Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles east of Brighton. Eastbourne is to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. With a seafront consisting of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets, it has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Though Eastbourne is a new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age; the town grew as a fashionable tourist resort thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration; the resulting mix of architecture is Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, education, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne's population is growing; the 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students and those commuting to London and Brighton. Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500BC. There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stream at Burne; the original name came from the'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens; the bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which lies on the site of a Saxon ‘moot’, or meeting place; this gives Motcombe its name. In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia, in a field near the town, it is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence.
Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill and salt pans; the Book referred to the area as'Borne'.'East' was added to ‘Borne’ in the 13th century, renaming the town. A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, the manor house called Bourne Place. In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands; this manor house is owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place.
It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside, his views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill.
Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, built as a barracks and storage depot, armed with 10
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar panels. In basic terms a single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of 0.5 to 0.6 volts. Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light, they are used as a photodetector, detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or measuring light intensity. The operation of a photovoltaic cell requires three basic attributes: The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons; the separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit. In contrast, a solar thermal collector supplies heat by absorbing sunlight, for the purpose of either direct heating or indirect electrical power generation from heat. A "photoelectrolytic cell", on the other hand, refers either to a type of photovoltaic cell, or to a device that splits water directly into hydrogen and oxygen using only solar illumination. Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules that generate electrical power from sunlight, as distinguished from a "solar thermal module" or "solar hot water panel". A solar array generates solar power using solar energy. Multiple solar cells in an integrated group, all oriented in one plane, constitute a solar photovoltaic panel or module. Photovoltaic modules have a sheet of glass on the sun-facing side, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers. Solar cells are connected in series and parallel circuits or series in modules, creating an additive voltage.
Connecting cells in parallel yields a higher current. Strings of series cells are handled independently and not connected in parallel, though as of 2014, individual power boxes are supplied for each module, are connected in parallel. Although modules can be interconnected to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and loading current capacity, using independent MPPTs is preferable. Otherwise, shunt diodes can reduce shadowing power loss in arrays with series/parallel connected cells; the photovoltaic effect was experimentally demonstrated first by French physicist Edmond Becquerel. In 1839, at age 19, he built the world's first photovoltaic cell in his father's laboratory. Willoughby Smith first described the "Effect of Light on Selenium during the passage of an Electric Current" in a 20 February 1873 issue of Nature. In 1883 Charles Fritts built the first solid state photovoltaic cell by coating the semiconductor selenium with a thin layer of gold to form the junctions. Other milestones include: 1888 – Russian physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first cell based on the outer photoelectric effect discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1887.
1905 – Albert Einstein proposed a new quantum theory of light and explained the photoelectric effect in a landmark paper, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. 1941 – Vadim Lashkaryov discovered p-n-junctions in Cu2O and Ag2S protocells. 1946 – Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell, while working on the series of advances that would lead to the transistor. 1954 – the first practical photovoltaic cell was publicly demonstrated at Bell Laboratories. The inventors were Daryl Chapin and Gerald Pearson. 1958 – solar cells gained prominence with their incorporation onto the Vanguard I satellite. Solar cells were first used in a prominent application when they were proposed and flown on the Vanguard satellite in 1958, as an alternative power source to the primary battery power source. By adding cells to the outside of the body, the mission time could be extended with no major changes to the spacecraft or its power systems. In 1959 the United States launched Explorer 6, featuring large wing-shaped solar arrays, which became a common feature in satellites.
These arrays consisted of 9600 Hoffman solar cells. By the 1960s, solar cells were the main power source for most Earth orbiting satellites and a number of probes into the solar system, since they offered the best power-to-weight ratio. However, this success was possible because in the space application, power system costs could be high, because space users had few other power options, were willing to pay for the best possible cells; the space power market drove the development of higher efficiencies in solar cells up until the National Science Foundation "Research Applied to National Needs" program began to push development of solar cells for terrestrial applications. In the early 1990s the technology used for space solar cells diverged from the silicon technology used for terrestrial panels, with the spacecraft application shifting to gallium arsenide-based III-V semiconductor materials, which evolved into the modern III-V multijunction photovoltaic cell used on spacecraft. Improvements were gradual over the 1960s.
This was the reason that costs remained high, becau
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez
"The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez", one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 13 stories in the cycle collected as The Return of Sherlock Holmes. One wretched November night, Inspector Stanley Hopkins visits Holmes at 221B Baker Street to discuss the violent death of Willoughby Smith, secretary to aged invalid Professor Coram. Coram had dismissed his previous two secretaries; the murder happened at Yoxley Old Place near Chatham, with a sealing-wax knife of the professor's as the weapon. Hopkins can identify no motive for the killing, with Smith having no enemies or trouble in his past. Smith was found by Coram's maid; the maid further told Hopkins that prior to the murder she heard Smith leave his room and walk down to the study. The professor was in bed at the time. A minute a hoarse scream issued from the study, the maid, hesitating inspected and found the murder, she tells Holmes that Smith went out for a walk not long before the murder. The murderer’s only means of entry was through the back door after walking along the path from the road, Hopkins found some indistinct footmarks running beside the path, the murderer seeking to leave no trail.
Hopkins could not tell whether the track was made by big or small feet. The professor’s study contained a bureau, its drawers were left open, as was normal, the cupboard in the middle was locked. The professor kept the key. A lone piece of evidence was found in Willoughby Smith’s hand: a pair of golden pince-nez glasses. Holmes examines these and from them alone deduces the following details of the murderer: It is a woman. Holmes, Dr. Watson, Hopkins head to Yoxley the next morning, Holmes examines the site. In the study, he notices a recent scratch on the bureau, reasons that the murderer intended to access its contents. Smith was killed. No one saw the murderer leave, nor did anyone hear a door opening. Holmes notes that both the corridors, the one leading from the back door and the one leading to the professor’s bedroom, are about the same length, lined with coconut matting. Holmes interviews the professor in his bedroom, smoking many Egyptian cigarettes and dropping the ashes all over the floor.
The professor claims utter ignorance regarding the murder, ventures that Smith’s death may be suicide. Holmes asks about the locked cupboard in the bureau; the professor hands over the key. Holmes inspects the key and returns it leaving the bureau sealed. Watson asks Holmes if he has a clue, Holmes tells him the cigarette ashes might reveal the truth. Holmes meets the housekeeper in the garden and has a unimportant chat about the professor’s eating habits. Come the afternoon, the three men return to the professor in his room, Holmes deliberately knocks the cigarettes over as an excuse to get a closer look at the floor. Holmes' suspicion is confirmed – there are footprints in the ash. At that moment the murderer, appearing as Holmes deduced, emerges from a hiding place in a bookcase; the business unfolded thus: The woman came in secret to the professor’s house to obtain some documents, using a duplicate key she gained from one of the former secretaries. She was surprised by Smith, whom she attacked with the nearest object to hand, the sealing-wax knife.
She lost her glasses in the scramble to escape. Although surprised, he hid her; the murderer is in fact the professor’s estranged wife and they are both Russian. Years prior the pair had been involved with Nihilists. Having finished her jail sentence in Siberia, Anna came in search of evidence that would exonerate her friend. Anna had met Smith while he was taking his walk; the professor’s increased appetite is of course explained by his having to feed a second, hidden person. Shortly after the final revelations, Anna dies from poison, her last wish is to ask Holmes to deliver the documents to the Russian Embassy, which he duly fulfills. In the 1954 radio adaptation of the story starring Sir John Gielgud as Holmes and Sir Ralph Richardson as Watson, Anna kills herself with a pistol rather than by poison. "The Golden Pince-Nez" was dramatised for BBC Radio 4 in 1993 by Peter Ling as part of Bert Coules' complete radio adaptation of the canon, starring Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williams as Watson, featuring Maurice Denham as Professor Coram and Maureen O'Brien as the Lady.
At the end, while in custody, Anna jumps in front of a train, Holmes remarks that this is how Anna Karenina dies. The Granada TV adaptation with Jeremy Brett differs slightly. A bearded member of the Russian Brotherhood lurks in the garden, administers final justice to the villainous Professor. Anna's key was her own original. Dr. Watson is replaced by Sherlock Holmes's brother, Mycroft Holmes, due to the unavailability of Edward Hardwicke for the episode. During Holmes' brother's investigation at the crime scene with Inspector Hopki
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department
Dover is a major ferry port in Kent, South East England. It faces France across the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, lies south-east of Canterbury and east of Maidstone; the town is the administrative centre of the Dover District and home of the Dover Calais ferry through the Port of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover. Archaeological finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving Britain; the name derives from the River Dour. The Port of Dover provides much of the town's employment. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters (dwfr in Middle Welsh; the same element is present in the town's French and Modern Welsh forms, as well as the name of the river Dour and is evident in other English towns such as Wendover. The current name was in use at least by the time of Shakespeare's King Lear, in which the town and its cliffs play a prominent role.
Archaeological finds have shown that there were Stone Age people in the area, that some Iron Age finds exist. During the Roman period, the area became part of the Roman communications network, it was connected by road to Canterbury and Watling Street and it became Portus Dubris, a fortified port. Dover has a preserved Roman lighthouse and the remains of a villa with the only preserved Roman wall painting outside Italy. Dover figured in the Domesday Book. Forts were built above the port and lighthouses were constructed to guide passing ships, it is one of the Cinque Ports. and has served as a bastion against various attackers: notably the French during the Napoleonic Wars and Germany during the Second World War. Dover is in the south-east corner of Britain. From South Foreland, the nearest point to the European mainland, Cap Gris Nez is 34 kilometres away across the Strait of Dover; the site of its original settlement lies in the valley of the River Dour, sheltering from the prevailing south-westerly winds.
This has led to the silting up of the river mouth by the action of longshore drift. The town has been forced into making artificial breakwaters to keep the port in being; these breakwaters have been extended and adapted so that the port lies entirely on reclaimed land. The higher land on either side of the valley – the Western Heights and the eastern high point on which Dover Castle stands – has been adapted to perform the function of protection against invaders; the town has extended up the river valley, encompassing several villages in doing so. Little growth is possible along the coast; the railway, being tunnelled and embanked, skirts the foot of the cliffs. Dover has an oceanic climate similar to the rest of the United Kingdom with mild temperatures year-round and a light amount of rainfall each month; the warmest recorded temperature was 31 °C and the coldest was −8 °C, but the temperature is between 3 °C and 21.1 °C. There is evidence. In 1800, the year before Britain's first national census, Edward Hasted reported that the town had a population of 10,000 people.
At the 2001 census, the town of Dover had 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants. With the expansion of Dover, many of the outlying ancient villages have been incorporated into the town; the parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James, since 1836 Buckland and Charlton have become part Dover, Maxton, Kearsney, Temple Ewell, Whitfield, all to the north of the town centre, are within its conurbation; the Dover Harbour Board is the responsible authority for the running of the Port of Dover. The English Channel, here at its narrowest point in the Straits of Dover, is the busiest shipping lane in the world. Ferries crossing between here and the Continent have to negotiate their way through the constant stream of shipping crossing their path; the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme allots ships separate lanes when passing through the Strait. The Scheme is controlled by the Channel Navigation Information Service based at Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Dover.
MRCC Dover is charged with co-ordination of civil maritime search and rescue within these waters. The Port of Dover is used by cruise ships; the old Dover Marine railway station building houses one passenger terminal, together with a car park. A second, purpose built, terminal is located further out along the pier; the ferry lines using the port are: to Calais: P&O Ferries, DFDS Seaways. to Dunkirk: DFDS Seaways. These services have been cut in recent years: P&O Ferries sailings to Boulogne were withdrawn in 1993 and Zeebrugge in 2002. SNCF withdrew their three train ferry sailings on the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Regie voor Maritiem Transport moved their Ostend service of three sailings daily to Ramsgate in 1994. Stena Line merged their 20 Calais sailings into the current P&O operation in 1998. Hoverspeed withdrew their 8 daily sailings. SpeedFerries withdrew their 5 daily sailings. LD Lines ceased the Dover-Dieppe service on
Great Yarmouth known to locals as Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England. It straddles the narrow mouth of the River Yare 20 miles east of Norwich, it had an estimated population of 38,693 at the 2011 Census, making it the most third populous place in Norfolk. The town has been a seaside resort since 1760, was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, it is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, depending on the herring fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 20th century, has now all but disappeared; the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, today it services offshore natural gas rigs. More the development of renewable energy sources offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands. Great Yarmouth rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in 1844 making it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Yarmouth, triggering an influx of settlers.
Wellington Pier was built in 1854, Britannia Pier opened in 1858. Throughout the 20th century, Yarmouth continued to be a booming resort, with a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. In addition to its beach, Yarmouth's major attractions and landmarks include Britannia Pier, the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, as well as the UK's only surviving Victorian seaside cast iron and glass Winter Garden; the town itself is on a 3.1-mile spit sandwiched between the North River Yare. Its well-known features include the main tourist sector on the seafront; the area is linked to Gorleston and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47 and A149 by the Breydon Bridge. The urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 8.3 sq mi and according to the Office for National Statistics in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth.
The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 68,317, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea and Great Yarmouth. The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population of around 92,500, increasing to 97,277 at the 2011 census. Great Yarmouth was 92.8% White British, with the next biggest ethnic demographic being Other White, at 3.5%, which consists of Eastern Europeans. Great Yarmouth lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum at the mouth of the River Yare, its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports, a permanent settlement was made, the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I placed it under the rule of a reeve. In 1101 the Church of St Nicholas was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, consecrated in 1119; this was to be the first of several priories founded in what was a wealthy trading centre of considerable importance. In 1208, King John granted a charter to Great Yarmouth; the charter gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, amplified by several charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston.
The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton, to convey them to the King. The hospital was founded in Yarmouth in the reign of Edward I by Thomas Fastolfe, father of Thomas Fastolf, the Bishop of St David's.. In 1551, a grammar school founded and the great hall of the old hospital was appropriated to its use; the school was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, settled in new buildings in 1872. In 1552 Edward VI granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Queen Anne replaced the two bailiffs by a mayor. In 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Zealand Expedition was assembled in the town. In 1702 the corporation founded the Fishermen's Hospital.
In the early 18th century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port, was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe's travel journals, in part as follows: Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich. It is plac'd on a peninsula between the sea; the ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the wharf.