Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
World Series of Poker
The World Series of Poker is a series of poker tournaments held annually in Las Vegas and, since 2004, sponsored by Caesars Entertainment Corporation. It dates its origins to 1970, when Benny Binion invited seven of the best-known poker players to the Horseshoe Casino for a single tournament, with a set start and stop time, a winner determined by a secret ballot of the seven players; as of 2017, the WSOP consists of 74 events. However, in recent years, over half of the events have been variants of Texas hold'em. Events traditionally take place during one day or over several consecutive days during the series in June and July. However, starting in 2008, the Main Event final table was delayed until November; the 2012 and 2016 Main Event final tables commenced in October because of the United States presidential election. As of May 2017, the World Series of Poker has done away with the November Nine concept and instead gone back to the old format of crowning the Main Event winner in July; the idea of a World Series of Poker began in 1969 with an event called the Texas Gambling Reunion.
It was an invitational event sponsored by Tom Moore of San Antonio and held at the Holiday Hotel and Casino in Reno. This inaugural event was won by Crandell Addington; the set of tournaments that the World Series of Poker would evolve into was the brainchild of Las Vegas casino owner and poker player Benny Binion. In 1970, the first WSOP at Binion's Horseshoe took place as a series of cash games that included five-card stud, deuce to seven low-ball draw, seven-card stud, Texas hold'em; the format for the Main Event as a freeze-out Texas hold'em game came the next year. The winner in 1970, Johnny Moss, was elected by his peers as the first "World Champion of Poker" and received a silver cup as a prize. In 2004, Harrah's Entertainment purchased Binion's Horseshoe, retained the rights to the Horseshoe and World Series of Poker brands, sold the hotel and casino to MTR Gaming Group, announced that the 2005 Series events would be held at the Harrah's-owned Rio Hotel and Casino, located just off the Las Vegas Strip.
The final two days of the main event in 2005 were held downtown at what is now the MTR-operated "Binion's" in celebration of the centennial of the founding of Las Vegas. The WSOP added a made-for-television $2 million "freeroll" invitational Tournament of Champions event first won by Annie Duke as a "winner-take-all" event; the winner of each event receives a World Series of Poker bracelet and a monetary prize based on the number of entrants and buy-in amounts. Over the years, the tournament has grown in both the number of events and in the number of participants; each year, the WSOP culminates with the $10,000 no-limit hold'em "Main Event," which, since 2004, has attracted entrants numbering in the thousands. The victor receives a multi-million dollar cash prize and a bracelet, which has become the most coveted award a poker player can win; the winner of the World Series of Poker Main Event is considered to be the World Champion of Poker. Since 1971, all WSOP events have been tournaments with cash prizes.
In 1973, a five-card stud event was added. Since new events have been added and removed. Since 1976, a bracelet has been awarded to the winner of every event at the annual WSOP; the tournament grew for over a decade, reaching 52 participants in 1982. In the early 1980s, satellite tournaments were introduced, allowing people to win their way into the various events. By 1987, there were over 2,100 entrants in the entire series. At the 2006 World Series of Poker, there were 45 events. Participation in the Main Event peaked that year, with 8,773 players; the number of participants in the WSOP grew every year from 2000 until 2006. Following 2006, new online gambling legislation restricted the number of online qualifiers to the event. 2007 was the first dip in numbers in the 21st century while in 2008 more people participated than the previous year. In 2000, there were 4,780 entrants in the various events, but in 2005, the number rose to over 23,000 players. In the main event alone, the number of participants grew from 839 in 2003 to 8,773 in 2006, has hovered between 6,300 and 7,200 entrants in the eleven years since.
Phil Hellmuth has won the most bracelets with 15 followed by Doyle Brunson, Johnny Chan, Phil Ivey with ten bracelets each. Crandell Addington is the only player to place in the top ten of the World Series of Poker Main Event eight times, albeit in earlier years with small fields compared to modern times. Four players have won the Main Event multiple times: Johnny Moss, Doyle Brunson, Stu Ungar and Johnny Chan. Bracelet winners who first achieved fame in other fields include French actor/singer Patrick Bruel, Danish soccer player Jan Vang Sørensen, American actress Jennifer Tilly, American musician/record producer Steve Albini. In recent years, there have been non-bracelet events at the WSOP. Texas hold'em, Omaha hold'em and Seven-card stud and their lowball variants are played. H. O. R. S. E. has been played in the past and returned in 2006. S. H. O. E. has been played in the past, returned in 2007. Other events played in the past include Chinese poker, Five card stud, many others. Like most tournaments, the sponsoring casino takes an entry fee and distributes the rest, hence the prize money
Tony Ma is an American professional poker player. Born Hieu Ngoc Ma, an ethnic Hoa, he moved to Southern California in 1985 and became a regular fixture on the poker circuit. At the 1996 World Series of Poker, he collected a bracelet and $236,000 for winning the $5,000 limit hold'em event, he won a second bracelet in 2000 for the $2,000 limit hold'em event. In 1999, Ma won Card Players' Player of the Year Award. Ma made the final table of the World Poker Tour Season 1 Pro-Celebrity Invitational Tournament, finishing in 5th place; as of 2009, his total live tournament winnings exceed $4,100,000. His 22 cashes at the WSOP account for $1,157,987 of those winnings. Ma now resides in South El Monte with two children. World Poker Tour Profile Hendon Mob tournament results
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
David Pham, is a Vietnamese-American professional poker player from Bell Gardens, California with three World Series of Poker bracelets who has made seven final tables at the World Poker Tour. Pham was born in South Vietnam and fled to the United States at the age of 17 in a boat carrying 145 people of which only 46 survived the journey. Once in the United States, Pham gained employment at his cousin's laundry business, his cousin is the famed professional poker player Men Nguyen, from whom Pham would learn poker and continue to do so after Pham along with his wife had opened a nail salon in Los Angeles, California. In both 2000 and 2007 Pham was named "Player of the Year" by Card Player; as of 2017, his total live tournament winnings exceed $9,850,000. His 50 cashes at the WSOP account for over $2,175,000 of those winnings. Pham won a World Series of Poker bracelet in 2001 for the $2.000 S. H. O. E. Event, defeating a final table including Tom McEvoy, John Cernuto, Cyndy Violette and Paul Darden.
In 2006, Pham won a second WSOP bracelet in the $2,000 No Limit Hold'em Shootout event. He won a $1,500 No Limit Hold'em event in 2017. In February 2003, Pham won the $5,000 limit hold'em event of the L. A. Poker Classic, outlasting such players as John Phan and Jennifer Harman to take home the $457,320 first prize. In December 2004, he defeated Alan Goehring heads-up to win the $3,000 no limit hold'em event at the Five Diamond World Poker Classic, earning a payday of $414,419. On March 28, 2008, Pham made his sixth WPT final table at the 2008 World Poker Challenge, where he finished 5th earning $93,664. On November 11, 2008, Pham finished in fourth place at the WPT Foxwoods World Poker Finals, earning $240,344. In January 2008, Pham finished in fourth place, winning $600,000 at the European Poker Tour's PokerStars Caribbean Poker Adventure after being eliminated at the final table by Bertrand Grospellier, who called Pham all-in with an ace high flush draw on the turn, made on the river. Poker-Player-Profiles.com - David Pham profile Poker-King.com - David Pham profile
Bovingdon is a large village in Hertfordshire, four miles southwest of Hemel Hempstead, it is a civil parish within the local authority area of Dacorum. It forms the largest part of the ward of Bovingdon and Chipperfield, which had a population of 4,600 at the 2001 census, increasing to 9,000 at the 2011 Census; the name is first mentioned in deeds from 1200 as Bovyndon. It could originate from Old English Bufan dune meaning "above the down" or from Bofa's down, the down belonging to Bofa. There are two churches in the village: the Anglican Church; the Baptist church changed to Baptist. The Baptist church has a weekly morning service at 10:30 a.m. with a Sunday school. St Lawrence's Church was built in 1845 by Talbot Bury; the churchyard includes an avenue of clipped yew trees. Both churches organise a live nativity play every Christmas; the village is sometimes confused with Bovington Camp in Dorset. Halfpenny Green Airfield in Shropshire was renamed from Bobbington, the name of the local village, during World War II after a B-17 tried to land there when the crew became lost.
The village is medieval in origin but it has expanded since the 1940s. It now has a large commuter population; the old parts of the village are around the High Street and the Green. What used to be the Bobsleigh Inn on Box Lane, just east of the village, is a large house with some parts dating to the sixteenth century, it used to be a restaurant. It was the Bovingdon Country Club until 1964 when Tony Nash, the son of the owner, was part of the gold medal winning British two-man bobsleigh team at the Winter Olympics at Innsbruck in Austria, it was renamed the Bobsleigh Inn in his honour. During World War 2 many celebrities stayed at the Country Club while entertaining troops at the airfield, including Bob Hope, James Stewart and Glenn Miller. Next to Bovingdon is the disused former World War II, Eighth Air Force and post-war Royal Air Force airfield, RAF Bovingdon; the airfield was built in 1942. Between 1943 and 1946 it became a B-17 operational training base for units such as 92nd Bomber Group, B-17 Flying Fortress Combat Crew Replacement Centre, 11th CCRC, 8th USAAF HQ Squadron.
The RAF resumed control until 1951 the USAF took over again until 1962 flying B-26 Marauders, B-29 Superfortresses, B-50 Superfortresses. General Dwight D. Eisenhower's personal aircraft was said to be located here, as Bovingdon was the closest Eighth Air Force airfield to London. Flying ceased in 1969, though some flying scenes for the film Hanover Street were shot there in 1978; the airfield served as airport for Hemel Hempstead during most of the postwar period. Several films have been made there including The War Lover, 633 Squadron, Hanover Street, an episode of The Persuaders!, The Man with the Golden Gun, Mosquito Squadron, the Live Aid recreation in the film Bohemian Rhapsody. The airfield site houses a VOR navigational beacon, code BNN; the airspace above the airfield and nearby Chesham is known as the Bovingdon stack and is a holding area for aircraft approaching Heathrow Airport, 20 miles to the south. At busy times on a clear day a dozen planes circle. Part of the airfield was used to build The Mount Prison during the 1980s.
The remainder of the site is used for a Saturday market and there is a permanent circuit for banger racing although there has not been any regular racing since 2008. The airfield is a site for paintballing. Of the three original runways, the North East/South West runway is still complete, used for parking on market days; the North West/South East runway is gone. The East/West runway is still complete, the Eastern end of, used for the weekend Market, the Western end used to be used by the Farmers aircraft; the control tower still exists, but is in a poor state. A lot of the taxiways, the 2nd World War Bomb Dump trackways are gone, a victim of hardcore reclamation, a common end of a large number of disused airfields in the UK. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Goldie – drum-and-bass DJ. Frances de la Tour – actress David Seaman – Footballer Tony Nash – Olympic bobsleigh champion 1964.
David Tremlett – Artist In 1971 the poisoner Graham Frederick Young committed two murders while working for a local photographic company, John Hadland. Brown, Sarah C. M. Bovingdon – A History of a Hertfordshire Village, 2002, pub by Bovingdon Parish Council, Alpine Press, ISBN 0-9542368-0-7 Bovingdon history group Bovingdon and District Horticultural society St Lawrence Parish Church Bovingdon Baptist Church
Johnny Chan is a Chinese-American professional poker player. He has won 10 World Series of Poker bracelets, including the 1987 and 1988 World Series of Poker main events consecutively. Chan moved with his family in 1962 from Guangzhou to Hong Kong in 1968 to Phoenix, in 1973 to Houston, where his family owned restaurants; when he was 21, Chan dropped out of the University of Houston, where he was majoring in hotel and restaurant management, moved to Las Vegas to become a professional gambler. Chan won the World Series of Poker in 1987 and 1988 becoming the first foreign national to win the main event. A videotape of the 1988 WSOP final heads-up match is featured in the movie Rounders, in which Chan makes a cameo appearance, he won a third consecutive title, but finished in 2nd place in 1989 to Phil Hellmuth. He is the last player to win back-to-back WSOP Main Events. Jerry Buss, an avid poker player and owner of the Los Angeles Lakers, promised Chan an NBA Championship ring if he could win three in a row.
In 2005, Chan became the first player to win ten World Series of Poker bracelets, defeating Phil Laak in a Texas hold'em event. He is tied with Doyle Brunson and Phil Ivey for second place with 10 World Series of Poker bracelets, behind Phil Hellmuth, he was inducted into the Poker Hall of Fame in 2002. In 2008, Chan cashed for the first time in the Main Event since 1992, earning $32,166 for his 329th-place finish. In 2010, Chan cashed in the Main Event taking 156th place for $57,102. Chan competed in the $400,000 Poker Superstars Invitational Tournament in February 2005, he came back from having $20,000 chips out of $3,200,000 in play to finish in second place to Gus Hansen. Chan competed in Poker Superstars II during the summer of 2005, he defeated 22 players to make it to the finals. He defeated. Chan appeared in Poker Superstars III where he made it as far as the semi finals but was defeated by Todd Brunson after three matches. On NBC's late-night show Poker After Dark, a six-person $20,000 buy-in winner-takes-all tournament, Johnny Chan has the most victories to date with four wins in six appearances.
He came in fifth when he did not win. His appearances in which he made it to heads-up were: WSOP Champions — aired Jan. 15–20, 2007 — Won heads-up against Chris Moneymaker Golden Men — aired June 11–16, 2007 — Lost heads-up against Joe Hachem World Champions — aired Feb. 11–16, 2008 — Won heads-up against Phil Hellmuth International — aired Feb. 25 – March 1, 2008 — Won heads-up against Patrik Antonius Dream Table III — aired Mar. 23–27, 2009 — Won heads-up against Jennifer Tilly Chan won Bob Stupak's 1981 American Cup poker tournament. He defeated all 9 other players at the final table in less than an hour; as a result, Stupak gave Chan the nickname "The Orient Express". Chan has never made a final table on the World Poker Tour. Chan played in the 2004 and 2005 World Series of Poker Tournament of Champions events and the National Heads-Up Poker Championship in the same years; as of 2014, his total live tournament winnings exceed $8,600,000. His 45 WSOP cashes account for $4,355,464 of those winnings.
In addition to playing poker, Chan owns a fast-food franchise in the Las Vegas Stratosphere Hotel and is a consultant for casinos and game makers. Chan has written for Card Player magazine, he appeared in 2011 seasons of the GSN series High Stakes Poker. In 2005, Chan collaborated with Mark Karowe to release Play Poker Like Johnny Chan, an instructional book on several different types of poker. On November 28, 2006, the follow-up titled: Million Dollar Hold'em: Winning Big in Limit Cash Games, which focuses on limit hold'em strategy, was released. In 2007, Chan launched ChanPokerOnline.com. It closed in August 2008. Chan wrote a regular article in the bi-monthly magazine Trader Monthly. Johnny Chan portrayed himself in the 1998 film Rounders. In a flashback scene, Chan is bluffed out of a pot by the main character Mike McDermott, he appeared in the 2009 Hong Kong movie Poker King as himself. Goldsea article and interview PokerListings.com profile