Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Glennallen is a census-designated place in the Valdez–Cordova Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP was 483, down from 554 in 2000. Glennallen is located at 62°06′33″N 145°32′47″W, in the Chitina Recording District and Game Management Unit 13, it lies along the Glenn Highway at its junction with the Richardson Highway, 189 road miles east of Anchorage. It is just outside the western boundary of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 114.9 square miles, of which, 114.1 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water. Glennallen is located in the continental climate zone, with long, cold winters, warm summers; the mean temperature in January is -10 °F. Snowfall averages 39 inches, with total precipitation of 9 inches per year. In earlier times, the Ahtna Alaska Natives roamed the Copper River Valley in search of fish and game, both of which are plentiful there.
Ahtna now live in several communities around Glennallen. In 1899, the U. S. Army built a pack trail for summer use between the port of Valdez and Eagle, which passed through the Copper River Valley. In the early 20th century, the trail became the Richardson Highway. During World War II, the United States built a series of military bases in Alaska for the purpose of supplying aircraft and other war material to Russia by way of Alaska and the Russian Far East as part of the Lend-lease program; this made it difficult for the Germans to the west and the Japanese to the south of Russia to interfere with the supply operation. As part of this operation, highways were built to supply the bases; the major highway project of this effort was the Alaska Highway from Dawson Creek, British Columbia, Canada to the existing Richardson Highway at Delta Junction and thus to Fairbanks via the Richardson Highway. Another project was the Glenn Highway, which connected Anchorage, Alaska's largest city, with the Richardson Highway, thus with the rest of Alaska and the then-48 United States.
Construction for the Glenn Highway began at a camp on the Richardson Highway in the Copper River Valley named Glennallen after two U. S. Army explorers of the late 19th century: Capt. Edwin Glenn and Lt. Henry T. Allen; the highway was completed in 1945. Glennallen developed as a small community around the site of the camp, it became a commercial center for motor traffic along the Richardson highways. It is one of the few communities in the region, not built on the site of a Native village. During the 1950s and 1960s, another highway, the Tok Cut-Off, was constructed from a point 15 miles north of Glennallen to the community of Tok, 135 miles east on the Alaska Highway; this enhanced Glennallen as a commercial center. In 1956, a Jesuit school, Copper Valley School, was opened; this facility increased the population by bringing to the region a number of staff and students from Holy Cross Mission in western Alaska. In 1961 "Glenallen" was renamed "Glennallen" by the US Postal Service, adding the extra'n'.
Glennallen's economy grew with the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System from 1975–1977 and the continuing service needs of the pipeline. The economy of the area was negatively impacted by the construction of the George Parks Highway, which connected Anchorage to Denali National Park and Fairbanks along the Alaska Railroad route, bypassing Glennallen. Glennallen first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 554 people, 204 households, 136 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 4.9 people per square mile. There were 269 housing units at an average density of 0.9/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 85.20% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 5.05% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 1.44% Pacific Islander, 7.94% from two or more races. 0.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 204 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families.
27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,846, the median income for a family was $40,909. Males had a median income of $29,375 versus $28,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,084. About 4.6% of families and 8.04% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over. Many but not all year-round homes are plumbed. Although many residents have private wells in the Glennallen area, the water is of poor quality.
Glennallen Heights utilizes two wells to serve a piped system, a local private business delivers water by truck to fill home water tanks. The majority of downtown is connected to a piped sewa
The Alaska Senate is the upper house in the Alaska Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It convenes in the Alaska State Capitol in Juneau, Alaska and is responsible for making laws and confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state cabinet and boards. With just twenty members, the Alaska Senate is the smallest state upper house legislative chamber in the United States, its members serve four-year terms and each represent an equal number of districts with populations of 35,512 people, per 2010 Census figures. They are not subject to term limits; the Alaska Senate shares the responsibility for making laws in the state of Alaska. Bills are developed by staff from information from the bill's sponsor. Bills undergo four readings during the legislative process. After the first reading, they are assigned to committee. Committees can hold legislation and prevent it from reaching the Senate floor. Once a committee has weighed in on a piece of legislation, the bill returns to the floor for second hearing and a third hearing, which happens just before the floor vote on it.
Once passed by the Senate, a bill is sent to the opposite legislative house for consideration. If approved, without amendment, it is sent to the governor. If there is amendment, the Senate may either reconsider the bill with amendments or ask for the establishment of a conference committee to work out differences in the versions of the bill passed by each chamber. Once a piece of legislation approved by both houses is forwarded to the governor, it may either be signed or vetoed. If it is signed, it takes effect on the effective date of the legislation. If it is vetoed, lawmakers in a joint session may override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote; the Alaska Senate has the sole responsibility in the state's legislative branch for confirming gubernatorial appointees to positions that require confirmation. Current committees include: Past partisan compositions can be found on Political party strength in Alaska. Senators must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office.
A senator must be at least 25 years old at the time. Senators may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of the body; this has happened only once in Senate history. On February 5, 1982, the Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was not a consideration during the 2003–2010 Alaska political corruption probe, as Ben Stevens and John Cowdery were the only Senators who were subjects of the probe and neither sought reelection in 2008. Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election; the term of senators is four years and half of the senators are up for election every two years. The President of the Senate presides over the body, appointing members to all of the Senate's committees and joint committees, may create other committees and subcommittees if desired.
Unlike many other states, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska does not preside over the Senate. Instead, the Lieutenant Governor oversees the Alaska Division of Elections, fulfilling the role of Secretary of State. Only two other states and Utah, have similar constitutional arrangements for their lieutenant governors; the other partisan Senate leadership positions, such as the Majority and Minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses to head their parties in the chamber. ↑: Senator was appointed^a: Caucuses with the Republican-led majority Alaska House of Representatives Alaska State Capitol List of Alaska State Legislatures Alaska State Senate official government website Project Vote Smart – State Senate of Alaska
Valdez is a city in Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to the 2010 US Census, the population of the city is 3,976, down from 4,036 in 2000; the city was named in 1790 after the Spanish Navy Minister Antonio Valdés y Fernández Bazán. A former Gold Rush town, it is located at the head of a fjord on the eastern side of Prince William Sound; the port did not flourish until after the road link to Fairbanks was constructed in 1899. It suffered catastrophic damage during the 1964 Alaska earthquake, is located near the site of the disastrous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil tanker spill. Today it is one of the most important ports in Alaska, a commercial fishing port as well as a freight terminal; the port of Valdez was named in 1790 by the Spanish explorer Salvador Fidalgo after the Spanish naval officer Antonio Valdés y Fernández Bazán. A scam to lure prospectors off the Klondike Gold Rush trail led to a town being developed there in 1898; some steamship companies promoted the Valdez Glacier Trail as a better route for miners to reach the Klondike gold fields and discover new ones in the Copper River country of interior Alaska than that from Skagway.
The prospectors who believed the promotion found. The glacier trail was twice as long and steep as reported, many men died attempting the crossing, in part by contracting scurvy during the long cold winter without adequate supplies; the town did not flourish until after the construction of the Richardson Highway in 1899, which connected Valdez and Fairbanks. With a new road and its ice-free port, Valdez became permanently established as the first overland supply route into the interior of Alaska; the highway was open in summer-only until 1950. In 1907, a shootout between two rival railroad companies ended Valdez's hope of becoming the railroad link from tidewater to the Kennicott Copper Mine; the mine, located in the heart of the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, was one of the richest copper ore deposits on the continent; the exact location of the right-of-way dispute, in which one man was killed and several injured, is located at the southern entrance of Keystone Canyon on the Valdez side. A half-completed tunnel in the canyon marks the end of railroad days in Valdez.
A rail line to Kennicott was established from the coastal city of Cordova. The city of Valdez was not destroyed in the 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Soil liquefaction of the glacial silt that formed the city's foundation led to a massive underwater landslide, which caused a section of the city's shoreline to break off and sink into the sea; the underwater soil displacement caused a local tsunami 30 feet high that traveled westward, away from the city and down Valdez Bay. 32 men and children were on the city's main freight dock to help with and watch the unloading of the SS Chena, a supply ship that came to Valdez regularly. All 32 people died. There were no deaths in the town. Residents continued to live there for an additional three years while a new site was being prepared on more stable ground four miles away; the new construction was supervised by the Army Corps of Engineers. They transported 54 houses and buildings by truck to the new site, to re-establish the new city at its present location.
The original town site was abandoned. From 1975 to 1977, the Trans-Alaska pipeline was built to carry oil from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in northern Alaska to a terminal in Valdez, the nearest ice-free port. Oil is loaded onto tanker ships for transport; the construction and operation of the pipeline and terminal boosted the economy of Valdez. The first tanker to be loaded with pipeline oil was the ARCO Juneau in early August 1977, bound for the Cherry Point Refinery in Washington; the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred as the oil tanker Exxon Valdez was leaving the terminal at Valdez full of oil. The spill occurred at about 40 km from Valdez. Although the oil did not reach Valdez, it devastated much of the marine life in the surrounding area; the clean-up of the oil caused a short-term boost to the economy of Valdez. On January 24, 2014, a major avalanche occurred just outside Valdez at Mile 16 near Keystone Canyon, prompting the closure of the only highway in or out of town. On January 25, Alaska DOT triggered another massive slide.
Due to weather conditions at the time, the avalanche dammed the Lowe River, creating a half-mile-long lake that stalled snow removal efforts for nearly a week. The blockage was dubbed the "Damalanche" by local city officials after a name coined by local resident, Joshua Buffington. News of this event spread to media outlets nationwide. Once the water receded, crews worked around the clock to clear about 200,000 cubic yards of snow in five days. No one was injured during this incident. Valdez is located at 61°7′51″N 146°20′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 277.1 square miles, of which, 222.0 square miles is land and 55.1 square miles is water. Valdez is located near the head of a deep fjord in the Prince William Sound in Alaska, it is surrounded by the Chugach Mountains, which are glaciated. Valdez is the northernmost port in North America, ice-free year-round; the northernmost point of the coastal Pacific temperate rain forest is on Blueberry Hill. Despite the presence of temperate rainforest, Valdez under the Köppen climate classification has a subarctic climate: its winters, though much warmer than most climates of this type, are not sufficiently mild, as those of, Ketchikan or Kodiak are, to fit into the oceanic or subpolar oceanic clima
'Chitina is a census-designated place in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 126, up from 123 in 2000. Chitina is located on the west bank of the Copper River at its confluence with the Chitina River on the Edgerton Highway, junction with the McCarthy Road, it is 106 km southeast of Glennallen. It is outside the western boundary of the Wrangell - Preserve. In 1945, work had begun to convert the CR&NW railroad line, from Cordova to Kennicott, into a highway, but work halted with the 1964 Good Friday earthquake, leaving a significant gap between Chitina and the Million Dollar Bridge near Cordova; the rail route from Chitina to Kennicott is the McCarthy Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 95.8 square miles, of which, 84.6 square miles of it is land and 11.1 square miles of it is water. Chitina has a continental subarctic climate. Chitina first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980.
As of the census of 2000, there were 123 people, 52 households, 30 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.5 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 0.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 51.22% White, 33.33% Alaskan Native, 15.45% from two or more races. There were 52 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.3% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,000, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,835. There were 3.3% of families and 12.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 15.4% of those over 64. Athabascans have lived in the area around Chitina for centuries as evidenced by the archaeological sites south and east of Chitina. Before 1900, Chitina was the site of large village whose population was decimated by the influx of people and conflicts. Copper ore was discovered in about 1900 along the northern edge of the Chitina River valley; this brought a rush of homesteaders to the area. Stephen Birch homesteaded the site in 1908; the Copper River and Northwestern Railway enabled Chitina to develop into a thriving community by 1914. It had a general store, a clothing store, a meat market, stables, a tinsmith, five hotels, several rooming houses, a pool hall, restaurants, dance halls and a movie theater.
The mines closed in 1938 and the remaining support activities moved to what is now the Glennallen area. Chitina became a virtual ghost town. Otto Adrian Nelson, a surveying engineer for the Kennecott Mines bought up much of the town, he built a unique hydroelectric system. He supplied much of the town center with hot and cold running water. Current activity in Chitina revolves around the dipnet fishing for salmon. Alaskans are allowed to dip a large number of salmon during their spawning runs and Chitina is an accessible and popular place for this activity. In late 1977, jeweler Art Koeninger purchased the "Chitina Tin Shop" with the intention of turning it into a residence. In 1979, the site known as "Fred's Place" and "Schaupp's," was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and has won two historic preservation grants, it houses the Spirit Mountain Artworks
Willow Creek mining district
The Willow Creek mining district known as the Independence Mine/Hatcher Pass district, is a gold-mining area in the U. S. state of Alaska. Underground hard-rock mining of gold from quartz veins accounts for most of the mineral wealth extracted from the Hatcher Pass area; the first mining efforts were placer mining of stream gravels, placer mining in the area has continued sporadically to this day. Robert Hatcher discovered gold and staked the first claim in the Willow Creek valley in September 1906; the first lode mill in the area started operating in 1908. Underground mining continued at a variety of locations around the pass until 1951. In the 1980s one of the area's hard-rock mines was re-opened. At least one mining company is exploring for gold in the area now. Through 2006 the district produced 667-thousand ounces of hard rock gold and 60-thousand ounces of placer gold; the Willow Creek district at Hatcher Pass is the third-largest lode-gold producing district in Alaska, having produced 624,000 oz of gold.
At Hatcher Pass proper the southwestern margin of the Cretaceous to Tertiary age Talkeetna Mountains batholith is in fault contact with a pelitic schist. The Talkeetna Mountains batholith in this area consists of a pervasively altered zoned 74 Ma tonalite body underlying Hatcher Pass and the headwaters of Willow Creek, a 67 Ma quartz monzonite pluton farther west; the schist to the south consists of metamorphosed and deformed sedimentary rocks, of Late Cretaceous to Paleocene age. The schist may represent subducted Valdez Group, exhumed in the forearc region from beneath the Peninsular terrane. Both deformed and undeformed small felsic dikes occur in the schist. Several bodies of serpentinite are contained within the schist. Unmetamorphosed Late Cretaceous or Tertiary terrestrial sedimentary rocks of the Arkose Ridge Formations lie to the south of the schist and intrusives, across a low-angle detachment fault; those bedded rocks are derived from the intrusive rocks to the north. A rock unit variously mapped as intricately intermixed quartz diorite.
It is not clear. Gold-bearing veins occur in the tonalite, in small amounts in the schist, in the Jurassic? migmatite, but not in the western quartz monzonite or in the Tertiary sediments. Most of the mineral deposits are close to the tonalite-schist contact. What is now called Independence Mine was once two mines: The Alaska Free Gold Mine on Skyscraper Mountain, Independence Mine on Granite Mountain. In 1938 the two were brought together under one company, the Alaska-Pacific Consolidated Mining Company. With a block of 83 mining claims, APC became the largest producer in the Willow Creek Mining District; the claims included 27 structures. In its peak year, 1941, APC employed 204 men, blasted nearly a dozen miles of tunnels, produced about 35,000 ounces of gold. In 1942, the War Production Board designated gold mining as nonessential to the war effort. Gold mining throughout the United States came to a halt, but Independence Mine was permitted to continue to operate because of the presence of scheelite, an ore of the "strategic mineral" tungsten, which occurs in the quartz lode with the gold.
In 1943, Independence Mine was ordered to close. Mining interests returned to Hatchers Pass. Today, Independence Mine is a part of the Independence Mine State Historical Park, a popular winter recreation area. Displays of mining artifacts may be viewed at the Dorothy Page Museum and Old Wasilla Townsite in downtown Wasilla, Alaska; the Independence was the largest mine in the Willow Creek District, over a dozen other hard rock mines operated, may operate again, within a few miles. The Willow Creek Mines includes the Lucky Shot mine and War Baby mine veins, which produced from veins cutting the igneous country rock. Combined production for the two mines between 1919 and 1940 was about 252,000 ounces of gold, with some copper. Grade was about 2.2 ounces of gold per ton. The Gold Bullion Mine, produced about 77,000 ounces of gold, at a grade of 1.7 ounces per ton, from quartz veins in igneous rock. The Fern Mine, produced about 44,000 ounces of gold between 1922 and 1950 from quartz veins in shears in igneous rock.
The Martin Mine, produced about 28,000 ounces of gold from two veins between 1911 and 1920, at an average grade of 1 ounce per ton. The Gold Cord Mine, produced about 16,000 ounces of gold between 1931 and 1938, from veins with grades ranging for 0.1 to 9 ounces per ton. Gold mining in Alaska no^