San Jacinto Peak
San Jacinto Peak is the highest peak of the San Jacinto Mountains, of Riverside County, California. It lies within Mount San Jacinto State Park. Naturalist John Muir wrote of San Jacinto Peak, "The view from San Jacinto is the most sublime spectacle to be found anywhere on this earth!"San Jacinto Peak is one of the most topographically prominent peaks in the United States. It is ranked sixth among peaks in the 48 contiguous states. According to John W. Robinson and Bruce D. Risher, authors of The San Jacintos, "No Southern California hiker worth his salt would miss climbing'San Jack' at least once."Known for its spectacular north escarpment, the peak rises 10,000 feet above San Gorgonio Pass. It plays host to the famous Cactus to Clouds Trail. To the east, the peak towers over the city of Palm Springs; the peak is frequently called Mount San Jacinto. The steep escarpment of its north face, above Snow Creek, climbs over 10,000 feet in 7 miles; this is one of the largest gains in elevation over such a small horizontal distance in the contiguous United States.
From the peak, San Gorgonio Mountain can be seen across the San Gorgonio Pass. Visible below is the Coachella Valley and the Salton Sea. In addition, much of the Inland Empire, including Ontario to the west, can be viewed on a clear day. Mount San Jacinto is one of the "Four Saints," a name used to describe the high points of the four mountains over 10,000 feet named for Catholic saints in Southern California: San Jacinto Peak, Mount San Gorgonio, San Bernardino Peak, Mount San Antonio. To the Cahuilla Indians, the peak was known as I a kitch, meaning "smooth cliffs." It was the home of the meteor and legendary founder of the Cahuilla. In 1878, a Wheeler Survey topographical party led by rancher Charles Thomas of Garner Valley climbed the peak; the Wheeler Survey gave the mountain the name "San Jacinto Peak" The earliest recorded ascent of the peak was made in September, 1874 by "F. of Riverside," according to a description of his ascent in the San Diego Union. The first successful ascent of the difficult northeast escarpment was made in 1931 by Floyd Vernoy and Stewart White of Riverside.
The peak is flanked by Marion Mountain. These peaks were named in 1897 by USGS topographer Edmund Taylor Perkins, Jr. Perkins named Jean Peak for his sweetheart and future bride, Jean Waters of Plumas County, whom he married in 1903, he named Marion Mountain after Marion Kelly, his girlfriend, a teacher for the Indian Bureau at the Morongo Valley Reservation. According to a local legend, Perkins spent the summer of 1897 deciding which woman to marry while he conducted his topographical survey of San Jacinto Peak and its environs. Nearby Cornell Peak is named for the alma mater of geologist Robert T. Hill. Perkins and Hill were camping in Round Valley when Hill remarked that the peak looked like the campanile tower at Cornell. Perkins named the peak Cornell Peak. In 1931 and 1932, the San Jacinto Mountain Chamber of Commerce sponsored a Labor Day footrace from Idyllwild to San Jacinto Peak and back, a distance of 18 miles and 5,300 feet; the 1931 race was won by Tom Humphreys, a Hopi, in 3:36:30.
Humphreys won the race again in 1932 with a time of 3:12. Near the summit of San Jacinto peak is a stone hut, built in 1935 by the Civilian Conservation Corps under the direction of Serbo-Croatian immigrant Alfred Zarubicka, a stonemason known in Idyllwild as "Zubi." San Jacinto Peak is accessible, as many trails penetrate the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument. The most popular route starts with a ride on the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway from Valley Station at 2,643 feet near Palm Springs up to Mountain Station at 8,516 feet. From there, one can climb the mountain face via trails. Another route is to hike the Marion Mountain Trail from near the mountain town of Idyllwild. There is a reproducing but introduced population of Sequoiadendrons planted in 1974 located here hundreds of miles from native populations; the Cactus to Clouds Trail involves an arduous climb of 10,700 feet from the desert floor in Palm Springs to the summit at 10,834 feet. This trail has no water sources until 8,500 feet, so early starts are advised to avoid the temperatures which soar above 100 °F.
List of highest points in California by county List of Ultras of the United States "Mount San Jacinto State Park". California State Parks. Retrieved 2009-08-17. Mount San Jacinto State Park map. Mount San Jacinto State Park. Retrieved 2015-11-24. "San Jacinto Peak". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07. "Cactus to Clouds Hiking Guide". Mt. San Jacinto Message Board. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "Main page". Riverside Mountain Rescue Unit. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "Forum Index". Mt. San Jacinto Outdoor Recreation. Retrieved 2009-08-17. Howser, Huell. "Mt. San Jacinto – California's Gold". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive
Banning is a city in Riverside County, United States. The population was 29,603 at the 2010 census, it is situated in the San Gorgonio Pass known as Banning Pass. It is named for Phineas Banning, stagecoach line owner and the "Father of the Port of Los Angeles." Banning has the city of Beaumont, which shares geographic and regional features. Banning and Beaumont have been growing in size and population since the 1990s. Both cities are about 80 miles east of downtown Los Angeles and 30 miles west of Palm Springs, each connected by freeway and railroad; the area, up to the mid-19th century, was inhabited by the Cahuilla people, though the region around Banning was Maringayam, the Cahuilla expanded into the pass only in historic times. In 1824 it became part of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the Rancho San Gorgonio; the first Anglo to settle in the area was Dr. Isaac Smith in 1853. In 1863 a smallpox epidemic further diminished the Cahuilla; the government created Indian reservations for the Cahuilla in 1877.
The settlement, to become Banning developed in coincidence with the start of the Colorado River Gold Rush. The Bradshaw Trail, which passed through the area in 1862, was a wagon road to the gold boomtowns of Arizona Territory. Gilman's Ranch north of downtown served as a station for the stagecoach lines on this road; the railroad followed, passing through the town in 1876. The Southern Pacific railroad, was a major contributor to the area's growth. U. S. Route 99 was built in 1923, followed by U. S. Route 60/70 in 1936, subsequently Interstate 10. Banning borders the Morongo Indian Reservation, home to the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Indians. Relations with reservation residents have been stressed by such actions as disputes over water rights. See Dorothy Ramon's book "Always Believe" for a Maringayam's views on Banning and reservation life. Prior to the name Banning, the settlement was called Moore City. Ransom B. Moore operated a large cattle ranch and was a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, settling in the area and nearby San Gorgonio mountains in the early 1860s.
Moore sold his holdings and relocated to central Arizona in 1883, establishing a large cattle ranch on the site of the former Camp Reno army outpost and served in the Arizona Territorial Legislature. The town of Banning was incorporated on February 6, 1913. Between the years 1880 and 1980, it was the largest city in year-round population between Redlands and the Colorado River; the St. Boniface Indian Industrial School was opened in 1890, providing vocational education to Cahuilla, Luiseño, other American Indians. Bishop Francisco Mora y Borrell authorized the school and Mother Katharine Drexel provided funding to the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions for purchase of the land and operations. Over its history, about 8,000 students attended the school, demolished in 1974. A small abandoned cemetery remains. During World War II, Banning was the site of the 1,000-bed Banning General Hospital, it supported training at the Desert Training Center and was used as a naval convalescent hospital. The facilities were dismantled in 1948.
In 1942 the citizens of Banning raised funds for the purchase of an M3 Stuart tank to support the war effort. After the war the tank was given to the South African defense force; the tank, named "City of Johannesburg", is now preserved at a local museum at Richmond. Banning is located at 33°55′54″N 116°53′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.1 square miles, all of it land. Banning's elevation is 2,300 feet above sea level, which gives it a cooler climate in contrast to the county seat Riverside at 800 feet above sea level and the Coachella Valley of the Colorado Desert to the east. Banning is traversed by the San Andreas Fault, responsible for the creation of the pass in which the city is situated. Banning is 25 miles west of Palm Springs and 100 miles east of Los Angeles. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Banning has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Banning had a population of 29,603.
The population density was 1,281.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Banning was 19,164 White, 2,165 African American, 641 Native American, 1,549 Asian, 39 Pacific Islander, 4,604 from other races, 1,441 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,181 persons; the Census reported that 28,238 people lived in households, 254 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,111 were institutionalized. There were 10,838 households, out of which 3,083 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,106 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,488 had a female householder with no husband present, 592 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 700 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 75 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,092 households were made up of individuals and 2,085 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61. There were 7,186 families; the population was spread out with 6,777 people under the age of 18, 2,730 people aged 18 to
Lake Elsinore, California
Lake Elsinore is a city in western Riverside County, United States. Established as a city in 1888, it is on the shore of Lake Elsinore, a natural freshwater lake about 3,000 acres in size; the city has grown from a small resort town in the late 19th century and early 20th century to a population of well above 60,000 as of 2016. Native Americans have long lived in the Elsinore Valley; the Luiseño people were the earliest known inhabitants. Their pictographs can be found on rocks on the Santa Ana Mountains and in Temescal Valley, artifacts have been found all around Lake Elsinore and in the local canyons and hills. Overlooked by the expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza, the largest natural lake in Southern California was first seen by the Spanish Franciscan padre Juan Santiago, exploring eastward from the Mission San Juan Capistrano in 1797. In 1810, the water level of the Laguna Grande was first described by a traveler as being little more than a swamp about a mile long. In the early 19th century, the lake grew larger, providing a spot to camp and water their animals for Mexican rancheros, American trappers, the expedition of John C.
Frémont, the immigrants during the California Gold Rush as they traveled along the southern shore of the lake on what became the Southern Emigrant Trail and the route of the Butterfield Overland Mail. On January 7, 1844, Julian Manriquez acquired the land grant to Rancho La Laguna, a tract of 20,000 acres which included the lake and an adobe being built near the lake on its south shore at its western corner, described by Benjamin Ignatius Hayes, who stayed there overnight January 27, 1850. In 1851, Abel Stearns sold it in 1858 to Augustin Machado. Augustin Machado built a seven-room adobe ranch house and an outbuilding on the southwest side of the lake. Soon after, Rancho La Laguna became a regular stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail route between Temecula 20 mi to the south and the Temescal station 10 mi to the north; the old Manriquez adobe was used as the station house. Over the years, a framed addition and a second story were added, it was used as a post office for the small settlement of Willard from 1898 until September 30, 1902.
The building stood until it was razed at what is now 32912 Macy Street. Today, three palm trees still grow in front of the site along Macy Street in front of the property; as a result of the Great Flood of 1862, the level of the lake was high, so the Union Army created a post at the lake to graze and water their horses. In the great 1862–65 drought, most of the cattle in Southern California died and the lake level fell during 1866 and 1867, when no rain fell. However, the lake was full again in 1872, when it overflowed down its outlet through Temescal Canyon. While most of the old Californio families lost their ranchos during the great drought, the La Laguna Rancho remained in the hands of the Machado family until 1873, when most of it was sold to Englishman Charles A. Sumner. Juan Machado retained 500 acres on the northwest corner of the lake, where his adobe still stands near the lake at 15410 Grand Avenue. After 1872, the lake again evaporated to a low level, but the great rains in the winter of 1883–84 filled it to overflowing in three weeks.
Descriptions of the lake at this time say that large willow trees surrounding the former low-water shore line stood 20 ft or more below the high-water level and were of such size that they must have been 30 or more years old. This indicated the high water of the 1860s and 1870s must have been of a short duration. On October 5, 1883, Franklin H. Heald and his partners Donald Graham and William Collier bought the remaining rancho, intending to start a new town. In 1884, the California Southern Railroad built a line from Colton through the Cañon de Rio San Jacinto to link with San Diego, a rail station La Laguna appeared near the corner of what is now Mission Trail Road and Diamond Drive. On April 9, 1888, Elsinore became the 73rd city to be incorporated in California, just 38 years after California became a state. Elsinore was in San Diego County but the city became part of Riverside County upon its creation in 1893, it was named Elsinore after the Danish city in Shakespeare's "Hamlet", now its sister city.
Another source maintains Elsinore is a corruption of "el señor", Spanish for "the gentleman", because the city site had been owned by a don. The rainfall until 1893 was greater than normal, the lake remained high and overflowed on three or four occasions during that time; the lake water was purchased by the Temescal Water Company for the irrigation of land in Corona, California. Its outlet channel was deepened, permitting gravity flow down the natural channel of Temescal Canyon to Corona for a year or more after the water level sank below the natural elevation of its outlet; as the lake surface continued to recede, a pumping plant was installed and pumping was continued a few seasons, but the concentration of salts in the lake, due to the evaporation and lack of rainfall, soon made the water unfit for irrigation and the project was abandoned by the company. From the beginning, the mineral springs near the lake attracted visitors seeking therapeutic treatments. In 1887, the Crescent Bath House, now known as "The Chimes", was built.
By 1888, the economy was supported by coal and clay mining at what became the town of Terra Cotta, gold mining in the Pinacate Mining District and the agriculture of fruit and nuts. After 1893, the lake's water level sank continuously for nearly 10 years, with a slight rise every winter. Heavier precipi
Fort Yuma was a fort in California located in Imperial County, across the Colorado River from Yuma, Arizona. It was on the Butterfield Overland Mail route from 1858 until 1861 and was abandoned May 16, 1883, transferred to the Department of the Interior; the Fort Yuma Indian School and the Saint Thomas Yuma Indian Mission now occupy the site. It is one of the "associated sites" listed as Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites on the National Register of Historic Places in the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area. In addition, it is registered as California Historical Landmark #806. First established after the end of the Mexican–American War, the fort was located in the bottoms near the Colorado River, less than a mile below the mouth of the Gila River, it was constructed to defend the newly settled community of Yuma, New Mexico Territory, located on the other side of the Colorado River, the nearby Mexican border. In March 1851 the post was moved to a small elevation on the Colorado's west bank; this site had been occupied by Camp Calhoun, named for Senator John C.
Calhoun. It was established on October 2, 1849, by 1st Lieutenant Cave J. Couts, 1st Dragoons, for the boundary survey party led by 2nd Lieutenant Amiel W. Whipple, Corps of Topographical Engineers. A ferry service, maintained by the soldiers for the survey party's convenience accommodated emigrants. Fort Yuma was established during the Yuma War to protect the southern emigrant travel route to California and to attempt control of the territorial Quechan, or Yumans, in their homeland, the surrounding 100-mile area. Established by Captain Samuel P. Heintzelman, 2nd Infantry Regiment, the fort was named'Camp Independence.'In March 1851, when the post was moved to its permanent site, its name was changed to Camp Yuma. A year the post was designated Fort Yuma. In June 1851 the Army abandoned the post because of the high costs incurred in maintaining it, it was abandoned on December 6, 1851, when its commissary was empty of provisions; the post, was reoccupied by Captain Heintzelman on February 29, 1852.
It was difficult to supply the post during its early years. Food supplies and construction materials were shipped by water from San Diego, around the Baja Peninsula and up the Gulf of California to the mouth of the Colorado River at the Colorado River Delta in Mexico; the work of transferring the goods to wagons at that point and hauling them across the Yuma Desert and Yuha Desert to Yuma was rigorous and time-consuming. Life at the post was harsh and the military's resolve to maintain a garrison here vacillated. Only after August 1852 did the temporary Camp Yuma became permanent Fort Yuma, the Army resolved to stay for good. In November 1852 a steamboat, Uncle Sam was launched and in December began carrying a cargo up the Colorado River from Robinson's Landing it arrived at Fort Yuma and delivered thirty-two tons of goods on December 3. Steamboats continued to supply the fort and settlements on the Colorado River in this way until the arrival of the railroad in 1877. Only one military action occurred at the fort when Yuman warriors surrounded it during the Yuma War, temporarily trapping the future general Thomas William Sweeny and a few others.
From 1858 to 1861 the Butterfield Overland Mail had a stagecoach station near the fort, subsequently used by other stage lines until the advent of the railroad in 1877. During the American Civil War, the Union retained control of Fort Yuma when the First California Infantry replaced Regular Army soldiers sent East in December 1861; the southern half of New Mexico Territory seceded, becoming the Confederate Territory of Arizona until 1862 when the California Column marching from Fort Yuma expelled the Confederacy, marching as far as western Texas. In 1863 the Union established their control of the region as the Arizona Territory. Fort Yuma served. There was no battle action at the fort since the western United States was far removed from the Civil War. Fort Yuma was associated with the Yuma Quartermaster Depot on the Arizona side of the river, which provided military supplies and personnel to posts throughout Arizona and New Mexico; the Quartermaster Depot operated between 1864 and 1891, though the Army terminated most operations there eight years earlier.
The depot was used by the Army to store and distribute supplies for all military posts in Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Texas during the Indian War period. A six-month supply of clothing, food and other goods was stored at the depot at all times. Supplies were brought from California by ocean vessels traveling around the Baja Peninsula to Port Isabel near the mouth of the Colorado River. There, cargos were brought upstream to Yuma. Supplies were hauled up a track running from the dock to a storehouse; the depot quartered up to 900 crews of teamsters to handle them. The Southern Pacific Railroad reached Yuma in 1877. There was little need for the Quartermaster Depot and Fort Yuma, they were abandoned on May 16, 1883; the reservation was transferred to the Interior Department on July 22, 1884. Fort Yuma is now part of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. Numerous historic buildings remain from the military period in the Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites in the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area; the Yuma Territorial Prison and Yuma Quartermaster Depot State Historic Parks are in Arizona with buildings preserved or reconstructed, with museums.
The Yuma Proving Ground is the lineal Army descendant of these original military posts in the Yuma area. U. S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, historical records, Public Affairs Office
Temecula is a city in southwestern Riverside County, United States. The city is a tourist destination, with the Temecula Valley Wine Country, Old Town Temecula, the Temecula Valley Polo Club, the Temecula Valley Balloon & Wine Festival, the Temecula Valley International Film Festival, championship golf courses, resort accommodations for tourists which contribute to the city's economic profile; the City of Temecula, forming the southwestern anchor of the Inland Empire region, is 58 miles north of downtown San Diego and 85 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Temecula is bordered by the city of Murrieta to the north and the Pechanga Indian Reservation and San Diego County to the south; the population was 100,097 during the 2010 census and an estimated 2018 population of 113,181. It was incorporated on December 1, 1989; the area was inhabited by the Temecula Native Americans for hundreds of years before their contact with the Spanish missionaries. The Pechanga Band of Luiseño believe their ancestors have lived in the Temecula area for more than 10,000 years.
In Pechanga history, life on earth began in the Temecula Valley. They call it, "Exva Temeeku", the place of the union of Sky-father, Earth-mother; the Temecula Indians lived at "Temeekunga" – "the place of the sun". Other popular interpretations of the name, include "The Sun That Shines Through The Mist" or "Where the sun breaks through the mist"; the first recorded Spanish visit occurred in October 1797, with a Franciscan padre, Father Juan Norberto de Santiago, Captain Pedro Lisalde. Father Santiago kept a journal in which he noted seeing "Temecula...an Indian village". The trip included the Temecula Valley. Today, over 1,000 Native Americans live in the Temecula Valley; the wine industry was founded by the Californios. The vineyards were adapted by Anglo-American settlers and European immigrants from Spain and France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1798, Spanish Missionaries established the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia and designated the Indians living in the region "Sanluiseños", or shortened to "Luiseños".
In the 1820s, the Mission San Antonio de Pala was built. The Mexican land grants made in the Temecula area were Rancho Temecula granted to Felix Valdez and to the east Rancho Pauba granted to Vicente Moraga in 1844. Rancho Little Temecula was made in 1845 to Luiseño Pablo Apis, one of the few former mission converts to be given a land grant, it was fertile well watered land at the southern end of the valley, which included the village of Temecula. A fourth grant, known as Rancho Santa Rosa was made to Juan Moreno in 1846, was in the hills to the west of Temecula; the Luiseño and Cahuilla were involved in local battles not part of the Mexican–American War. In the Pauma Massacre in January 1847, Luiseños captured 11 Mexican soldiers, who had stolen some of the tribe's horses; the Californios in Los Angeles mounted a military retaliation directed by General Pio Pico. In the Temecula Massacre, a combined force of Mexican soldiers and Cahuilla Indians killed 33 to 100 Luiseños; as American settlers moved into the area after the war, conflict with the native tribes increased.
A treaty was signed in the Magee Store in Temecula in 1852, but was never ratified by the United States Senate. In addition, the Luiseños challenged the Mexican land grant claims, as under Mexican law, the land was held in trust to be distributed to the indigenous population after becoming subjects, they challenged the Apis claim to the Little Temecula Rancho by taking the case to the 1851 California Land Commission. On November 15, 1853, the commission rejected the Luiseño claim; the Luiseño of Temecula village remained on the south side of Temecula Creek when the Apis grant was acquired, in 1872, by Louis Wolf. A stagecoach line started a local route from Warner Ranch to Colton in 1857 that passed through Temecula Valley. Within a year, the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line, with a route between St. Louis and San Francisco, stopped at Temecula's Magee Store. On April 22, 1859, the first inland Southern California post office was established in Temecula in the Magee Store and the city was incorporated.
This was the second post office in the first being located in San Francisco. The Temecula post office was moved in the ensuing years, its present locations are the eighth sites occupied. The American Civil War put an end to the Butterfield Overland Stage Service, but stage service continued on the route under other stage companies until the railroad reached Fort Yuma in 1877. In 1862, Louis Wolf, a Temecula merchant and postmaster, married Ramona Place, mixed-race and half Indian. Author Helen Hunt Jackson spent time with Louis and Ramona Wolf in 1882 and again in 1883. Wolf's store became an inspiration for Jackson's fictional "Hartsel's store" in her 1884 novel, Ramona. In 1882, the United States government established the Pechanga Indian Reservation of 4,000 acres some 8 miles from downtown Temecula. In 1882, the California Southern Railroad, a subsidiary of the Santa Fe Railroad completed construction of the section from National City to Temecula. In 1883, the line was extended to San Bernardino.
In the late 1880s
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Moreno Valley, California
Moreno Valley is a city located in Riverside County, is part of the San Bernardino-Riverside Metropolitan Area. A young city, its rapid growth from the 1980s to the early 2000s made it the second-largest city in Riverside County by population, one of the Inland Empire's population centers; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 193,365. The city is tied to Riverside, the county seat and largest city in the county, which borders Moreno Valley directly to the west. Moreno Valley is part of the Greater Los Angeles area; the Moreno Valley area was first inhabited 2,300 years ago. There are at least 200 prehistoric archaeological locations within the city; the majority of the sites are milling stations - where chaparral seed was the dominant milling activity. Rock art, consisting of pictographs, petroglyphs are present - though most of the petroglyphs in Moreno Valley consist of boulders with "cupules", or cup-shaped holes pecked into them. Spanish scouts came across descendants of the Shoshone, Luiseño tribes.
The late prehistoric Luiseño and Cahuilla were semi-sedentary, meaning that they wintered in villages spread out in family groups during the spring and summer months to harvest seeds and acorns. Spanish scouts blazed a number of trails in the area, including the Anza Trail, which runs through the Edgemont area of present-day Moreno Valley; when California was admitted to the United States as a state in 1850, Americans began to move into the area. The Tucson-to-San Francisco route of John Butterfield's Overland Mail Company passed through it; some farmers began to occupy the area, relying upon water from Frank E. Brown's Bear Valley Land and Water Company. Beginning in 1883, the company collected and pumped water from Bear Valley, California in the San Bernardino Mountains to the north; the area first acquired Moreno Valley, at this time, referring to Frank Brown. In 1899, the city of Redlands won a lawsuit in which the city claimed eminent domain over the Bear Valley water; the resulting loss of service forced most of the area's inhabitants to move.
The revival of the Moreno Valley area began in 1918, when the United States Air Force constructed March Field on the outskirts of Riverside as part of its World War I expansion. March Field was used to train fighter pilots. Although it was closed in 1922, it was reopened in 1927 and became a full Air Force base; the presence of March caused the unincorporated communities of Sunnymead and Edgemont to develop and grow. In World War II, March again became a training ground for military pilots. On April 1, 1996, March Air Force Base became March Joint Air Reserve Base under Air Force Reserve Command. From 1957 to 1989, the Riverside International Raceway occupied the current site of the Moreno Valley Mall; the Riverside International Raceway race track was in operation from September 22, 1957, to July 3, 1989. Races held at the Riverside International Raceway included IMSA, NASCAR, Indycar, NHRA drag racing, Go Karts, AMA motorcycle racing; the area experienced explosive growth in the 1980s. By 1984, the population was 49,702.
The state economic boom fueled the construction of new businesses. This growth led to a push for incorporation. Although similar measures had failed in 1968 and 1983, a measure to form the city of Moreno Valley was approved by voters in 1984. On December 3, 1984, the communities of Edgemont and Moreno united with nearby areas to form the general law city of Moreno Valley; the first City Council was elected in 1984, composed of Bob Lynn, Judith A. Nieburger, Steven Webb, J. David Horspool, Marshall C. Scott; the City Seal and Motto were adopted the following year. By 1990, Moreno Valley had exploded in population growth to become the second largest city in Riverside County with a population of over 118,000. Growth continued until about 1992. In the 1990s, the robust Moreno Valley economy deteriorated due to the statewide economic downturn. Many people began to leave the city. March was downsized to its present status as March Air Reserve Base; the surplus land was given to the March Joint Powers Authority, made up of representatives of Riverside County and the cities of Riverside, Moreno Valley, Perris for development.
The dismal economic trend began to reverse in the late part of the decade, however. Companies such as Aurora Modular, U-Haul, Lowe's moved major operating facilities to the city or neighboring municipalities. By the early 21st century, the arrival of so many newcomers to Riverside County and the soaring cost of living in Los Angeles and Orange County combined to make the less-developed southern half of the Inland Empire a attractive place for industry. On the east end of the city off Moreno Beach Drive, a new Wal-Mart was opened in early 2006 next to the Moreno Valley Auto Mall; this is the site of the first Super Target in California and the first Best Buy store located within Moreno Valley city limits, which opened in July and October 2007, respectively. The exit off state route 60 is the main way to the Moreno Valley Ranch Golf Course, once included in Golf Magazine's Top 75 Golf Courses in the USA. Proposals to turn March Joint Air Reserve Base to a major commercial airport were debated in 2005, but the plan was rejected by the Riverside county board of supervisors.
However, the coming of quieter, more environmentally friendly aircraf