United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
North Carolina's 9th congressional district
The 9th Congressional District of North Carolina is a Congressional district in south-central North Carolina. New boundaries were drawn up in Feb,2016 following a US District court decision overturning the existing boundaries, the new district consists of Union, Richmond and Robeson counties, a southeast portion of Mecklenburg county, and most of Cumberland and Bladen counties. Republicans have held this district since 1963, republican Robert Pittenger has represented the district since January 2013. North Carolinas congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Halifax, North Carolina
Halifax is a town in Halifax County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 234 at the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Halifax County. It is known as The Birthplace of Freedom for being the location for the adoption of the Halifax Resolves, Halifax is home to the Halifax Historic District, a historic site operated by the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. Halifax is part of the Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina Micropolitan Statistical Area, Halifax is located at 36°19′42″N 77°35′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 0.4 square miles. Halifax is located on the Roanoke River, near the line between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of North Carolina. This location near the head of navigation for the Roanoke, was important in the early development. Today the river is a recreational asset, with exceptional fishing opportunities, especially with the annual Spring Rockfish. Fishermen from all over the country come to the Roanoke for these annual fishing opportunities, the Roanoke provides recreational opportunities in the form of three large impoundments—Kerr and Roanoke Rapids Reservoirs—located just upstream of Halifax.
Other recreational and historical attractions in the area include Halifax State Historic Site, Medoc Mountain State Park, the outdoor drama First For Freedom is performed annually in the summer. Halifax enjoys a climate, with moderately hot and humid summers. The area averages 6 to 8 inches of snow annually, the area is occasionally affected by the remnants of landfalling hurricanes and tropical storms. Overall, the area has a climate, usually without major extremes. As of the census of 2000, there were 344 people,103 households, preliminary Data from the 2010 Census indicates a declining population. The population density was 761.5 people per square mile, there were 123 housing units at an average density of 272.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 63. 37% White,35. 17% African American,0. 29% Native American,0. 58% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 58% of the population. 26. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.76.
In the town, the population was out with 17. 7% under the age of 18,15. 1% from 18 to 24,33. 4% from 25 to 44,19. 2% from 45 to 64
Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man, as that term was defined. Originating with President Andrew Jackson and his supporters, it became the dominant political worldview for a generation. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican Party became factionalized during the early-to-mid 1820s, broadly speaking, the era was characterized by a democratic spirit, and built upon Jacksons equal political policy. Even before the Jacksonian era began, suffrage had been extended to a majority of male adult citizens. Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, the Jacksonians demanded elected judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms they favored geographical expansion, justifying it in terms of Manifest Destiny, there was usually a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided.
Jacksons expansion of democracy was largely limited to Americans of European descent, there was little or no progress for the rights of African-Americans and Native Americans. Jacksons biographer Robert V. Remini argues that Jacksonian Democracy, stretches the concept of democracy about as far as it can go, Jacksonian Democracy was built on the following, Expanded Suffrage – The Jacksonians believed that voting rights should be extended to all white men. The Whigs generally opposed Manifest Destiny and expansion, saying the nation should build up its cities, patronage – Also known as the spoils system, patronage was the policy of placing political supporters into appointed offices. Many Jacksonians held the view that political appointees in and out of office was not only the right. Jacksonians held that long tenure in the service was corrupting. However, it led to the hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications. Strict constructionism – Like the Jeffersonians who strongly believed in the Kentucky, Jackson said that he would guard against all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty.
However, he was not a states rights extremist and this position was one basis for the Jacksonians opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more often advocated expanding federal power, the chief spokesman amongst laissez-faire advocates was William Leggett of the Locofocos in New York City. Opposition to banking – In particular, the Jacksonians opposed government-granted monopolies to banks, especially the national bank, Jackson said, The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it. The Whigs, who supported the Bank, were led by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Nicholas Biddle. An important movement in the period from 1800 to 1830—before the Jacksonians were organized—was the expansion of the right to vote toward including all white men, older states with property restrictions dropped them, all but Rhode Island and North Carolina by the mid 1820s
The Federalist Party was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to 1816, its remnants lasted into the 1820s, the Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France. The party controlled the government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamiltons fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound, the only Federalist president was John Adams, although George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, he remained officially non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794.
Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and successfully argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, the Jay Treaty passed, and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s. They held a strong base in the cities and in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the election of 1800. They recovered some strength by their opposition to the War of 1812. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. James Madison was Hamiltons ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, even though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles. Parties were considered to be divisive and harmful to republicanism, No similar parties existed anywhere in the world.
By 1790 Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition and his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress, brought strong responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a faction and then, finally. The Federalist Party supported Hamiltons vision of a centralized government. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between France and Great Britain, the majority of the Founding Fathers were originally Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and many others can all be considered Federalists and these Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed
The new party controlled the presidency and Congress, as well as most states, from 1801 to 1825, during the First Party System. It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress, and included many politicians who had opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after their ideology Republicanism and they distrusted the Federalist commitment to republicanism. The party splintered in 1824 into the Jacksonian movement and the short-lived National Republican Party, the term Democratic-Republican is used especially by modern political scientists for the first Republican Party. It is known as the Jeffersonian Republicans, historians typically use the title Republican Party. An Anti-Administration faction met secretly in the capital to oppose Hamiltons financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to monarchy and subversive of republicanism, Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a role in 1794–95 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with Britain. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its revolution, while Britain represented the hated monarchy, the party denounced many of Hamiltons measures as unconstitutional, especially the national bank. The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast and it demanded states rights as expressed by the Principles of 1798 articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers, Republicans were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists. The party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election, the Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away, and totally collapsed after 1815. The Republicans dominated the First Party System, despite internal divisions, the party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress.
They included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe, by 1824, the caucus system had practically collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated Congress and most state governments outside New England, by 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center, as the First Party System collapsed. The emergence of the Second Party System in the 1830s realigned the old factions, one remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay formed the National Republicans in 1828, the precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate, some time by 1792 is certain. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis, in most states the congressional elections were recognized, as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it, as a struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest
Littleton, North Carolina
Littleton is a town in Halifax County, North Carolina, United States which was formerly known as Little People Town. The population was 674 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina Micropolitan Statistical Area. Littleton is located at 36°26′03″N 77°54′42″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.0 square mile, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 692 people,333 households, the population density was 720.5 people per square mile. There were 378 housing units at a density of 393.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 54. 34% White,42. 77% African American,0. 29% Native American,0. 43% Asian,1. 16% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 16% of the population. 38. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 20. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.70. In the town, the population was out with 21. 5% under the age of 18,5. 3% from 18 to 24,20. 2% from 25 to 44,25. 7% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 47 years, for every 100 females there were 68.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.5 males, the median income for a household in the town was $23,182, and the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had an income of $29,583 versus $22,375 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,901, about 19. 1% of families and 22. 3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25. 6% of those under age 18 and 17. 5% of those age 65 or over. Littleton was named after William Little, a senator at the time of founding. In 1882, Littleton College for women was founded with an enrollment of eleven students. The college became relatively successful with an enrollment of 285 in 1908. On January 22,1919, the college was destroyed by fire, persons Ordinary and St. Albans Episcopal Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Marmaduke Williams was a Democratic-Republican U. S. Congressman from North Carolina from 1803 to 1809, born in Caswell County, North Carolina, Williams studied law and was admitted to the North Carolina bar. He was elected to the North Carolina State Senate, serving 1802, Williams was re-elected twice, serving in the 9th and 10th Congresses. He declined to run for a term and moved to the Mississippi Territory in 1810, to Huntsville, Alabama. Williams was a delegate to the Alabama Constitutional Convention of 1819 and he was a brother of Mississippi Territorial Governor Robert Williams. On October 26,1798, in Caswell County, North Carolina, he married Agnes Payne, a first cousin of Dolley Madison and he was first cousin of the brothers, Robert Williams, John Williams and Lewis Williams. He was the grandfather of Lafayette Guild and he died in Tuscaloosa in 1850 and is buried in Greenwood Cemetery. His Tuscaloosa home has been completely renovated, biographical Directory of the United States Congress
North Carolina's 2nd congressional district
North Carolinas 2nd congressional district is located in the central and eastern parts of the state. Today, the district, which is represented by Republican Rep. George Holding, includes all or parts of Alamance, Cumberland, Hoke, Moore and Wake counties. Established by the legislature after the American Civil War, the district was known as The Black Second. After North Carolina Democrats regained control of the legislature in the 1870s, they passed voter registration. Blacks continued to get elected to local and state offices, the state legislature passed a new constitutional amendment in 1900, which effectively disfranchised blacks altogether. This ended the election of blacks to local, state or Congressional offices until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Thousands of blacks migrated north from the state in the Great Migration during the first half of the century, seeking job opportunities. By the twentieth century, before the 1990s, the 2nd district was roughly 40% black, state redistricting following census changes led to the creation of the black-majority 1st and 12th districts and drew off some black population from the 2nd.
Today the proportion of African-American residents is about 30. 4% in the 2nd District, North Carolinas congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Nathaniel Macon was an American politician who served as a U. S. Senator and Representative from North Carolina, during his political career he was spokesman for the Old Republican faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that wanted to strictly limit the United States federal government. Macon was born near Warrenton, North Carolina, and attended the College of New Jersey and he was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1791 to 1815, from 1801 to 1807 he was the fifth Speaker of the House. He served in the Senate from 1815 until his resignation in 1828 and he was president of the North Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1835. Nathaniel Macon was the son of Maj. Gideon Macon and Priscilla Jones, Gideon Macon was born in Virginia, but moved to North Carolina in the early 1740s. He and Priscilla were married in North Carolina in 1744, Gideon Macon built Macon Manor and became a prosperous tobacco planter. Nathaniel, born at Macon Manor, was the child of Gideon and Priscilla.
Upon his death, Gideon possessed 3,000 acres of land, Nathaniel was bequeathed two parcels of land and all of his father’s blacksmithing tools. Gideon left his son three slaves, George and Lucy. In 1766, Priscilla Macon, now the wife of Col. James Ransom, for this purpose, they engaged Mr. Charles Pettigrew who became the Principal of the Academy of Edenton in 1733. The two brothers and their neighbors and Benjamin Hawkins, were instructed by him from 1766–1773, three of the four boys continued on to further their education at the College of New Jersey at Princeton. Nathaniel’s father’s parents were John Macon and Ann Hunt, both of Virginia, nathaniel’s paternal great-grandparents were Col. Gideon Macon and Martha Woodward. Gideon and Martha Woodward Macon were the great-grandparents of Martha Dandridge who married George Washington, Nathaniel Macon was the second cousin of Martha Dandridge Washington. Nathaniel met Hannah Plummer in 1782 in Warrenton, North Carolina and her parents were Virginians, as were Nathaniels, and they were well connected.
Nathaniel was a man, over 6 feet, and considered attractive. However, after a number of months of courtship, one story often told of Hannahs courtship involves Nathaniel challenging an unnamed potential suitor to a card game, with Hannah as the prize. The offer was accepted, and Nathaniel lost the card game, upon losing, he turned to Hannah and exclaimed notwithstanding I have lost you fairly—love is superior to honesty—I cannot give you up. This won her favor, with he and Hannah marrying soon afterwards and their wedding took place on October 9,1783, and their marriage was an affectionate one
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
William Richardson Davie
He was a member of the Federalist Party and is a Founding Father of the United States. He immigrated to the American colonies in 1763, when his father, Archibald Davie, brought him to the Waxhaw region near Lancaster and he was named for his maternal uncle, William Richardson, a prominent Presbyterian minister in South Carolina. However, when Richardson died, Davie inherited 150 acres of his land as well as a large library. As an adolescent, Davie studied at Queens Museum, Liberty Hall, in Charlotte, matriculated to the College of New Jersey, from which he graduated with honors in 1776. After leaving New Jersey, Davie began to study law in Salisbury, North Carolina, under Spruce Macay, in December 1778, Davie left Salisbury to join 1,200 militiamen led by Brigadier General Allen Jones of Northampton County, NC. Joness force advanced toward Charleston, South Carolina, with intentions to aid the city as it prepared its defenses against possible British assault. That threat receded, so Davie and the rest of Joness men returned to North Carolina after marching as far south as Camden, after briefly resuming his studies in Salisbury, Davie closed his law books again in the spring of 1779 to reenter military service.
This time, Davie did not volunteer for a force, he helped to raise. For his work in forming a Company of Horse in the District of Salisbury, Davie did not remain in that junior rank for long. Promoted to the rank of major under Pulaski, Davie assumed command of a brigade of cavalry, on June 20,1779, just two days shy of his twenty-third birthday, Davie led a charge against British forces at the Battle of Stono Ferry outside Charleston. He suffered a wound to his thigh in that engagement, fell from his horse. While convalescing from his injuries, Davie resumed his studies back in Salisbury. He was presented a sword by the citizenry for his exemplary conduct. Soon he completed or stood his examinations and in November 1779 obtained a license to practice law in South Carolina, in the late spring and summer of the following year, now fully recovered, again formed an independent company of cavalry. He led that force in several actions during the summer of 1780. Shortly after the Battle of Hanging Rock, Davie received word of a new army moving into South Carolina under General Horatio Gates, at the Battle of Camden on August 16,1780 Gates was soundly defeated.
While the Continentals fought hard, his militia fled without much if any of a fight. Gates and what remained of his army back into North Carolina