Platform games, or platformers, are a video game genre and subgenre of action game. In a platformer the player controlled character must jump and climb between suspended platforms while avoiding obstacles. Environments feature uneven terrain of varying height that must be traversed; the player has some control over the height and distance of jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves; these mechanics in the context of other genres, are called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, which were about climbing ladders as much as jumping, with 3D successors popularized in the mid-1990s.
The term describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay and came into use after the genre had been established, no than 1983. The genre is combined with elements of other genres, such as the shooter elements in Contra, Beat'em up elements of Viewtiful Joe, adventure elements of Flashback, or role-playing game elements of Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. While associated with console gaming, there have been many important platform games released to video arcades, as well as for handheld game consoles and home computers. North America and Japan have played major parts in the genre's evolution. Platform themes range from cartoon-like games to science fantasy epics. At one point, platform games were the most popular genre of video game. At the peak of their popularity, it is estimated that between one-quarter and one-third of console games were platformers. No genre either before or since has been able to achieve a similar market share; as of 2006, the genre had become far less dominant, representing a two percentage market share as compared to fifteen percent in 1998, but is still commercially viable, with a number of games selling in the millions of units.
Since 2010, a variety of endless running platformers for mobile devices have brought renewed popularity to the genre. Platform games originated in the late 1970s - early 1980s. Most, but not all, early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field viewed in profile. Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release by Universal, is sometimes credited as being the first platform game, though the distinction is contentious. While the player had the ability to fall, there was no ability to jump, so the game does not satisfy most modern definitions of the genre. However, it influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games. A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the 1981 unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers. Another precursor to the genre from 1980 was Nichibutsu's Crazy Climber, which revolved around the concept of climbing vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.
Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July 1981, was the first game that allowed players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer. It introduced a modern icon of the genre, under the name Jumpman. Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision, a handheld version from Coleco in 1982; the game helped cement Nintendo's position as an important name in the video game industry internationally. The following year, Donkey Kong received a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr.. The third game in the series, Donkey Kong 3, was not a platformer, but it was succeeded by Mario Bros, a platform game that offered two-player simultaneous cooperative play; this title laid the groundwork for other popular two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble, which in turn influenced many of the single-screen platformers that would follow. Beginning in 1982, transitional games emerged that did not feature scrolling graphics, but had levels that spanned several connected screens.
Pitfall!, released for the Atari 2600, featured broad, horizontally extended levels. It was a breakthrough for the genre. Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens. Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Wanted: Monty Mole won the first award for Best Platform game in 1984; that same year, Epyx released Impossible Mission, which further expanded on the exploration aspect and laid the groundwork for such games as Prince of Persia. The term platform game is somewhat ambiguous when referring to games that predate the widespread, international use of the term; the concept of a platform game as it was defined in its earliest days is somewhat different from how the term is used today. Following the release of Donkey Kong, a genre of similarly-styled games emerged characterized by a profile view of tiers connected by ladders; these included Kangaroo, Canyon Climber, Miner 2049er, Lode Runner, Jumpman.
The two most common gameplay goals were to get to the top of the screen or to collect all of a particular item, both of which are found in Donkey Kong. The North Ame
Ghouls 'n Ghosts
Ghouls'n Ghosts is a side-scrolling platform game developed by Capcom and released as an arcade game in 1988, subsequently ported to a number of other platforms. It is the second game in the Ghosts'n Goblins series. 3 years after the events of the last game monsters and demons have returned and a beam of light struck through Princess Prin Prin taking her soul. Now its up to the knight Arthur to defeat the evil Lucifer and restore the souls of Prin Prin and the people; the gameplay for Ghouls'n Ghosts is similar to that of Goblins. The player controls the knight Arthur, who must advance through a series of eerie levels and defeat a number of undead and demonic creatures in his quest to restore all the people killed by Lucifer, including his beloved Princess Prin Prin, back to life. Along the way, Arthur can pick up a variety of weapons and armor to help him in his quest. While the core gameplay remains the same as its predecessor, the game now allows Arthur to fire directly upward and directly downward while in mid air.
By jumping in certain spots, players can cause a treasure chest to erupt from the ground. By firing his weapon at the chest, players may uncover new weapons, gold armor or an evil magician that changes Arthur into an elderly man or a helpless duck; the gold armor allows players to charge up the weapon to release a powerful magical attack. Each weapon has its own special attack, with the exception of the special weapon. Levels There are Lucifer's chamber at the end, considered a sixth level in itself. To defeat the game, Arthur must complete level 1 to 5 twice. Upon completing level's 1 to 5 the first time, Arthur is taken back to level 1 again but this time a special weapon appears during the game. To enter Lucifer's chamber the player must have this special weapon equipped, must have defeated the final Fly boss from level 5. After entering the final large door, the player goes directly to Lucifer's chamber. Level 1 – The Haunted Graveyard & The Floating Island. Level 2 – Village of Decay & The Town On Fire.
Level 3 – Baron Rankle's Tower & The Horrible Faced Mountains. Level 4 – The Crystal Cave & The Icy Descent. Level 5 – Lucifer's Castle Part 1 & Lucifer's Castle Part 2. Level 6 – Lucifer's Chamber; the original soundtrack for the arcade version was composed by Tamayo Kawamoto. Many computer ports of the game include the soundtrack by Tim Follin which consists of arrangements and some new songs. Follin's soundtrack – Commodore 64, Atari ST and Amiga versions – is respected among computer game music listeners and gained appreciation from reviewers when the game was published. Ports of Ghouls'n Ghosts were released in Europe in 1989 for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum; these ports were all handled by Software Creations and all omit a great deal of detail from the arcade version on capable 32-Bit machines like the Amiga. A Sega Mega Drive/Genesis port of Ghouls'n Ghosts was released by Sega in 1989 in Japan and North America. MegaTech magazine noted that although it was a good game, they felt the price of £45 was too high, This version was re-released as a handheld TV game with Street Fighter II: Special Champion Edition in 2005 and as a downloadable Virtual Console game for the Wii in 2007.
Sega released a Master System port in 1990. This 8-bit version made changes to the game by introducing a power-up system that allows the player to enter secret shops and upgrade parts of their armor; this includes helmets, which give the player access to magic spells. The SuperGrafx port of Daimakaimura released by NEC Avenue in 1990 was one of the five games released for the short-lived system. A pixel perfect version of Daimakaimura was released by Capcom in 1994 for the Sharp X68000. In 1998, Capcom released Capcom Generation 2 for the PlayStation and Saturn in Japan, a compilation which included Ghouls'n Ghosts along with Ghosts'n Goblins and Super Ghouls'n Ghosts; the PlayStation version of this compilation was released as a bundle in Europe with three other volumes titled Capcom Generations under the title of Capcom Generations: Chronicles of Arthur. Capcom released in North America Capcom Classics Collection Vol. 1 for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox in 2005 and Capcom Classics Collection: Reloaded for the PlayStation Portable in 2006, which includes all the Capcom Generations titles.
The emulation on a number of these compilations is off, in that the screen display is too dark. Ghosts'n Goblins Ghouls'n Ghosts at the Killer List of Videogames The Ghosts'n Goblins Series Online Ghouls and Ghosts Remix Ghouls'n Ghosts at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
An arcade cabinet known as an arcade/coin-op machine, is the housing within which an arcade game's electronic hardware resides. Most cabinets designed since the mid-1980s conform to the Japanese Amusement Machine Manufacturers Association wiring standard; some include. Because arcade cabinets vary according to the games they were built for or contain, they may well not possess all of the parts listed below: An output, on which the game is displayed, they may display either vector graphics, raster being most common. Standard resolution is between 315 vertical lines, depending on the refresh rate. Slower refresh rates allow for better vertical resolution. Monitors may be oriented horizontally or vertically, depending on the game; some games use more than one monitor. Some newer cabinets have monitors. Printed circuit boards or arcade system boards, the actual hardware upon which the game runs. Hidden within the cabinet; some systems, such as the SNK Neo-Geo MVS, use a main board with game carts. Some main boards may hold multiple game carts as well.
A power supply to provide DC power to the arcade system boards and low voltage lighting for the coin slots and lighted buttons. A marquee, a sign above the monitor displaying the game's title, they are brightly colored and backlit. A bezel, the border around the monitor, it may contain instructions or artwork. A control panel, a level surface near the monitor, upon which the game's controls are arranged. Control panels sometimes have playing instructions. Players pile their coins or tokens on the control panels of upright and cocktail cabinets. Coin slots, coin returns and the coin box, which allow for the exchange of money or tokens, they are below the control panel. Translucent red plastic buttons are placed in between the coin return and the coin slot; when they are pressed, a coin or token that has become jammed in the coin mechanism is returned to the player. See coin acceptor. Early coin slots could be defeated using a piezo-electric gas fire or gas oven igniter held against the steel bodywork of the cabinet, thus enabling free credits to be obtained.
In some arcades, the coin slot is replaced with a card reader that reads data from a game card bought from the arcade operator. The sides of the arcade cabinet are decorated with brightly coloured stickers or paint, representing the gameplay of their particular game. There are many types of some in fact being custom-made for a particular game. Upright cabinets are by far the most common in North America, they are made of wood and metal, about six feet or two meters tall, with the control panel set perpendicular to the monitor at above waist level. The monitor is housed inside the cabinet, at eye level; the marquee is above it, overhangs it. Controls are most a joystick for as many players as the game allows, plus action buttons and "player" buttons which serve the same purpose as the start button on console gamepads. Trackballs are sometimes used instead of joysticks in games from the early 1980s. Spinners are used to control game elements that move horizontally or vertically, such as the paddles in Arkanoid and Pong.
Games such as Robotron: 2084, Smash TV and Battlezone use double joysticks instead of action buttons. Some versions of the original Street Fighter had pressure-sensitive rubber pads instead of buttons. If an upright is housing a driving game, it may have a steering wheel and throttle pedal instead of a joystick and buttons. If the upright is housing a shooting game, it may have light guns attached to the front of the machine, via durable cables; some arcade machines had the monitor placed at the bottom of the cabinet with a mirror mounted at around 45 degrees above the screen facing the player. This was done to save space, a large CRT monitor would otherwise poke out the back of the cabinet, to avoid eye strain from looking directly up-close at the monitor. To correct for the mirrored image, some games had an option to flip the video output using a dip switch setting. Other genres of game such as Guitar Freaks feature controllers resembling musical instruments. Upright cabinet shape designs varies from the simplest symmetric perpendicular boxes as with Star Trek to complicated asymmetric forms.
Games are for one or two players. Cocktail cabinets are shaped like low, rectangular tables, with the controls set at either of the broad ends, or, though not as common, at the narrow ends, the monitor inside the table, the screen facing upward. Two-player games housed in cocktails were alternant, each player taking turns; the monitor reverses its orientation for each player, so that everything seems right-side-up from each perspective. This requires special programming of the cocktail versions of the game; the monitor's orientation is in player two's favour only in two-player games when it's player two's turn, in player one's favour all other times. Simultaneous, 4 player games that are built as a cocktail include Warlords, others. Cocktail cabinet versions were released alongside the upright version of the same game, they were common in the 1980s during the Golden Age of Arcade Games, but have since lost popularity. Their main advantage over upright cabinets was their smaller size, making them seem less obtrusive, although requiring
Video game music
Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games. Early video game music was once limited to simple melodies of early sound synthesizer technology; these limitations inspired the style of music known as chiptunes, which combines simple melodic styles with more complex patterns or traditional music styles, became the most popular sound of the first video games. With advances in technology, video game music has grown to include the same breadth and complexity associated with television and film scores, allowing for much more creative freedom. While simple synthesizer pieces are still common, game music now includes full orchestral pieces and popular music. Music in video games can be heard over a game’s title screen, options menu, bonus content, as well as during the entire gameplay. Modern soundtracks can change depending on a player's actions or situation, such as indicating missed actions in rhythm games. Video game music can be one of two options: original or licensed. In order to create or collect this music, teams of composers, music directors, music supervisors must work with the game developers and game publishers.
Many of the most notable original sophie game composers have been from Japan, including Nobuo Uematsu, Koji Kondo, Yuzo Koshiro, Yoko Shimomura, Junichi Masuda, Hip Tanaka, Masato Nakamura, Koichi Sugiyama, Yasunori Mitsuda, Michiru Yamane, Yuu Miyake, Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Manabu Namiki, Shinji Hosoe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Notable Western game composers working today include Jeremy Soule, Jesper Kyd, Marty O' Donnell, Jason Graves, Austin Wintory, James Hannigan, Garry Schyman, Peter McConnell, some of whom work in film and television alongside video games. Today, original composition has included the work of film composers Harry Gregson-Williams, Trent Reznor, Hans Zimmer, Mark Rutherford, Josh Mancell, Steve Jablonsky, Michael Giacchino; the popularity of video game music has expanded education and job opportunities, generated awards, allowed video game soundtracks to be commercially sold and performed in concert's. At the time video games had emerged as a popular form of entertainment in the late 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records.
Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used. A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were generated in this fashion. An early example of such an approach to video game music was the opening chiptune in Tomohiro Nishikado's Gun Fight. While this allowed for inclusion of music in early arcade video games, it was monophonic, looped or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as the Namco titles Pac-Man composed by Toshio Kai or Pole Position composed by Nobuyuki Ohnogi; the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Space Invaders, released by Taito in 1978. It had four descending chromatic bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player.
The first video game to feature continuous, melodic background music was Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience; some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. Sound capabilities were limited; as advances were made in silicon technology and costs fell, a definitively new generation of arcade machines and home consoles allowed for great changes in accompanying music. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and accompanying various Yamaha YM programmable sound generator sound chips allowed for several more tones or "channels" of sound, sometimes eight or more; the earliest known example of this was Sega's 1980 arcade game Carnival, which used an AY-3-8910 chip to create an electronic rendition of the classical 1889 composition "Over The Waves" by Juventino Rosas.
Konami's 1981 arcade game Frogger introduced a dynamic approach to video game music, using at least eleven different gameplay tracks, in addition to level-starting and game over themes, which change according to the player's actions. This was further improved upon by Namco's 1982 arcade game Dig Dug, where the music stopped when the player stopped moving. Dig Dug was composed by Yuriko Keino, who composed the music for other Namco games such as Xevious and Phozon. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive featured a chiptune rendition of Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Rydeen". Home console systems had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the ColecoVision in 1982 capable of four channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983, released in the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, it was capable of one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. The home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982 was capable of early forms of filtering effects, different types of waveforms and the undocumented abilit
Computer and Video Games
Computer and Video Games was a UK-based video game magazine, published in its original form between 1981 and 2004. Its offshoot website was launched in 1999 and closed in February 2015. CVG was the longest-running video game media brand in the world. Computer and Video Games was established in 1981. Published monthly between November 1981 and October 2004 and web-based from 2004 onwards, the magazine was one of the first publications to capitalise on the growing home computing market, although it covered arcade games. At the time of launch it was the world's first dedicated video games magazine; the first issue featured articles on Space Invaders, Chess and advice on how to learn programming. The magazine had a typical ABC of 106,000. Launched in August 1999, CVG was one of the Europe's leading gaming web sites. Known for its news service, CVG features a mix of current and next-generation multi-format gaming reviews, previews and interviews, as well as a new emphasis on video and multimedia content.
CVG was owned by EMAP, before being bought by Dennis Publishing. In 2004 CVG was acquired by Future Publishing. In 2006, the site underwent a major re-design and relaunch to bring it up to scratch for the so-called next generation of Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Wii gaming. In 2007, CVG became the hub of a new CVG Network, hosting magazine sites for all of Future Publishing’s unofficial gaming magazines including PC Gamer, PC Zone, Xbox World 360, PlayStation World, PSM3 and NGamer as well as long standing cheats site, CheatStation; the CVG Network expanded further in May 2007 to include sites like Xbox 360 Magazine and Next Generation.biz. CVG has a popular forum with many users and topics. CVG has had a cult following with an award thread they used to run known as the yakkies. In May 2007, CVG submitted to electronic audit by the Audit Bureau of Circulation and registered 1.56 million monthly unique users and 11.4 million page impressions. Future has since incorporated the forums of many of its other games related publications to ComputerAndVideoGames.com in addition to devoting sections to those that did not have a formal website, such as PC Gamer.
In early 2014, CVG, amongst other Future-operated websites, was earmarked for closure by management, but instead received staff cuts in July. Future announced the closure of the website in December 2014; the website closed on 26 February 2015, with all pages redirecting to Gamesradar+, another Future publication. Until the closure of CVG, their official YouTube channel provided a variety of video game related content, providing everything from walkthroughs of games to news regarding video game consoles and regarding gaming events, their second longest running series, GTA V O'clock covered news and conspiracy theories regarding Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto V and Grand Theft Auto Online. It was one of the few publications invited to see and play Grand Theft Auto V before its release to the public on 17 September 2013 and re-release for PC on 14 April 2015; when the magazine did reappear it was in a new form, titled CVG Presents, on 16 April 2008 with a bi-monthly release schedule. The new format concentrates the whole magazine on a single subject.
The first issue of the new format concentrated on the history of the Grand Theft Auto series of games. CVG Presents has not been published since 2009. CVG hosted the annual Golden Joystick Awards, the longest running gaming ceremony in the world and acknowledged as one of the most prestigious, as they’re voted for by the general gaming public. Created in 1982 as the CVG magazine's annual awards ceremony, the awards moved onto the web with CVG.com in 1999. In April 1983, the magazine published the results of its first Golden Joystick Awards, along with pictures from the ceremony in Berkeley Square. DJ Dave Lee Travis presented the award for best game of the year to Jetpac; the 2006 Golden Joystick awards attracted over 540,000 votes and were webcast for the first time. The Golden Joystick Awards entered their 25th Silver Anniversary year in 2007 and attracted over 750,000 votes from gamers around the world, with Microsoft's Gears of War winning four Joysticks including Ultimate Game of the Year.
Gareth Ramsay Johnny Minkley Stuart Bishop John Houlihan Gavin Ogden Tim Ingham Andy Robinson John Houlihan computerandvideogames.com at the Internet Archive
U. N. Squadron is a 1989 side-scrolling shooting game released by Capcom for the CPS arcade hardware and for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; the game was released in Japan as Area 88, is based on the manga series of the same name, featuring the same main characters. Here, their mission is to stop a terrorist group known as Project 4, it was followed by a spiritual successor Carrier Air Wing. The game is a typical side scrolling shooter, going against the trend of other Capcom shooters, such as 1942, 1943: The Battle of Midway, which are vertically scrolling shooters. However, like other Capcom shooters, the player has an energy bar, consumed over the course of a single life as the player sustains damage; this trait is uncommon among other comparable arcade-style shooters which use a system of reserve lives, where one of, lost upon a single enemy hit. Before entering a level, the player added defenses in the shop; the player earns money to buy weapons by destroying enemy planes and vehicles during levels and, when the level is finished, any unused weapons are converted back into money.
The player can choose between three mercenary pilots: Shin Kazama, Mickey Simon, Greg Gates. Each pilot flies a specific plane and has different capabilities. In the Super NES version, each pilot can use a range of planes. All pilots start out with $3000 and the basic F8 Crusader, can buy other aircraft and weapons as they progress. Capcom director Yoshiki Okamoto commented that the game was part of a broader strategy of Capcom at the time to appeal to a wider audience by using established characters from other media, as their original characters could be too niche. In addition to Area 88, he cited games based on Willow and Destiny of an Emperor as part of this strategy. Area 88 was ported to the home console Super Nintendo and released in Japan on July 26 1991. In America and Europe it was re-titled UN Squadron. Upon release, the Japanese gaming publication Weekly Famitsu gave the Super Famicom version a 28 out of 40 score. IGN ranked U. N. Squadron 37th on its "Top 100 Super Nintendo Games" list, which made it the highest ranking side scroller shooter game on that list.
Entertainment Weekly gave the Super Nintendo version of the game an A, picked the game as the #12 greatest game available in 1991. U. N. Squadron at Arcade-History Area 88 at the Killer List of Videogames U. N. Squadron at the Killer List of Videogames U. N. Squadron at MobyGames UN Squadron SNES review from Mean Machines Archive