2025, for an estimated six years, to allow a full renovation of the Houses of Parliament. Plans revealed in October 2018 indicated that most of the building would be demolished in preparation for this move, with only the facade retained in front of a new building designed by Allford Hall Monaghan Morris and containing a permanent chamber and offices