Mayor of Invercargill
The Mayor of Invercargill is the head of the municipal government of Invercargill, New Zealand, presides over the Invercargill City Council. The mayor is directly elected using a First Past the Post electoral system; the current mayor is Tim Shadbolt, the longest-serving mayor for Invercargill. There have been 43 mayors so far. Invercargill was first proclaimed a municipality on 28 June 1871. On 26 August of that year, the first mayoral elections were held, William Wood was elected as first mayor, defeating J. W. Mitchell by 191 to 140 votes. Unlike other municipalities, the mayor has always been elected "at large", rather than the councillors choosing one of their group. Mayoral elections were held on an annual basis. From 1915, mayors were elected for a two-year term; when David Roche resigned the mayoralty in 1887, council appointed Aaron Blacke as mayor until an extraordinary election could be held. This was not done in strict accordance with the law, Blacke is not included in official lists of Mayors of Invercargill.
Greater Invercargill was created on 10 January 1910 during Charles Steven Longuet's reign. Longuet was succeeded by William Ott, twice elected unopposed and did not seek re-election in 1912. Invercargill was proclaimed a city on 1 March 1930 during John D. Campbell's mayoralty. There has been one woman mayor so far – Eve Poole, she has been the only Jewish mayor, though earlier mayor Abraham Wachner was of Jewish descent. A library building is named after Poole, she died in office in 1992. Tim Shadbolt claimed a surprising victory. Shadbolt is the current mayor; the 2010 election win made Shadbolt the longest-serving mayor in New Zealand, with this being his 8th mayoral term. Seven former mayors have been Members of Parliament, all of them represented the Invercargill electorate: William Wood John Cuthbertson George Lumsden James Walker Bain Joseph Hatch Josiah Hanan Ralph Hanan Invercargill has had 43 mayors so far: Cyclopedia Company Limited; the Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Otago & Southland Provincial Districts.
Christchurch. Retrieved 18 October 2010. Watt, John Oman Percival. Centenary of Invercargill Municipality 1871–1971. Invercargill: Times Printing Service
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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1875–76 New Zealand general election
The New Zealand general election of 1875–76 was held between 20 December 1875 and 29 January 1876 to elect a total of 88 MPs in 73 electorates to the 6th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 4 and 15 January 1876. A total of 56,471 voters were registered. Political parties had not been established yet; the previous parliament had 78 representatives from 72 electorates. In October 1875, Parliament passed the Representation Act 1875, resolved to increase the size of Parliament to 88 representatives through the following changes: one additional member for City of Dunedin the single member electorates of Christchurch East and Christchurch West to amalgamate and form the City of Christchurch electorate with three members one additional member for Timaru one additional member for Waitaki one additional member for Grey Valley one additional member for Hokitika one additional member for Napier one additional member for Wanganui one additional member for Thames a new Waipa electorate With the two new electorates and the amalgamation in Christchurch, the number of electorates thus increased by one to 73.
Eleven of the electorates were two-member electorates. To split Timaru into two electorates was proposed by the Timaru incumbent, Edward Stafford; the new electorate for the Waikato, was added on the proposal put forward by William Jackson, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1875. The election was held over six weeks in December 1875 and January 1876; the date of election is defined here as the day on which the poll took place, or if there was no contest, the day of nomination. The first elections were held on 20 December 1875 in the City of Dunedin and City of Nelson electorates, returning a total of five members. In Dunedin, the three positions were contested by eight candidates. In Nelson, 20 December was the nomination day and the two candidates were returned unopposed. In two electorates, elections were held on Christmas Eve, while 19 candidates were elected between Christmas and New Year; the last election was held in the Wairau electorate on 29 January 1876 between Arthur Seymour and George Henderson.
Seymour was successful. Elections in the Maori electorates were held on 4 15 January. A total of 56,471 voters were registered. George Grey stood in the general election for both the Thames electorates. In the two-member Auckland electorate, only Grey and Patrick Dignan were put forward as candidates, were thus declared elected on 22 December 1875; the two-member Thames electorate was contested by six candidates, including Julius Vogel, William Rowe and Charles Featherstone Mitchell. On election day, Grey attracted the highest number of votes and, Rowe beat Vogel into second place. Hence Grey and Rowe were declared elected for Thames. A protest against Grey's election was lodged with the returning officer the following day, stating that Grey had not been eligible to stand in Thames as he had been elected in Auckland West; this petition was filed to the House of Representatives at the end of January. With this controversy going on for several months unresolved, Grey advised in mid June 1876 in a series of telegrams that he had chosen to represent Auckland West.
On 8 July, the report of the committee inquiring into his election for Thames was read to the House. It was found that this was in accordance with the law, but that he had to make a decision for which electorate he would sit. On 15 July 1876, Grey announced that he would represent Thames, he moved that a by-election be held in Auckland West for the seat that he would vacate there; the Government received a majority over the opposition in the election, but with political parties not forming until 1890, precise numbers cannot be given. One newspaper counted 48 of the members as Government supporters. On 15 February 1876, the Pollen Ministry led by Daniel Pollen resigned. Julius Vogel, Premier prior to Pollen, formed a new ministry and became Premier again. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
1866 New Zealand general election
The New Zealand general election of 1866 was held between 12 February and 6 April to elect 70 MPs to the fourth term of the New Zealand Parliament. In 1867 four Māori electorates were created as a temporary measure for five years; the first Māori elections for these seats were held in 1868, with universal suffrage for Māori males over 21. The first four Māori members of parliament were Tareha te Moananui, Frederick Nene Russell and John Patterson, who all retired in 1870. A Moorhouse was elected in both the Mount Westland electorates, he chose to represent Westland. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer
New Zealand Legislative Council
The Legislative Council of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1951. When New Zealand became a colony in 1841 the Legislative Council was established as the country's first legislature. Unlike the elected lower house, the House of Representatives, the Legislative Council was wholly appointed by the Governor-General; the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 had authorised the appointment of a minimum of ten councillors. Beginning in the 1890s, the membership of the upper house became controlled by government of the day; as a result, the Legislative Council possessed little influence. While intended as a revising chamber, in practice and votes simply replicated those in the lower house, it was abolished by an Act of Parliament in 1950, with its last sitting in December 1950. The Legislative Council was established by the Charter for Erecting the Colony of New Zealand on 16 November 1840, which created New Zealand as a Crown colony separate from New South Wales on 1 July 1841; the Legislative Council consisted of the Governor, Colonial Secretary and Colonial Treasurer.
The Legislative Council had the power to issue Ordinances, statutory instruments. With the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, the Legislative Council became the upper house of the General Assembly in 1853; the Legislative Council was intended to act as a revising chamber and amending bills, passed by the House of Representatives. It could not initiate bills, was prohibited from amending money bills; the model for the Legislative Council's role was the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 provided for councillors to be appointed for life terms by the Governor; as the power of the Governor over New Zealand politics decreased, it became the convention that appointments were made on the recommendation of the Premier meaning that councillors were selected by the government of the day. However, the life term of councillors meant that the Legislative Council always lagged behind the House of Representatives—Premiers were hampered in their activities by a Legislative Council appointed by their predecessors.
In 1891, life membership was replaced by a seven-year term by the new Liberal Party government of John Ballance. Part of the Liberal Party's motivation was ideological, but part was undoubtedly political, as Ballance's conservative predecessor, Harry Atkinson, had stacked the council with seven conservatives shortly before leaving office. Ballance had considerable difficulty in achieving his reform of the Council, with major clashes occurring between him and the Governor, The Earl of Onslow, who had approved the seven appointments. Ballance's victory is seen as establishing an important precedent in the relationship between Governor and Prime Minister; the seven appointments on 20 or 22 January to the Council were Atkinson himself plus Charles Bowen, James Fulton, Charles John Johnston, John Davies Ormond, William Downie Stewart, Sr. and John Blair Whyte. The structure of the Legislative Council prior to 1891 was therefore similar to that of the Canadian Senate; the title "The Honourable" could be retained from 1894 by a councillor with not less than ten years service if recommended by the Governor.
This privilege was extended to one member, William Montgomery, in 1906. It was specified in the Constitution Act 1852 that the Council would consist of at least ten members. Although not a part of the Act, instructions were issued that the number of members should not exceed fifteen. One member was to be selected as Speaker of the Legislative Council, corresponding to the position of Speaker of the House of Representatives. A quorum of five members was established; the first appointments to the Legislative Council were made in 1853, when twelve members were called to the upper house. They were John Salmon, William Swainson and Frederick Whitaker on 26 May 1853; the maximum number of members was raised, the limit was abolished. The Council reached a peak of 53 members in 1885 and 1950; the Legislative Council was less representative of the New Zealand public than was the House of Representatives. Women were not eligible to serve as councillors until 1941, only five were appointed. Two, Mary Anderson and Mary Dreaver, were appointed in 1946 by the First Labour Government.
In 1950 when the First National Government appointed the suicide squad to vote the council out of existence three women were included. Māori were better represented; the first two Māori councillors were appointed in 1872, not long after the creation of the Māori electorates in the House. A convention was established. In January 1891 the outgoing Atkinson Ministry appointed six new members to the Legislative Council, with the object of blocking any radical bills that the John Ballance and the new Liberal Government might introduce.. They were the last appointments for life; the new members w
John Parkin Taylor
John Parkin Taylor was a 19th-century New Zealand runholder, a politician in Otago and Southland. In his early life, Taylor studied languages in Germany, he got married when he returned to England. Taylor's family emigrated to New Zealand in 1849 and he was a sheep farmer in various parts of the South Island before settling on a run near Riverton in Southland, where he had his homestead'Waldeck' built, he entered the House of Representatives for the Dunedin Country electorate through a by-election in 1858 but fell out with many of his constituents over a broken election promise, as he helped the Southland Province to break away from the Otago Province. He became Southland's second Superintendent and served from 1865 to 1869, represented an electorate on the Southland Provincial Council for a few months. In 1865, he was appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council and with one break in membership due to non-attendance, he remained a member until his death, he did not stand again due to poor health.
Taylor had a painful illness and died in 1875. Taylor was born in Treeton near Rotherham, England in 1812. After his education, he worked as a merchant in Liverpool and Germany. In the latter country, he gained an appreciation of German literature, he went back to England, settled in Rotherham, went into business there, got married to Ismene De Chapte. Taylor's family emigrated to Nelson, New Zealand in 1849 on the Cornwall, which reached Nelson Harbour on 25 August, he remained on board to travel to Otago for land exploration. Having bought land in the Awatere Valley sheep farming proved uneconomic and Taylor moved south, leaving his family in Nelson, he bought land in circa 1853 just north of the Waitaki River. Taylor sold the run in 1855 and took up run 28 at Otekaike, on the south side of the Waitaki River and inland from Duntroon. In 1856, he bought the Waiau run, located between the Waiau and Wairaki Rivers in Southland, from Charles Whybrow Ligar, he sold his northern land holdings, moved his stock over land to his new run, sent for his family to come down from Nelson.
He reached his new land in July 1856, built a homestead'Waldeck' near Riverton. He entertained at his homestead and it became an important meeting point; the resignation of incumbent MP John Cargill caused the 1858 Dunedin Country by-election. Taylor addressed the electors at a meeting, where he confirmed his political independence and inexperience: I must, distinctly state that, as I have hitherto but superficially studied New Zealand politics, if elected, I go to the Assembly unfettered by any pledge, excepting to oppose Dr. Menzies' proposal for the division of the Province. Dr Menzies was a settler near the town of Wyndham, he was the leader of the Southland separatist movement, the initiative to split the Southland Province off from the Otago Province. Taylor won the election, but despite the promises that he made to the electors, Taylor assisted in bringing in the New Provinces Act, which constituted Southland as a separate provincial district; this brought him into conflict with many of his constituents, he chose to retire from parliament at the end of the electoral term in 1860.
He was elected Superintendent of Southland Province twice. He served until the dissolution of the second term in September 1869, he represented the Cambelltown electorate on the Southland Provincial Council for three months in 1869. Taylor, Arthur Seymour, John Acland, James Crowe Richmond, James Rolland, James Prendergast, Henry Miller, Henry Coote and Alfred Rowland Chetham-Strode were all appointed to the Legislative Council on 8 July 1865. Taylor's membership lapsed on 18 October 1867 through absence, he was reappointed on 4 July 1868 and served until his death on 12 August 1875. On 17 July 1872, Taylor was declared elected mayor of Riverton as his opponent had failed to sign the nomination form. A year Taylor was too ill to stand for re-election. Taylor was ill for a long time and after much pain, he died on 12 August 1875 at his homestead Waldeck, aged 63. After Henry Coote and Joseph Hawdon, he was only the third member to have left the Legislative Council through death, he was buried at Riverton Cemetery.
His wife moved to Invercargill, when she died in 1878, she was buried next to him. Taylor's only daughter, Phoebe Ann Bertha Taylor, had married Captain Edward Mitford Hankinson, RN, on 7 April 1870 at Riverton, with the reception at Waldeck. After Taylor's death, his son-in-law's family lived at Waldeck, where Captain Hankinson died in 1884. Taylor's sons were James Corie Taylor, who committed suicide in Wellington on 17 November 1879, Robert Charles Taylor, who died at Little River on 8 February 1917, his daughter, after having remarried, died at Invercargill on 5 September 1917. Jackson, William Keith; the New Zealand Legislative Council: a study of the establishment and abolition of an upper house. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. Scholefield, Guy, ed.. A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: M–Addenda. II. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 7 November 2015. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984.
Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
Sir Francis Dillon Bell was a New Zealand politician of the late 19th century. He served as New Zealand's third Minister of Finance, as its third Speaker of the House; the town of Bell Block near New Plymouth – on land Bell bought from the Puketapu iwi in 1849 – is named after him, as is Bell Street, Whanganui. Bell's son, Francis Henry Dillon Bell, became the first New Zealand born Prime Minister in 1925. Bell is believed to have been born in Bordeaux, where his father, Edward Bell, was the British consul, he grew up speaking both French fluently. When his family ran into financial problems, his father's cousin, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, managed to secure Bell a position as a clerk in the New Zealand Company's head office in London; as a result of office politics, however, it became expedient for Bell to go to New Zealand in person, acting as an agent for the Company. Bell arrived in New Zealand in 1843, he moved around New Zealand visiting Auckland and the Wairarapa before becoming the New Zealand Company's resident agent in New Plymouth.
While there, he negotiated land deals with local Māori. Following the resignation of William Fox as the company's agent in Nelson, Bell was appointed to this position. Passing through Wellington on his way to take up the post, Bell found the company's director in New Zealand, William Wakefield, to be in ill health. Bell postponed his journey to Nelson in order to help manage the company's affairs, Wakefield recommended Bell as his successor before he died. In the end, Bell was outmanoeuvred by William Fox, who Bell was replacing as the Company's agent in Nelson. Bell was bitter at Fox's victory, it was as a result of this bitterness that Bell became a strong supporter of Fox's enemy, Governor George Grey. Grey appointed Bell to the Legislative Council of the New Munster Province. Bell's reputation suffered from his association with the Governor and many thought of him as a time-server and a sycophant. Bell returned to his company post in Nelson, although the New Zealand Company did not survive long after Wakefield's death.
In 1851, Grey appointed Bell to the Legislative Council. When the Legislative Council was reformed, becoming the upper house of the new General Assembly, Bell's appointment was reconfirmed. In 1854, the Legislative Council demanded that one of its members should be appointed to Fitzgerald's Executive Council. Bell was selected to join the four members of the lower house, appointed, took his place on 30 June. On 11 July, however, he was forced to resign due to the ill health of his wife, he joined the Wellington Provincial Council for the Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay electorate and served from November 1853 to February 1856. He was a member of the Wellington Executive Council from 16 March 1854. In the 1855 elections, Bell stood for the lower house in the Hutt electorate, was successful; when Henry Sewell became New Zealand's first Premier and formed the Sewell Ministry, Bell was appointed Colonial Treasurer on 7 May 1856. Sewell's premiership lasted only two weeks and Bell lost his position, he moved to Otago.
Bell contested a 17 May 1858 by-election against Charles Brown in the Bell electorate. Brown and Bell received 61 votes, respectively. Brown was thus declared elected. In 1859, he contested a supplementary election for the new electorate of Wallace, was elected on 30 November, he was re-elected in the 1860 elections, elected as MP for Mataura in the following two elections. As an MP, he was active in campaigning for Southland to become an independent province, a goal which came to fruition on 1 April 1861, he joined the Southland Provincial Council and represented the electorates of Matau and Otaramika. When Alfred Domett became Premier in 1862, Bell became Colonial Treasurer once again, Minister of Native Affairs. Bell was experienced in negotiating with Māori, spoke the Māori language fluently. Bell was not active in his Native Affairs role, however, as he believed that the Governor – not Parliament – should have primary responsibility for Māori relations; when Domett was ousted as Premier by William Fox, Bell lost both roles.
From 1869 to 1871, Bell was a minister without portfolio. After the 1871 elections, Bell was appointed Speaker of the House, he is regarded to have been a competent speaker, having few strong views that might have biased him. He was knighted in 1873. Although Bell intended to contest the 1875 elections, he decided to withdraw, expecting an appointment to the Legislative Council. A new government policy meant. In late 1879 Bell, a pastoralist who by had amassed a holding of 226,000 acres, joined Fox as the other member of the West Coast Commission to inquire into Māori grievances with confiscated lands in Taranaki; the commission's hearings, prompted by friction between the Government and Te Whiti over plans to survey and sell confiscated land in central and south Taranaki, were connected with events at Parihaka, a settlement that became the centre of a passive resistance campaign against European encroachment on Māori land. In 1880, Bell was offered a position as Agent-General in London, he served there until 1891.
In London, Bell was involved in a large number