Callen Radcliffe "Cal" Tjader, Jr. was an American Latin jazz musician, known as the most successful non-Latino Latin musician. He explored other jazz idioms as he continued to perform the music of Cuba, the Caribbean, Latin America for the rest of his life. Tjader played the vibraphone primarily, he was accomplished on the drums, congas and the piano. He worked with many musicians from several cultures, he is linked to the development of Latin rock and acid jazz. Although fusing jazz with Latin music is categorized as "Latin jazz", Tjader's works swung between both styles, his Grammy award in 1980 for his album La Onda Va Bien capped off a career that spanned over forty years. Callen Radcliffe Tjader, Jr. was born 16 July 1925 in St. Louis, Missouri, to touring Swedish American vaudevillians, his father tap danced and his mother played piano, a husband-wife team going from city to city with their troupe to earn a living. When he was two, Tjader's parents settled in San Mateo and opened a dance studio.
His mother instructed him in classical piano and his father taught him to tap dance. He performed around the Bay Area as "Tjader Junior," a tap-dancing wunderkind, he performed a brief non-speaking role dancing alongside Bill "Bojangles" Robinson in the film The White of the Dark Cloud of Joy. He played around the Bay Area. At age sixteen, he entered a Gene Krupa drum solo contest, making it to the finals and winning by playing "Drum Boogie." The win was overshadowed by that morning's event: Japanese planes had bombed Pearl Harbor. Tjader entered the United States Army in 1943 and served as a medic until 1946. Upon his return he enrolled at San Jose State College under the G. I. Bill, majoring in education, he transferred to San Francisco State College, still intending to teach. It was there he took timpani lessons, his only formal music training. At San Francisco State he met Dave Brubeck, a young pianist fresh from a stint in the Army. Brubeck introduced Tjader to Paul Desmond; the three formed the Dave Brubeck Octet with Tjader on drums.
Although the group only recorded one album, the recording is regarded as important due to its early glimpse at these soon-to-be-legendary jazz greats. After the octet disbanded and Brubeck formed a trio, performing jazz standards in the hope of finding more work; the Dave Brubeck Trio became a fixture in the San Francisco jazz scene. Tjader taught himself the vibraphone during this period, alternating between it and the drums depending on the song. Brubeck suffered major injuries in a diving accident in 1951 in Hawaii and the trio was forced to dissolve. Tjader continued the trio work in California with bassist Jack Weeks from Brubeck's trio and pianists John Marabuto or Vince Guaraldi, recording his first 10" LP as a leader with them for Fantasy, but soon worked with Alvino Rey and completed his degree at San Francisco State. Jazz pianist George Shearing recruited Tjader in 1953. Al McKibbon was a member of Shearing's band at the time and he and Tjader encouraged Shearing to add Cuban percussionists.
Tjader played bongos as well as the vibes: "Drum Trouble" was his bongo solo feature. Down Beat's 1953 Critics Poll nominated him as best New Star on the vibes, his next 10" LP as a leader was recorded for Savoy during that time, as well as his first Latin Jazz for a Fantasy 10" LP. While in New York City, bassist Al McKibbon took Tjader to see the Afro-Cuban big bands led by Machito and Chico O'Farrill, both at the forefront of the nascent Latin jazz sound. In New York he met Mongo Santamaría and Willie Bobo who were members of Tito Puente's orchestra at the time. Tjader soon quit Shearing after a gig at the San Francisco jazz club the Blackhawk. In April 1954, he formed the Cal Tjader Modern Mambo Quintet; the members were brothers Manuel and Carlos Duran on piano and bass Bayardo "Benny" Velarde on timbales and congas, Edgard Rosales on congas. Back in San Francisco and recording for Fantasy Records, the group produced several albums in rapid succession, including Mambo with Tjader; the Mambo craze reached its pitch in a boon to Tjader's career.
Unlike the exotica of Martin Denny and Les Baxter, music billed as "impressions of" Oceania, Tjader's bands featured seasoned Cuban players and top-notch jazz talent conversant in both idioms. He cut several notable straight-ahead jazz albums for Fantasy using various group names, most notably the Cal Tjader Quartet. Tjader is sometimes lumped in as part of the West Coast jazz sound, although his rhythms and tempos had little in common with the work of Los Angeles jazzmen Gerry Mulligan, Chet Baker, or Art Pepper. Tjader and his band opened the second Monterey Jazz Festival in 1959 with an acclaimed "preview" concert; the first festival had suffered financially. Tjader is credited with bringing in big ticket sales for the second and saving the landmark festival before it had really started; the Modern Mambo Quintet disbanded within a couple of years. Tjader formed several more small-combo bands, playing at such San Francisco jazz clubs as the Blackhawk. After recording for Fantasy for nearly a decade, Tjader signed with better-known Verve Records, founded by Norman Granz but owned by MGM.
With the luxury of larger budgets and seasoned recording producer Creed Taylor in the control booth, Tjader cut a varied string of albu
Miles Dewey Davis III was an American jazz trumpeter and composer. He is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th century music. Davis adopted a variety of musical directions in a five-decade career that kept him at the forefront of many major stylistic developments in jazz. Born and raised in Illinois, Davis left his studies at the Juilliard School in New York City and made his professional debut as a member of saxophonist Charlie Parker's bebop quintet from 1944 to 1948. Shortly after, he recorded the Birth of the Cool sessions for Capitol Records, which were instrumental to the development of cool jazz. In the early 1950s, Miles Davis recorded some of the earliest hard bop music while on Prestige Records but did so haphazardly due to a heroin addiction. After a acclaimed comeback performance at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1955, he signed a long-term contract with Columbia Records and recorded the 1957 album'Round About Midnight, it was his first work with saxophonist John Coltrane and bassist Paul Chambers, key members of the sextet he led into the early 1960s.
During this period, he alternated between orchestral jazz collaborations with arranger Gil Evans, such as the Spanish-influenced Sketches of Spain, band recordings, such as Milestones and Kind of Blue. The latter recording remains one of the most popular jazz albums of all time, having sold over four million copies in the U. S. Davis made several line-up changes while recording Someday My Prince Will Come, his 1961 Blackhawk concerts, Seven Steps to Heaven, another mainstream success that introduced bassist Ron Carter, pianist Herbie Hancock, drummer Tony Williams. After adding saxophonist Wayne Shorter to his new quintet in 1964, Davis led them on a series of more abstract recordings composed by the band members, helping pioneer the post-bop genre with albums such as E. S. P and Miles Smiles, before transitioning into his electric period. During the 1970s, he experimented with rock, African rhythms, emerging electronic music technology, an ever-changing line-up of musicians, including keyboardist Joe Zawinul, drummer Al Foster, guitarist John McLaughlin.
This period, beginning with Davis' 1969 studio album In a Silent Way and concluding with the 1975 concert recording Agharta, was the most controversial in his career and challenging many in jazz. His million-selling 1970 record Bitches Brew helped spark a resurgence in the genre's commercial popularity with jazz fusion as the decade progressed. After a five-year retirement due to poor health, Davis resumed his career in the 1980s, employing younger musicians and pop sounds on albums such as The Man with the Horn and Tutu. Critics were unreceptive but the decade garnered the trumpeter his highest level of commercial recognition, he performed sold-out concerts worldwide while branching out into visual arts and television work, before his death in 1991 from the combined effects of a stroke and respiratory failure. In 2006, Davis was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, which recognized him as "one of the key figures in the history of jazz." Rolling Stone described him as "the most revered jazz trumpeter of all time, not to mention one of the most important musicians of the 20th century," while Gerald Early called him inarguably one of the most influential and innovative musicians of that period.
Miles Dewey Davis III was born on May 26, 1926, to an affluent African-American family in Alton, fifteen miles north of St. Louis, he had an older sister, Dorothy Mae, a younger brother, Vernon. His mother, Cleota Mae Henry of Arkansas, was a music teacher and violinist, his father, Miles Dewey Davis Jr. of Arkansas, was a dentist. They owned a 200-acre estate near Arkansas with a profitable pig farm. In Pine Bluff, he and his siblings fished and rode horses. In 1927, the family moved to Illinois, they lived on the second floor of a commercial building behind a dental office in a predominantly white neighborhood. From 1932 to 1934, Davis attended John Robinson Elementary School, an all-black school Crispus Attucks, where he performed well in mathematics and sports. At an early age he liked music blues, big bands, gospel. In 1935, Davis received his first trumpet as a gift from a friend of his father, he took lessons from Elwood Buchanan, a teacher and musician, a patient of his father. His mother wanted him to play violin instead.
Against the fashion of the time, Buchanan stressed the importance of playing without vibrato and encouraged him to use a clear, mid-range tone. Davis said. In years Davis said, "I prefer a round sound with no attitude in it, like a round voice with not too much tremolo and not too much bass. Just right in the middle. If I can't get that sound I can't play anything." In 1939, the family moved to 1701 Kansas Avenue in East St. Louis. On his thirteenth birthday his father bought him a new trumpet, Davis began to play in local bands, he took additional trumpet lessons from Joseph Gustat, principal trumpeter of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. In 1941, the 15-year-old attended East St. Louis Lincoln High School, where he joined the marching band directed by Buchanan and entered music competitions. Years Davis said that if he lost a contest, it was because of racism, but he added that these experiences made him a better musician; when a drummer asked him to play a certain passage of music, he couldn't do it, he began to learn music theory.
"I went and got everything, every book I could get to learn
Luigi Paulino Alfredo Francesco Antonio Balassoni, known by the stage name Louie Bellson, was an American jazz drummer. He was a composer, arranger and jazz educator, is credited with pioneering the use of two bass drums. Bellson was an internationally acclaimed artist who performed in most of the major capitals around the world. Bellson and his wife and singer Pearl Bailey, had the second highest number of appearances at the White House. Bellson was a vice president at a drum company, he was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1985. Bellson started playing drums at three years of age. At 15, he pioneered using two bass drums at the same time. At age 17, he triumphed over 40,000 drummers to win the Slingerland National Gene Krupa contest. After graduating from high school, he worked with big bands throughout the 1940s, with Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Harry James, Duke Ellington. In 1952, he married jazz singer Pearl Bailey. During the 1950s, he played with the Dorsey Brothers, Jazz at the Philharmonic, acted as Bailey's music director, recorded as a leader for Norgran Records and Verve Records.
Over the years, his sidemen included Ray Brown and Conte Candoli, Chuck Findley, John Heard, Roger Ingram, Don Menza, Blue Mitchell, Larry Novak, Nat Pierce, Frank Rosolino, Bobby Shew, Clark Terry, Snooky Young. In an interview in 2005 with Jazz Connection magazine, he cited as influences Jo Jones, Sid Catlett, Chick Webb. "I have to give just dues to two guys who got me off on the drums – Big Sid Catlett and Jo Jones. They were my influences. All three of us realized what it influenced a lot of us. We all three looked to Jo as the'Papa' who did it. Gene helped bring the drums to the foreground as a solo instrument. Buddy was a great natural player, but we have to look back at Chick Webb's contributions, too."During the 1960s, he returned to Ellington's orchestra for Emancipation Proclamation Centennial stage production, My People in and for A Concert of Sacred Music, sometimes called The First Sacred Concert. Ellington called these concerts "the most important thing I have done."Bellson's album The Sacred Music of Louie Bellson and the Jazz Ballet appeared in 2006.
In May 2009, Francine Bellson told The Jazz Joy and Roy syndicated radio show, "I like to call'how the Master used two maestros,'" adding, "When did his sacred concert back in 1965 with Louie on drums, he told Louie that the sacred concerts were based on'in-the-beginning,' the first three words of the bible." She recalled how Ellington explained to Louie that "in the beginning there was lightning and thunder and that's you!" Ellington exclaimed. Both Ellington and Louie, says Mrs. Bellson, were religious. "Ellington told Louie,'You ought to do a sacred concert of your own' and so it was," said Bellson, adding, "'The Sacred Music of Louie Bellson' combines symphony, big band and choir, while'The Jazz Ballet' is based on the vows of Holy Matrimony..."On December 5, 1971 he took part in a memorial concert at London's Queen Elizabeth Hall for drummer Frank King. This tribute show featured Buddy Rich and British drummer Kenny Clare; the orchestra was led by Irish trombonist Bobby Lamb and American trombonist Raymond Premru.
A few years Rich paid Bellson a compliment by asking him to lead his band on tour while he was temporarily disabled by a back injury. Bellson accepted; as a prolific creator of music, both written and improvised, his compositions and arrangements embrace jazz, jazz/rock/fusion, romantic orchestral suites, symphonic works and a ballet. Bellson was a poet and a lyricist, his only Broadway venture, was a resounding flop that closed after three performances. As an author, he published more than a dozen books on drums and percussion, he was at work with his biographer on a book chronicling his career and bearing the same name as one of his compositions, "Skin Deep". In addition, "The London Suite" was performed at the Hollywood Pilgrimage Bowl before a record-breaking audience; the three-part work includes a choral section in which a 12-voice choir sings lyrics penned by Bellson. Part One is a collaboration with Jack Hayes. In 1987, at the Percussive Arts Society convention in Washington, D. C. Bellson and Harold Farberman performed a major orchestral work titled "Concerto for Jazz Drummer and Full Orchestra", the first piece written for jazz drummer and full symphony orchestra.
This work was recorded by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra in England, was released by the Swedish label BIS. Bellson was known throughout his career to conduct drum and band clinics at high schools and music stores. Bellson maintained a tight schedule of clinics and performances of both big bands and small bands in colleges and concert halls. In between, he continued to record and compose, resulting in more than 100 albums and more than 300 compositions. Bellson's Telarc debut recording, Louie Bellson And His Big Band: Live From New York, was released in June 1994, he created new drum technology for Remo, of which he was vice-president. Bellson received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters in 1985 at Northern Illinois University; as of 2005, among other performing activities, Bellson had visited his home town of Rock Falls, Illinois every July for Louie Bellson Heritage Days, a weekend in his honor c
Cypress Hill is an American hip hop group from South Gate, California. Cypress Hill was the first Latino American hip hop recording group to have platinum and multi-platinum albums, selling over 20 million albums worldwide, they are considered to be among the main progenitors of West Coast rap and hip hop in the early 1990s, being critically acclaimed for their first four albums. The band has advocated for medical and recreational use of cannabis in the United States. Senen Reyes and Ulpiano Sergio Reyes are brothers born in Pinar del Cuba. In 1971, their family emigrated to the United States from Cuba, they lived in South Gate, California. In 1988, the two brothers teamed up with New York City native Lawrence Muggerud and Louis Freese to form a hip-hop group named DVX; the band soon lost Mellow Man Ace to a solo career, changed their name to Cypress Hill, after a street in South Gate. After recording a demo in 1989, Cypress Hill signed a record deal with Ruffhouse Records, their self-titled first album was released in August 1991.
The lead single was the double A-side "The Phuncky Feel One"/"How I Could Just Kill a Man" which received heavy airplay on urban and college radio. The other two singles released from the album were "Hand on the Pump" and "Latin Lingo", the latter of which combined English and Spanish lyrics; the success of these singles led to the album selling two million copies in the US alone. Cypress Hill contributed the song "Shoot'Em Up" to the soundtrack of the movie Juice; the group made their first appearance at Lollapalooza on the side stage in 1992. Black Sunday, the group's second album, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 in 1993, recording the highest Soundscan for a rap group up until that time. With their debut still in the charts, they became the first rap group to have two albums in the top 10 of the Billboard 200 at the same time. With "Insane in the Brain" becoming a crossover hit, the album went triple platinum in the U. S. and sold about 3.25 million copies. The band headlined the Soul Assassins tour with House of Pain and Funkdoobiest as support performed on a college tour with Rage Against the Machine and Seven Year Bitch.
In 1993, Cypress Hill had two tracks on the Judgment Night soundtrack, teaming up with Pearl Jam on the track "Real Thing" and Sonic Youth on "I Love You Mary Jane". The group played at Woodstock 94, introducing new member Eric Bobo, son of Willie Bobo and a percussionist with the Beastie Boys. Rolling Stone magazine named the group as the best rap group in their music awards voted by critics and readers. Cypress Hill played at Lollapalooza for two successive years, topping the bill in 1995, they appeared on the "Homerpalooza" episode of The Simpsons. Prior to Bobo joining the crew, Panchito "Ponch" Gomez sat in as a percussionist, their third album III: Temples of Boom was released in 1995, the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA. Cypress Hill contributed a track "I Wanna Get High" to the High Times sponsored Hempilation album to support NORML. Sen Dog took a break from the band to form a Los Angeles-based rap rock band, SX-10. Meanwhile, in 1996, Cypress Hill appeared on the first Smokin' Grooves tour, featuring Ziggy Marley, The Fugees, Busta Rhymes and A Tribe Called Quest.
The band released a nine track EP Unreleased and Revamped with rare mixes. In 1997, band members focused on their solo careers. Muggs released Soul Assassins: Chapter 1 featuring contributions from Dr. Dre, KRS-One, Wyclef Jean and Mobb Deep. B-Real appeared with Busta Rhymes, Coolio, LL Cool J and Method Man on "Hit Em High" from the multi-platinum Space Jam Soundtrack, he appeared with RBX, Nas and KRS-One on "East Coast Killer, West Coast Killer" from Dr. Dre's Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath album, contributed to an album entitled The Psycho Realm with the band of the same name. Though the focus that year was not on group efforts, the band played Smokin' Grooves with George Clinton and Erykah Badu. Cypress Hill released IV in 1998 which went gold in the US, on the backs of hit singles "Tequila Sunrise" and "Dr. Greenthumb". Sen Dog released the Get Wood sampler as part of SX-10 on the label Flip. In 1999, Cypress Hill helped with the PC crime video game Kingpin: Life of Crime. Three of the band's songs from the 1998 IV album were in the game.
B-Real did voice work for some of the game's characters. In 1999, the band released a greatest-hits album in Spanish, Los grandes éxitos en español. In 2000, Cypress Hill fused genres with their fifth album, Skull & Bones, a two-disc album; the first disc, "Skull" was composed of rap tracks while "Bones" explored further the group's forays into rock. The album reached the Top 5 on number 3 in Canada; the first single was "Rap Superstar" for urban radio. Following the release of the album, Cypress Hill landed a slot opening for The Offspring on the Conspiracy of One tour; the band released Live at the Fillmore, a concert disc recorded at the Fillmore in 2000. Cypress Hill continued their experimentation with rock on the Stoned Raiders album in 2001. However, its sales were a disappointment, as the disc did not reach the top 50 of the US album charts. In 2001, the group appeared in the film. Cypress Hill recorded "Just Another Victim" for WWE as a theme song for Tazz. At the time, WWE was using original music for all of the wrestlers.
The band released Till Death Do Us Part on March 23, 2004. The
Puerto Ricans are people of ethnic origins in Puerto Rico, the inhabitants, citizens of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, their descendants. Puerto Rico is home to people of many different national origins as well; the culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Spain, more Andalusia and the Canary Islands. Over 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from migrants from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has been influenced by African culture, Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. Puerto Rico has received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France, Ireland and Germany. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that Puerto Rican gene pool is on average predominantly European, with a significant Sub-Saharan African and Indigenous American substrate, the latter two originating in the aboriginal people of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico's pre-Hispanic Taíno inhabitants, respectively.
The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 and 10 million worldwide, with most living on the islands of Puerto Rico and in the United States mainland. Within the United States, Puerto Ricans are present in all states of the Union, the states with the largest populations of Puerto Ricans relative to the national population of Puerto Ricans in the United States at large are the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, with large populations in Massachusetts, California and Texas. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans, it gives a total of 3,644,515 of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Of the 108,262 who were foreign born outside the United States, 92.9% were born in Latin America, 3.8% in Europe, 2.7% in Asia, 0.2% in Northern America, 0.1% in Africa and Oceania each.
The populations during Spanish rule of Puerto Rico were: The original inhabitants of Puerto Rico are the Taíno, who called the island Borikén. Besides miscegenation, the negative impact on the numbers of Amerindian people in Puerto Rico, was entirely the result of Old World diseases that the Amerindians had no natural/bodily defenses against, including measles, chicken pox, mumps and the common cold. In fact, it was estimated that the majority of all the Amerindian inhabitants of the New World died out due to contact and contamination with those Old World diseases, while those that survived were further reduced through deaths by warfare with each other and with Europeans. Both run-away and freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico; this interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the oft-romanticized male conquistadors. Aside from the presence of slaves, some indication for why the Amerindian population was so diluted was the tendency for conquistadors to bring with them scores of single men hoping to serve God, country, or their own interests.
All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands. In the 16th century, a significant depth of Puerto Rican culture began to develop with the import of African slaves by the Spanish, as well as by the French, the Portuguese, the British, the Dutch. Thousands of Spanish settlers immigrated to Puerto Rico from the Canary Islands during the 18th and 19th centuries, so many so that whole Puerto Rican villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants, their descendants would form a majority of the population on the island. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Many of the French escaped to Puerto Rico via what is now the Dominican Republic and settled in the west coast of the island in Mayagüez; some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, most notably Scottish people and English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. When Spain revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 with the intention of attracting non-Hispanics to settle in the island, thousands of Corsicans during the 19th century immigrated to Puerto Rico, along with German immigrants as well as Irish immigrants who were affected by the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s, immigrated to Puerto Rico.
They were followed by smaller waves from China. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico; the first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The second influx of Jews to the island came in the 1950s, when thousands of Cuban Jews fled after Fidel Castro came to power; the native Taino population began to dwindle, with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, through disease and miscegenation. Many Spaniard men took Taino and West African wives and in the first centuries of the Spanish colonial period the island was overwhelmingly racially mixed. "By 1530 there were 14 native women married to Spaniards, n
Ernesto Antonio "Tito" Puente was an American musician and record producer. The son of Ernest and Ercilia Puente, native Puerto Ricans living in New York City's Spanish Harlem, Puente is credited as "The Musical Pope", "El Rey de los Timbales" and "The King of Latin Music", he is best known for dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions that endured over a 50-year career. He and his music appear in many films such as The Mambo Kings and Fernando Trueba's Calle 54, he guest-starred on several television shows, including Sesame Street and The Simpsons two-part episode "Who Shot Mr. Burns?". His most famous song is "Oye Como Va". Tito Puente was born on April 20, 1923, at Harlem Hospital Center in the New York borough of Manhattan, his family moved but he spent the majority of his childhood in the Spanish Harlem area of the city. Puente's father was the foreman at a razorblade factory; as a child, he was described as hyperactive, after neighbors complained of hearing seven-year-old Puente beating on pots and window frames, his mother sent him to 25-cent piano lessons.
By the age of 10, he switched to percussion. He created a song-and-dance duo with his sister Anna in the 1930s and intended to become a dancer, but an ankle tendon injury prevented him pursuing dance as a career; when the drummer in Machito's band was drafted to the army, Puente subsequently took his place. Puente served in the Navy for three years during World War II after being drafted in 1942, he was discharged with a Presidential Unit Citation for serving in nine battles on the escort carrier USS Santee. The GI Bill allowed him to study music at Juilliard School of Music, where he completed a formal education in conducting and theory. In 1969, he received the key to the City of New York from former Mayor John Lindsay. In 1992, he was inducted into the National Congressional Record, in 1993 he received the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal from the Smithsonian. During the 1950s, Puente was at the height of his popularity, helped to bring Afro-Cuban and Caribbean sounds like mambo and cha-cha-chá, to mainstream audiences.
Puente was so successful playing popular Afro-Cuban rhythms that many people mistakenly identify him as Cuban. Dance Mania Puente's most well known album, was released in 1958. Among his most famous compositions are mambo "Oye como va", popularized by Latin rock musician Carlos Santana and interpreted, among others, by Julio Iglesias and Celia Cruz. In early 2000, he appeared in the music documentary Calle 54. After a show in Puerto Rico on May 31, 2000, he suffered a massive heart attack and was flown to New York City for surgery to repair a heart valve, but complications developed and he died on May 31, 2000, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2003. Tito Puente's name is mentioned in a television production called La Epoca, a film about the Palladium era in New York, Afro-Cuban music and rhythms and salsa as dances and music and much more; the film discusses many of Puente's, as well as Arsenio Rodríguez's, features interviews with some of the musicians Puente recorded with Alfonso "El Panameno" Joseph.
Puente's son Richard "Richie" Puente was the percussionist in the 1970s funk band Foxy. Puente's youngest son, Tito Puente Jr. has continued his father's legacy by presenting many of the same songs in his performances and recordings, while daughter Audrey Puente is a television meteorologist for WNYW and WWOR-TV in New York City. In 1995, Tito Puente received the Billboard Latin Music Lifetime Achievement Award. During the presidency of Sen. Roberto Rexach Benítez, Tito Puente received the unique honor of having both a special session of the Senate of Puerto Rico dedicated to him, being allowed to perform in his unique style on the floor of the Senate while it was in session. On September 10, 2007, a United States Post Office in Spanish Harlem was named after him at a ceremony presided by House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel and Rep. José Serrano. An amphitheatre was named in his honor at Luis Muñoz Marín Park, next to the Roberto Clemente Coliseum, in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
In 1995, Puente was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music. Puente performed at the closing ceremonies at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Georgia; the timbales he used there are on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington D. C. In 1997, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. In 1990 he received. In 1984 he received an honorary Decree from the Los Angeles City Council. On June 5, 2005, Puente was honored by Union City, New Jersey with a star on the Walk of Fame at Union City's Celia Cruz Park. In 1999, he was inducted into the International Latin Music Hall of Fame. On August 20, 2000, East 110th Street in Spanish Harlem was named'Tito Puente Way' With Dizzy Gillespie Rhythmstick With Benny Golson Remembering Clifford With Quincy Jones Quincy Plays for Pussycats With Hilton RuizRhythm in the House With Sonny Stitt The Matadors Meet the Bull Armed and Dangerous Radio Days The Mambo Kings Stripes Tito Puente: The King of Latin Music Profiles Featuring Tito Puente Jr.
Latin Knights Calle 54 Tito Puente – Live in Montreal Puente appeared in the two-part whodunit drama "Who Shot Mr. Burns?" in the sixth season finale and seventh season premiere of American comedy cartoon show "The Simpsons" in 1995. In
Lollapalooza is an annual 4-day music festival based in Chicago, Illinois at Grant Park. Performances include but are not limited to alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, electronic music. Lollapalooza has provided a platform for non-profit and political groups and various visual artists; the music festival hosts more than 160,000 people each year. Conceived and created in 1991 by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America. In 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. In 2005, Farrell and the William Morris Agency partnered with Austin, Texas–based company Capital Sports Entertainment and retooled it into its current format as a weekend destination festival in Chicago at Grant Park. In 2014, Live Nation Entertainment bought a controlling interest in C3 Presents.
In 2010 it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut outside the United States, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011 where they partnered up with Santiago-based company Lotus. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, held at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on 7 and 8 April 2012. In September 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as the third Lollapalooza in South America, starting on April 2014, in November 2014, the first European Lollapalooza was announced, held at the former Tempelhof Airport in Berlin; the word—sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced as lollapalootza or lalapaloosa—or "lallapaloosa" dates from a late 19th-/early 20th-century American idiomatic phrase meaning "an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event. Its earliest known use was in 1896. In time the term came to refer to a large lollipop. Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the by-then-antiquated term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film.
Paying homage to the term's double meaning, a character in the festival's original logo holds one of the lollipops. The word has caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows, used synonymously with other suffixes like "a-go-go", "o-rama", etc; the suffix "palooza" is used to imply that an entire event or crowd was made over that term, e.g.: "Parks"-apalooza, popular Chicago sushi restaurant "Roll"-apalooza, etc. Inspired by events such as Britain's Reading Festival – which Lollapalooza cofounder Perry Farrell had been due to play in 1990 – Farrell, Ted Gardner, Don Muller, Marc Geiger conceived the festival in 1990 as a farewell for Farrell's band Jane's Addiction. Unlike previous festivals such as Woodstock, A Gathering of the Tribes and the US Festival, which were one-time events held at single venues, Lollapalooza toured across the United States and Canada from mid-July until late August 1991; the inaugural lineup was made up of artists from industrial music and rap.
Another key concept was the inclusion of nonmusical features. Performers such as the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games, information tables for political and environmental non-profit groups, promoting counter-culture and political awareness. "Basically, I'm bored," Farrell said at the time. "I just want to see things that are unexpected and bizarre. The way Barnum & Bailey perceived putting on a show... well, they had a different angle." It was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". The explosion of alternative rock in the early 1990s propelled Lollapalooza forward. Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts; these years saw great increases in the participatory nature of the event with the inclusion of booths for open-microphone readings and oratory, television-smashing pits and tattooing and piercing parlors.
After 1991, the festival included a second stage for local acts. Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food and water at the shows; the festival played at the Alpine Valley festival in East Troy, Wisconsin on August 29, 1992, at World Music Theater in Tinley Park, IL, where concertgoers ripped up chunks of sod and grass and threw them at each other and at the bands, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars in damages to the venue. Grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band dropped out of the festival on April 7, 1994. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's body was discovered in Seattle the next day. Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park, speaking to the crowds about the loss singing a minimum of two songs. Farrell worked with rock poster artist Jim Evans to create a series of posters and the complete graphic decoration for the 1994 event, including two 70 foot tall Buddha statues that f