Adoption is an process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents. Legal adoptions permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents. In many jurisdictions the adopted person's full original birth certificate is cancelled and replaced with a fabricated post-adoption birth certificate which states that the child was born to the adoptive parents; this deception, where carried out, may continue with the adopted person for life and can be the cause for many well documented traumas experienced by the adopted person, including loss of identity, family history, biological family, family medical history and records, increased risk of suicide, incarceration, PTSD, anxiety. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to affect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction.
Some societies have enacted specific laws governing adoption. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. Adoption for the well-born While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the practice appeared throughout history; the Code of Hammurabi, for example, details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at length. The practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the Codex Justinianus. Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter, providing a legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and created male heirs to manage estates; the use of adoption by the aristocracy is well documented. Adrogation was a kind of Roman adoption. Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare. Abandoned children were picked up for slavery and composed a significant percentage of the Empire's slave supply.
Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the father who abandoned them. Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, used some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests the goal of this practice was to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices. In ancient India, secondary sonship denounced by the Rigveda, continued, in a limited and ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son. China had a similar idea of adoption with males adopted to perform the duties of ancestor worship; the practice of adopting the children of family members and close friends was common among the cultures of Polynesia including Hawaii where the custom was referred to as hānai. Adoption and commoners The nobility of the Germanic and Slavic cultures that dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced the practice of adoption.
In medieval society, bloodlines were paramount. The evolution of European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law, for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of 50, older than the adopted person by at least 15 years, to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years; some adoptions continued to occur, but became informal, based on ad hoc contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age. Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the nobility, the practice shifted toward abandoned children.
Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church. The clergy reacted by drafting rules to govern the exposing and rearing of abandoned children; the Church's innovation, was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children did not have legal, social, or moral disadvantages; as a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned children became alumni of the Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage; as the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families: boys could become apprenticed to an arti
Nanette Gartrell is an American psychiatrist, lesbian activist and writer. Gartrell is the author of over 70 research reports on topics ranging from medical student depression to sexual minority parent families to sexual exploitation of patients by healthcare professionals, her investigation into physician misconduct led to a clean-up of professional ethics codes and the criminalization of boundary violations. For this work, she was featured in My Lover. Gartrell is the author of My Answer Is NO.... If That's Okay with You: How Women Can Say NO with Confidence; the Nanette K. Gartrell papers, a collection of Gartrell's personal and political life, are archived in the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Mass. Gartrell attended Stanford University and the University of California, trained at Harvard, has been a Williams Institute Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the UCLA School of Law since 2009, she has had a guest appointment at the University of Amsterdam since 2009. She served on the faculty of Harvard Medical School from 1976 to 1987, was on the faculty at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1988 to 2011.
Gartrell has a private psychiatry practice, for 13 years volunteered her psychiatric services to chronically mentally ill homeless people. An experience in one of these shelters became the basis for her piece in the San Francisco Chronicle Magazine, "A Tenderloin Tail." Gartrell is the Principal Researcher for the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. The NLLFS follows lesbian mothers and their children who were conceived by donor insemination during the 1980s; the study, initiated by Gartrell in 1986, examines the social and emotional development of the children as well as the dynamics of planned lesbian families. This is the longest-running and largest prospective investigation of lesbian mothers and their children in the United States. In June 2010, the NLLFS study The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of the 17-Year-Old Adolescents was published in Pediatrics; the study's results showed that the 17-year-olds of lesbian mothers were rated higher in social, school/academic, total competence and lower in social problems, rule-breaking and externalizing problem behavior than their age-matched counterparts.
This publication prompted international media attention including articles in The Los Angeles Times, The Telegraph and mention on The Colbert Report. Discover Magazine named this story as one of the top 100 stories of 2010—#88: Same-Sex Parents Do No Harm. In 2012, UCLA Today published an article "Researcher sorts out fact from fallacy in three-decade study of lesbian families" highlighting Gartrell's 30+ years of work on the NLLFS study. Bos, HMW, Kuyper, L, & Gartrell, NK. A population-based comparison of female and male same-sex parent and different-sex parent households. Family Process, doi: 10.1111/famp.12278. Bos, H. M. W. Knox, J. R. van Rijn-van Gelderen, L. Gartrell, N. K. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children's Health, Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Volume 37, Issue 3, 1-9. Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L. Bos, H. M. W. & Gartrell, N. Dutch adolescents from lesbian-parent families: How do they compare to peers with heterosexual parents and what is the impact of homophobic stigmatization?, Journal of Adolescence, 40, 65-73.
Gartrell, N. Bos, H. Goldberg, N. Deck, A. van Rijn-van Gelderen.. Satisfaction with known, open-identity, or unknown sperm donors: reports from lesbian mothers of 17-year-old adolescents. Fertility and Sterility. Bos, H. van Gelderen, L. Gartrell, N. Lesbian and Heterosexual Two-Parent Families: Adolescent–Parent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Well-Being. Journal of Child and Family Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9913-8. Bos H, Gartrell N, van Gelderen L. Adolescents in Lesbian Families: DSM-Oriented Scale Scores and Stigmatization. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 25:2, 121-140. Van Gelderen, L. Gartrell, N. Bos, H. M. W. Hermanns, J.. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families. Journal of Family Issues, 34, 809-827. Doi: 10.1177/0192513X12447269 Gartrell N, Bos H, Peyser H, et al. Adolescents with Lesbian Mothers Describe Their Own Lives. Journal of Homosexuality, 59:9, 1211–1229. Bos H, Goldberg N, van Gelderen L, Gartrell N.
Male Role Models, Gender Role Traits, Psychological Adjustment. Gender & Society. DOI: 10.1177/0891243212445465. Van Gelderen, L, Bos H, Gartrell N, et al. Quality of Life of Adolescents Raised from Birth by Lesbian Mothers. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 33:1-7. Gartrell N, Bos H, Goldberg N. New Trends in Same-Sex Sexual Contact for American Adolescents? Archives of Sexual Behavior. DOI 10.1007/s10508-011-9883-5. Gartrell N, Bos H, Peyser, H, et al. Family Characteristics, Custody Arrangements, Adolescent Psychological Well-being after Lesbian Mothers Break Up. Family Relations. 60:572-585. Doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00667.x. Goldberg NG, Bos HMW, Gartrell NK. Substance use by adolescents of the USA national longitudinal lesbian family study. Journal of Health Psychology. Doi:10.1177/1359105311403522. Bos H. M. W, Gartrell N. K Adolescents of the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: the impact of having a known or an unknown donor on the stability of psychological adjustment.
Human Reproduction. Doi:10.1093/humrep/deq359. Gartrell N, Bos H, Goldberg N. Adolescents of the U. S. National Longitudinal Lesbi
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t
Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health; the public can be as large as a village or an entire city. The concept of health takes into account physical and social well-being; as such, according to the World Health Organization, it is not the absence of disease or infirmity. Public health is an interdisciplinary field. For example, epidemiology and management of health services are all relevant. Other important subfields include environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, occupational safety, gender issues in health, sexual and reproductive health. Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health.
This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Common public health initiatives include promotion of handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention, distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists, medical assistants, public health nurses, medical microbiologists, sociologists, data managers, physicians. Depending on the need, environmental health officers or public health inspectors and veterinarians, gender experts, or sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on. Access to health care and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing countries. Public health infrastructures are still forming in those countries; the focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments.
Many diseases are preventable through nonmedical methods. For example, research has shown that the simple act of handwashing with soap can prevent the spread of many contagious diseases. In other cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing its spread to others, either during an outbreak of infectious disease or through contamination of food or water supplies. Public health communications programs, vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of common preventive public health measures. Measures such as these have contributed to the health of populations and increases in life expectancy. Public health plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries through local health systems and non-governmental organizations; the World Health Organization is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. Most countries have their own governmental public health agency called the ministry of health, with responsibility for domestic health issues.
In the United States and local health departments are on the front line of public health initiatives. In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service, led by the Surgeon General of the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with international health activities. In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, infectious and chronic disease control and prevention; the Public health system in India is managed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the government of India with state-owned health care facilities. Most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease and the effects of aging and other physical and mental health conditions. However, public health receives less government funding compared with medicine. Public health programs providing vaccinations have made strides in promoting health, including the eradication of smallpox, a disease that plagued humanity for thousands of years.
The World Health Organization identifies core functions of public health programs including: providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. In particular, public health surveillance programs can: serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies. Diagnose and monitor health problems and health hazards of the communityPublic health surveillance has led to the identification and prioritization of many public health issues facing the world today, including HIV/AIDS, waterborne diseases, zoonotic diseases, antibiotic resistance leading to the reemergence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Antibiotic resistance kno
UCLA School of Law
The UCLA School of Law referred to as UCLA Law, is one of 12 professional schools at the University of California, Los Angeles. UCLA Law has been ranked by U. S. News & World Report as one of the top 20 law schools in the United States since the late 1990s, its 17,000 alumni include more judges on the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit than any other law school, as well as leaders in private law practice, government service, the judiciary and entertainment law, public interest law; as part of a renowned public university, the school's mission is to provide an excellent legal education while expanding access to the legal professional to those who otherwise would not be able to pursue a legal degree. The dean of the school is Jennifer L. Mnookin. An evidence scholar who joined the UCLA Law faculty in 2005 and became the school's ninth dean, third female dean, in 2015. Founded in 1949, the UCLA School of Law is the third oldest of the five law schools within the University of California system.
In the 1930s, initial efforts to establish a law school at UCLA went nowhere as a result of resistance from UC President Robert Gordon Sproul, because UCLA's supporters refocused their efforts on first adding medical and engineering schools. During the mid-1940s, the impetus for the creation of the UCLA School of Law emerged from outside of the UCLA community. Assemblyman William Rosenthal of Boyle Heights conceived of and fought for the creation of the first public law school in Southern California as a convenient and affordable alternative to the expensive private law school at USC. Rosenthal's first attempt in 1945 failed, but his second attempt was able to gain momentum when the State Bar of California and the UCLA Alumni Association announced their support for the bill. On July 18, 1947, Governor Earl Warren authorized the appropriation of $1 million for the construction of a new law school at UCLA by signing Assembly Bill 1361 into state law; the search for the law school's first dean delayed its opening by a year.
UCLA's Law School Planning Committee prioritized merit, while the then-conservative Regents of the University of California prioritized political beliefs. Another factor was a simultaneous deanship vacancy at Berkeley Law. Near the end of 1948, the Committee identified a sufficiently conservative candidate willing to take the job: L. Dale Coffman the dean of Vanderbilt University Law School; the Regents believed Coffman would help bring balance to the UCLA campus, which they saw as overrun by Communists. Dean Coffman was able to recruit several distinguished faculty to UCLA, including Roscoe Pound, Brainerd Currie, Rollin M. Perkins, Harold Verrall. To build a law library, he hired Thomas S. Dabagh the law librarian of the Los Angeles County Law Library; the UCLA School of Law opened in September 1949 in temporary quarters in former military barracks behind Royce Hall, moved into a permanent home upon the completion of the original Law Building in 1951. Coffman's deanship did not end well, due to his vindictive and prejudiced personality.
One sign of early trouble was when he drove out Dabagh in 1952 after they could not bridge their fundamental differences over how to run the law library, regarded around the UCLA community as contributing to Dabagh's early death in 1959. On September 21, 1955, the faculty revolted in the form of a memorandum to Chancellor Raymond B. Allen alleging that Coffman was categorically refusing to hire Jews or anyone he perceived to be leftist, that the school's reputation was deteriorating because Coffman's abrasive personality had led to excessive faculty turnover. On May 24, 1956, Coffman was stripped of his deanship after a lengthy investigation by a panel of deans of his biases and his "dictatorial and autocratic" management style, he remained on the faculty until his forced retirement in 1973, but continued to face allegations as late as 1971 that he was "an unreconstructed McCarthyite and pro-segregationist."Coffman's successor was Richard C. Maxwell, who served as the second dean of UCLA Law from 1958 to 1969.
Dean Maxwell "presided over happier, more harmonious years of institutional growth," and it was under his deanship that UCLA became "the youngest top-ranked law school in the country." Dabagh's successor, Louis Piacenza, was able to grow the law school's library collection to 143,000 volumes by May 1963, which at that time was the 14th largest law school library in the United States. By 1963, the law school had 600 students in a building designed for 550, the Law Building's deficiencies had become all too evident, such as a complete lack of air conditioning. In October 1963, the law school administration announced a major remodeling and expansion project, which added air conditioning and a new wing to the building. During the 1960s, the law school grew so that the new wing was insufficient upon its completion in January 1967. From its founding to the end of the 20th century, UCLA Law struggled with severe overcrowding, as librarians, staff, as many as 18 student organizations—at one point, more than any other law school in the United States—competed for limited space in the Law Building for books, classes and offices.
After four grueling years of construction, the chronic space shortage was relieved by the completion of the new Hugh and Hazel Darling Law Library on January 22, 2000. UCLA Law has 950 students in its Juris Doctor program and 200 students in its Masters of Law program, popular among foreign students intending to take the California Bar Exam, it offers a Doctor of Juridical Science program for students who hav
United States Census
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce; the first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. The current national census was held in 2010. For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the American Community Survey.
Title 13 of the United States Code governs how its data is handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U. S. C. § 9. Refusing or neglecting to answer the census is punishable by fines of $100, for a property or business agent to fail to provide correct names for the census is punishable by fines of $500, for a business agent to provide false answers for the census is punishable by fines of $10,000, pursuant to 13 U. S. C. § 221-224. The United States Census is a population census, distinct from the U. S. Census of Agriculture, no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau, it is distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions. Decennial U. S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U. S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants; the Census Bureau bases its decision about. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time.
The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted. The Census uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown; this practice is seen by some as controversial. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are excluded from being counted in the census though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U. S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."According to the Census Bureau, "Census Day" has been April 1 since 1930. From 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August, it moved to June in 1830, April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920.
The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U. S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. In 2010 Jaime Grant director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."
Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics. In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census. On March 26, 2018 the U. S. Dept of Commerce announced plans to re-include a citizenship question in the 2020 census questionnaire which has not been included on the long form since 1950 but was part of the short form starting in 1910 until its removal in 2010; the citizenship question will be the same as the one, asked on the yearly American Community Survey. Proponents of including the question claimed it is necessary to gather an accurate statistical count, while opponents claimed it might suppress responses and therefore lead to an inaccurate count. Multiple states have sued the Trump administration arguing that the proposed citizenship question is unconstitutional and will intimidate immigrants, resulting in inaccurate data on minority communities. In January 2019 a federal judge in New York ruled against the proposal.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a