African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
State Correctional Institution – Pittsburgh
State Correctional Institution – Pittsburgh was a low-to-medium security correctional institution, operated by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, located about five miles west of Downtown Pittsburgh and within city limits. The facility is on the banks of the Ohio River, is located on 21 acres of land, it was the first prison west of the Atlantic Plain as well as a major Civil War prison in 1863–1864. On January 26 2017, Governor of Pennsylvania Tom Wolf announced the closing of this facility Western Penitentiary was built in 1826 a few blocks east of the current facility by the architect Strickland. During Charles Dickens visit to the city March 20-22 1842, he visited the original prison and some scholars believe he based the classic A Christmas Carol on conditions at the facility; the original location is famous for housing 118 Confederate soldiers after their capture in Morgan's Raid a dozen miles to the west. It held them from August 5, 1863 until they were transferred to a military fort in New Jersey on March 18, 1864.
Although conditions were good for the time, at least eight confederates died during the winter, one while attempting escape. The present facility opened on its current site in 1882, operating as one of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's first correctional facilities, which at the time, held some maximum-security inmates. In January 2005, after transferring the inmates to SCI-Fayette, the facility was mothballed. In 2007, the facility re-opened with its current name, it houses low and medium security inmates. In 2017, Amazon has considered it as a potential site to build their new HQ2 During the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit, the prison was used as the main processing facility for rioters and protesters that were detained and arrested during the week-long summit. Radio host Alex Jones has broadcast accounts of his staff being rounded up—with press credentials—to the prison; the 1978 film The Brink's Job the character Stanley Gusciora is sentenced to 20 years at the "Western Penitentiary at Pittsburgh".
Penna. Department of Corrections - SCI Pittsburgh - Webpage
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Jury duty or jury service is service as a juror in a legal proceeding. The prosecutor and defense can dismiss potential jurors for various reasons, which can vary from one state to another, they can have a specific number of arbitrary dismissals, or unconditional peremptory challenge, which does not require specific reasons; the judge can dismiss potential jurors. Some courts had been sympathetic to jurors' privacy concerns and refer to jurors by number, conduct voir dire in camera. In the United States, there have been Fifth Amendment challenges and medical privacy objections to this. Australia uses an adversarial system, potential jurors are randomly selected from an electoral roll. Jurors receive a small payment for each day of attendance. Employers are required to pay their employees "make-up pay", that is, the usual pay the employee would have earned from working, less the jury duty payment received from the state. Under the National Employment Standards, make-up pay is required only for the first ten days of jury service - however the laws of Victoria and Western Australia extend the make-up pay requirement for the entire duration of the jury service.
The jury system in New South Wales is administered by the Jury Services Branch of the Office of the Sheriff of New South Wales, an office in the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice, operates in accordance with the Jury Act 1977 and Jury Amendment Act 2010. These laws detail persons who are disqualified, ineligible, or may be excused from jury service are detailed. In addition, the Jury Exemption Act 1965 and section 7, "Excuse for cause", of LRC Report 117 details other persons who can or may not serve as jurors or otherwise claim exemption. Individuals who are blind and/or deaf may be excluded from jury service. During the juror selection process, both parties can object to up to three potential jurors without providing reasons; the Office of the Sheriff of NSW disseminates resources for jurors. Jurors may be compensated for their service. According to 2016 figures from the Ministry of Justice, there is about a 35% chance of people in England and Wales being summoned for jury service over the course of their lifetime.
In Scotland the percentage is much higher due to having a lower population as well having juries made up of 15 people as opposed to 12 people in England and Wales. When a person is called for jury duty in the United States, that service is mandatory and the person summoned for jury duty must attend. Failing to report for jury duty is illegal and results in an individual being placed back into the selection pool in addition to potential criminal prosecution. Ignoring a jury summons without explanation will result in strict penalties, which may include being fined or a bench warrant issued for contempt of court. Employers are not allowed to fire an employee for being called to jury duty, but they are not required to pay salaries during this time; when attended, potential jurors may be asked to serve as a juror in a trial, or they may be dismissed. In the United States, government employees are in a paid status of leave for the duration spent serving as a juror. Many quasi-governmental organizations have adopted this provision into their contract manuals.
Accordingly, government employees are in a paid status as long as they have received a summons in connection with a judicial proceeding, by a court or authority responsible for the conduct of that proceeding to serve as a juror in the District of Columbia or a state, territory, or possession of the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Supreme Court of the United States has held, in Butler v. Perry, 240 U. S. 328, that the Thirteenth Amendment does not prohibit "enforcement of those duties which individuals owe to the state, such as services in the army, militia, on the jury, etc.". Although jury duty is regarded as vital to the administration of justice and, as such, is considered a condition of U. S. citizenship, jury duty has been criticized by some libertarian groups as a form of involuntary servitude akin to conscription. Jurors are conscripts rather than volunteers and are reimbursed as little as five dollars per day, well below the federal minimum wage rate.
In both the United States and Canada, jurors having conscientious objection to service are excused from service. This chiefly includes religious groups such as the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites. In recent years, citizens of the United States have been targets of a "jury scam", wherein they are called by persons posing as officers from a court, claiming that the person did not show up for jury duty and that charges will be pressed. Targets are told that the matter can be resolved if personal information is given; the Department of Justice recommends that recipients of these calls contact the court directly to avoid falling victim to this scam. Federal courts use the Postal Service in their communications with prospective jurors, any calls that are made will never ask for personal information
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori
Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, apostasy, severe child abuse, child rape, treason, high treason, drug dealing, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe cases of fraud, severe cases of financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage in English law, aggravated cases of arson, burglary, or robbery which result in death or grievous bodily harm, aircraft hijacking, in certain cases genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, certain war crimes or any three felonies in case of three strikes law. Life imprisonment can be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offenses causing death; the life sentence does not exist in all countries, Portugal was the first to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884.
For more info about life imprisonment in other countries worldwide, refer here. Where life imprisonment is a possible sentence, there may exist formal mechanisms for requesting parole after a certain period of prison time; this means. Early release is conditional on past and future conduct with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a fixed term of imprisonment has ended, the convict is free; the length of time served and the conditions surrounding parole vary. The date when a convict is eligible for parole does not predict when or if parole will be granted. In many countries around the world in the Commonwealth, courts have the authority to pass prison terms which exceed a century. For example, courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century. In Tasmania, Martin Bryant, the perpetrator of the Port Arthur massacre in 1996, received 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 consecutive years, all to run concurrently and for the term of his natural life.
Another example of a life sentence that exceeded a century was Aurora Cinema shooter James Holmes, who received 12 consecutive life sentences and an extra 3,318 years without the possibility of parole for injuring 70,killing 12, 112 counts of attempted murder in the Colorado cinema and booby trapping his apartment with explosives. Few countries allow for a minor to be given a lifetime sentence with no provision for eventual release. According to a University of San Francisco Law School study, only the U. S. had minors serving such sentences in 2008. In 2009, Human Rights Watch estimated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life sentences without the possibility for parole in the U. S; the United States leads in life sentences, at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 residents imprisoned for life. In 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that sentencing minors to life without parole, automatically or as the result of a judicial decision, for crimes other than intentional homicide, violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual punishments", in the case of Graham v. Florida.
Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice. In Jacksonville, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery, one of Graham's accomplices had a metal bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery; the maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult. During the trial, Graham pleaded guilty to the charges, resulting in three years of probation, one year of which had to be served in jail. Since he had been awaiting trial in jail, he served six months and therefore was released after six additional months. Within six months of his release, Graham was involved in another robbery. Since he violated the conditions of his probation, his probation officer reported to the trial court about his probation violations a few weeks before Graham turned 18 years old.
It was a different judge presiding over his trial for the probation violations a year later. While Graham denied any involvement of the robbery, he did admit to fleeing from the police; the trial court found that Graham violated his probation by "committing a home invasion robbery, possessing a firearm, associating with persons engaged in criminal activity", sentenced him to 15 years for the attempted armed robbery plus life imprisonment for the armed burglary. The life sentence Graham received meant he had a life sentence without the possibility of parole, "because Florida abolished their parole system in 2003". Graham's case was presented to the United States Supreme Court, with the question of whether juveniles should receive life without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases; the Justices ruled that such a sentence violated the juvenile's 8th Amendment rights, protecting them from punishments that are disproportionate to the crime committed, resulting in the abolition of life s
Cranberry Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania
Cranberry Township is a township in Butler County, Pennsylvania. The population was 28,098 as of the 2010 census. Cranberry Township is one of the fastest-growing areas of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, its population is projected to reach 50,000 by 2030. Cranberry Township has attracted a wealthy population over the last few years. Cranberry Township is located in western Pennsylvania. Although it is described as a residential suburb of Pittsburgh, less than a 30 minute drive to the city's downtown, Cranberry is a regional economic and employment center in its own right; the number of people commuting into the township to participate in its 20,500-member workforce is larger than the 9,200 township residents who commute to work outside Cranberry. Cranberry Township is located in the southwest corner of Butler County, contiguous to both Allegheny and Beaver Counties, it is bordered by Jackson Township to the north, Forward Township at its northeast corner, Adams Township and the borough of Seven Fields to the east – all in Butler County.
Pine Township and Marshall Township in Allegheny County border it to the south, New Sewickley Township in Beaver County to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 22.8 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.02%, is water. The township's policy-making body is its five-member, at-large board of supervisors who are each elected to serve six-year terms; as of 2017, the composition of the board was Republican: Richard M. Hadley, Chairman Mike Manipole, Vice chairman Bruce Mazzoni, Bruce Hezlep John Skorupan The township has a full-time police force of 30 officers, a volunteer fire company supported by a dedicated property tax, an independent Emergency Medical Service organization that coordinates with the township's other emergency services. Cranberry is the local supplier of fresh water and wastewater treatment – both of which are funded by ratepayers. Cranberry owns and offers programs in three major municipal parks – Cranberry Park, North Boundary Park, Graham Park – as well as an open-air waterpark and an award-winning 18-hole municipal golf course, Cranberry Highlands.
Miracle League of Southwestern Pennsylvania has a ballfield in Graham Park with an adjacent accessible playground. Cranberry Public Library operates out of the township's Municipal Center building as do its Early Education Preschool Program, its aerobics programs, its administrative offices; as of July 2015, the U. S. Census estimated the township's population at 30,458 in 10,769 households; the population density was 1,231.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 94.4% White, 1.2% African American, 2.8% Asian, 1.1% from two or more races. Cranberry is a family-oriented community; as of 2012, 71.98% of Cranberry's male population 15 and older was married. The national rates were 53.97% and 51.02%, respectively. 44.5% of the township's households had children under 18 living with them and household size averaged 3.22. The median population age as of 2016 was 35.96. The median income for a household in the township in 2017 was $103,276 Approximately 2.5% of families were below the poverty line.
In 1753, 21-year-old George Washington, who at the time was working for the Virginia Colony's British governor, hiked through what is now Cranberry Township along the Venango Path. His assignment was to deliver a message to the commander of the rival French Fort LeBoeuf, ordering them to withdraw from northern Pennsylvania; the commander rejected the order, precipitating the French and Indian War which the British and their colonies won, although at great cost. When the township was chartered in 1804, it included a larger area than it does today. In 1854, its boundaries were redrawn. Although Native Americans from the Iroquois and Seneca nations had hunted and fished in the Cranberry area for centuries, the first European settlers – brothers Mathew and William Graham – arrived in 1796. There they acquired 200 acres of land which Benjamin Franklin had designated as part of the nation's “Depreciation Land” program, used to pay revolutionary war soldiers with land, abundant, rather than in cash, scarce.
Over the following decades, the Graham family and Samuel Duncan, another early settler, opened a tavern, a distillery, a sawmill, a grist mill. In 1806, Graham began the community's first church, the Plains Church, now the Plains United Presbyterian Church, which remains an active congregation. Descendants of the Graham family continue to reside in the community, sometimes confused with the homonymous Cranberry Township in Venango County, a much smaller community 60 mi away. Prior to World War II, Cranberry Township was an agricultural community without a traditional downtown. Although small stores, taverns and implement-making shops had operated in Cranberry for years, it wasn't until the completion of the Pennsylvania Turnpike's western section in 1951 with an exit at Rt. 19 – Cranberry's main arterial road – followed by the 1966 opening of I-79 which crossed the Turnpike at the township's southern end, that its development accelerated. With support and encouragement from the nonprofit Cranberry Industrial Development Corporation, formed by the township's board of supervisors in the mid-1960s, a local industrial park was created and filled.
It was soon followed by other business and light industrial park facilities catering to compani