The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Western Mail (Western Australia)
The Western Mail, or Western Mail, was the name of two weekly newspapers published in Perth, Western Australia. The first Western Mail was published between 19 December 1885 and 23 October 1896 as a joint venture by Charles Harper and John Winthrop Hackett, the co-owners of The West Australian, the state's major daily paper, it was printed by James Gibbney at the paper's office in St Georges Terrace. Considerable numbers of regional and local newspapers in Western Australia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included the word "Mail" in their names. In 1901, in the publication Twentieth century impressions of Western Australia, a history of the early days of the West Australian and the Western Mail was published. In the 1920s The West Australian employed its first permanent photographer Fred Flood, many of whose photographs were featured in the Western Mail. In 1933 it celebrated its first use of photographs in 1897 in a West Australian article; the Western Mail featured early work from a large number of prominent West Australian authors and artists, including.
The Western Mail Annual editions carried significant collections of Western Australia art and writing. The Western Mail was created to provide farmers with up to date information. However, for many women in the most isolated areas of the State it represented their only social connections beyond their families; the women's and children's sections became popular and attracted the most revenue for the paper. West Australian Newspapers management experimented with a variety of formats in the late 1940s and early 1950s, including the Weekend Mail for five years; the newspaper was renamed to The Countryman on 27 January 1955. However, the name Western Mail was recycled for a last Christmas Annual in 1956. In 1980 the name was resurrected for a new weekly, published by Western Mail Limited; the push for a new paper was made by Robert Holmes à Court and Bell Group following his failed takeover attempt of The Times. The venture was wound up in 1988; the Western Mail. Perth, W. A: West Australian Newspapers Vol. 1, no. 1 – Vol. 70, no. 3403 Days of issuesWeekly on Thursday 3 July 1919 – 20 January 1955 Weekly on Friday 27 September 1912 – 27 June 1919 Weekly on Saturday 16 September 1899 – 21 September 1912 Weekly on Friday 21 June 1895 – 8 September 1899 Weekly on Saturday 19 December.
1885 – 15 June 1895Special issues and supplementsAnnual Christmas edition – 1897–1956 State Centenary Number of the Western Mail, 4 July 1929 Centenary of the West Australian 1933 Countryman's Magazine (Vol. 1, no. 1 – Vol. 2, No. 8 Women's Magazine Weekend Mail. Perth West Australian Newspapers LtdKnown as Weekend Mail – TV from 5 September 1959 to 1960 Vol. 1, No. 1 - Vol. 6, No. 290 Weekly on Saturday. Annual supplement: Weekend Mail Annual The Western Mail, Perth, W. A: Western Mail Ltd. 1980–1988. Vol. 1, No. 1 – No. 374. Weekly on Saturday. 1944: Malcolm Uren Most dates are derived from the entries in the State Library's reference catalogue: Western Mail 1980 Western Mail 1885 Western Mail at Trove
Ardath, Western Australia
Ardath is a small town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia 20 kilometres south of the town of Bruce Rock. It was built to serve the Corrigin to Bruce Rock railway, named Kerkenin in April 1914. However, confusion with Kukerin saw its name changed to Ardath, after the name of a prophet in the apocryphal 2 Esdras; the surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops. The town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling. In 1932 the Wheat Pool of Western Australia announced that the town would have two grain elevators, each fitted with an engine, installed at the railway siding. A bulk wheat bin was built in the town in and opened in December 1940; the total delivery for the first season was 203, 648 bushels with 242 tons being received on a single day. During World War II Ardath was the location of No. 9 Advanced Ammunition sub depot developed in 1942 and manned by 16 Ordnance Ammunition Section. It was closed in 1945. Media related to Ardath, Western Australia at Wikimedia Commons
Department of Agriculture and Food (Western Australia)
Department of Agriculture and Food, was a Western Australian government department responsible for regulating and advancing agricultural and food industries within the state. The Minister for Agriculture and Food, was responsible for the department. In 2004 the department had operating costs of $215,000,000 approx with $120,000,000 provided directly by the state government; the balance was from federal government grants, public operating activities and user charges and fees. This department was responsible for quarantine control on all plants and animal products brought into the state; the Agricultural Protection Board is part of this and responsible for the eradication of pests in Western Australia. In 1894, Premier John Forrest, established the Bureau of Agriculture under the chairmanship of Charles Harper; the members were A. R. Richardson, W. Paterson, J. H. D. Amherst, F. H. Piesse and G. L. Throssell; the bureau was not placed under the supervision of a minister. This changed in April 1898 when the bureau became the Agricultural Advisory Board and a new Department of Agriculture was gazetted under the control of Throssell as Commissioner for Crown Lands.
Professor William Lowrie was appointed director in 1908. He resigned in 1911. James Mitchell was at this time Minister for Agriculture and he expanded the senior position to three commissioners: George Lowe Sutton, as Commissioner for the Wheat Belt, James M. B. Connor as Commissioner for the South-West. Moody as Commissioner for the Fruit Industries. Western Australian Bureau of Agriculture 1894 - 1898 Department of Agriculture 1898 - 2006 Department of Agriculture and Food 2006 - 2017 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development 2017 - The department operates the following research stations throughout Western Australia: Avondale Agricultural Research Station Badgingarra Research Station Esperance Downs Research Station Gascoyne Research Station - Carnarvon Katanning Research Station Kununurra: Frank Wise Research Institute Manjimup Research Station Medina Research Station Merredin Research Station Mount Barker Research Station Newdegate Research Station Vasse Research Station Wongan Hills Research Station Buy West, Eat Best Articles about the first months of the Western Australian Bureau of Agriculture: bureau set up, list of members and tasks it should accomplish.
West Australian, 27 January 1894, p. 4. Centenary, 1894-1994: Profiles of Progress: Department of Agriculture Perth, W. A.: The Dept. 1994 Official website
Highbury, Western Australia
Highbury Wolwolling, is a small town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, located along the Great Southern Highway between Narrogin and Wagin. At the 2006 census, Highbury had a population of 493. Like many towns, Highbury came into existence with the construction of the Great Southern Railway, when a siding was built here in 1894. Highbury was called Wolwolling, after Wolwolling Pool, a permanent pool in the bed of the Arthur River 7km to the south-southeast, it was gazetted under that name in 1905, but the local progress association complained that the name was too similar to others, causing letters and goods to go astray to other places. At a public meeting the names submitted to ballot were Highbury and Linton. Linton was the preferred name, however it was renamed Highbury from August 1906; the Wolwolling State School was opened in 1904, with a permanent school building and teacher's quarters constructed in 1905. The school operated until 1946; the town today is little more than a stop on the highway, with a store and hall utilised by the surrounding agricultural district in the southern Shire of Narrogin.
A group called Highbury District Community Council report to council on issues affecting the area, in 2006 proposed the construction of a war memorial next to the hall to honour those from the district who had fought and died overseas
Division of O'Connor
The Division of O'Connor is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. It is one of Western Australia's three rural seats, one of the largest electoral constituencies in the world; the division was named after Charles Yelverton O'Connor, the Engineer-in-Chief of Western Australia who designed Fremantle Harbour and the Goldfields Pipeline. The division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 28 February 1980, was first contested at the 1980 federal election, it has always been a rural seat, was based in the Mid West and Great Southern regions of Western Australia with major population centres in Geraldton and Albany. The division was altered by a redistribution in 2008, taking effect at the 2010 election; the other large country seat in Western Australia, needed to expand in size, but it proved all but impossible to reconfigure Kalgoorlie in a way that would have left O'Connor with any rational basis. It was decided to abolish Kalgoorlie and push O'Connor well to the east to take in most of Kalgoorlie's former southern portion.
The northern portion of the old O'Connor was shifted to the new seat of Durack. It is now centred on the Great Southern and Goldfields-Esperance regions of the state, with major population centres in Albany and Esperance. Local government areas within the electorate as at the 2016 election include Albany, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broomehill-Tambellup, Bruce Rock, Coolgardie, Cranbrook, Denmark, Dundas, Gnowangerup, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kent, Kondinin, Lake Grace, Leonora, Menzies, Narrogin, Pingelly, Ravensthorpe, Wandering, West Arthur, Wickepin and Woodanilling; the seat has always been held by a conservative party. When it was created, its demographics suggested that it should have been held by the National Country Party, despite its large notional Liberal majority. However, severe conflict between rival branches of the state National Party allowed Liberal Wilson Tuckey to take the seat on Labor preferences. Tuckey held it without serious difficulty until his defeat at the 2010 election by Nationals WA candidate Tony Crook with a large swing.
However, the Liberals regained the seat at the 2013 election. Division of O'Connor - Australian Electoral Commission
Banksia ser. Dryandra
Banksia ser. Dryandra is a series of 94 species of shrub to small tree in the plant genus Banksia, it was considered a separate genus named Dryandra until early 2007, when it was merged into Banksia on the basis of extensive molecular and morphological evidence that Banksia was paraphyletic with respect to Dryandra. They are found only in the southwestern corner of Western Australia, they have never been popular among gardeners among the rest of Australia due to their dislike of the humid and subtropical conditions which dominate the east coast. The series was named in honour of Swedish botanist Jonas C. Dryander, they are arguably among the most showy of all members of Proteaceae. Banksia ser. Dryandra species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Dryandra moth; the first specimens of a Dryandra were collected by Archibald Menzies and naturalist to the Vancouver Expedition. At the request of Joseph Banks, Menzies collected natural history specimens wherever possible during the voyage.
During September and October 1791, while the expedition were anchored at King George Sound, he collected numerous plant specimens, including the first specimens of B. sessilis and B. pellaeifolia. Upon Menzies' return to England, he turned his specimens over to Banks. Further specimens were collected in late 1792 by Jacques Labillardière, one of five naturalists in Bruni d'Entrecasteaux's expedition in search of the lost expedition of Jean-François de La Pérouse. While ashore west of Esperance Bay between 11 and 18 December, Labillardière collected the first specimens of B. nivea. Endemic to Western Australia, Dryandra occurs throughout the South West Botanic Province, to a much lesser degree, in southwest parts of the Eremaean Province. Mast and Kevin Thiele. "The transfer of Dryandra R. Br. to Banksia L.f.". Australian Systematic Botany. 20: 63–71. Doi:10.1071/SB06016. "Dryandra R. Br". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Dryandra". FloraBase.
Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. "Dryandra R. Br". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government