Cattus Island Park
Cattus Island Park known as Cattus Island is a 530 acres passive recreational park located in Toms River, New Jersey. Cattus Island is a park of the Ocean County Department of Recreation. Cattus Island is home to the Cooper Environmental Center, an educational center which displays collections of local wildlife including snakes and aquatic animals; the center provides educational programs and presentations to the public and organized groups. The first European explorer to set foot on what became Ocean County soil was Captain Cornelius Hendrickson, who in 1615 explored the New Jersey coast in the Onrust between the latitudes 38 and 40 degrees, he located the 300 acres Cattus Island. William Dockwra and Registrar for the Board of Proprietors in England, bought Cattus Island; the "island" has remained a single parcel since 1690 when the Board of Proprietors of the Province of East Jersey divided this coastal region. In 1758 Joseph Page purchased Cattus Island. On Page's Island Farm, sheep and corn crops were raised.
The Page family first settled the island in 1763. Timothy Page, born on the island during that year, served in the local militia during the American Revolution. During the American Revolution, local residents used the area to bring captured British vessels into the Toms River in order to offload their cargoes. Homesteaders used the island for farming. Timothy Page was a privateer a pirate licensed by the Continental Congress. During the war, British ships were lured into Barnegat Bay through the Cranberry Inlet, only to be attacked and their cargo was sold for profit. Cranberry Inlet, an opening to the Atlantic near present-day Ortley Beach, existed between 1750 and 1812, it was closed by strong storms. After the death of Timothy Page, the family house burned down, the property was sold to Lewis Applegate, he developed the southeastern section of the island, now named for him. He built a port for lumber boats; the island was sold again in 1867 and was slated to be developed as a resort, but the 1873 depression canceled the project.
John V. A. Cattus, a New York importer and Olympic class athlete, bought the land and developed it as a retreat in 1895. Hunting and fishing were the favorite sports of his friends, he built a hunting lodge on the island, along with boat house and boat dock. When Cattus died, the land was sold in 1964 by his sons to developers. In the 1970s, new state laws passed limiting development along the coast. In 1973 Ocean County purchased this 497 acres land; the property was acquired with state "Green Acres" funds. In 1980 the park opened to the public with the county's first Environmental Center. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck and the park sustained significant damage. Thousands of hours of labor were required to remove debris that littered the park. In the immediate years following, several local boy scouts cleaned up the park and built sections of boardwalk and benches for park patrons as part of their Eagle Scout projects. One ecosystem, located in Cattus Island Park, is a maritime upland forest, which consists of oak trees and pine trees, such as the pitch pine and the shortleaf pine.
Though Cattus Island Park is a maritime forest, within it, one can find many of the same shrubs and animal species that are native to the Pine Barrens. The Park contains freshwater wetlands; these wetlands are dominated by hardwood trees such as Red Maple and Swamp Maple, Black Gum, a wide variety of others. There are a few small stands of living Atlantic White Cedar located in some of the wetland areas. However, in this area, large stands of dead Atlantic white cedar exist, they have been standing dead since the 1930s. Prior to the 1930s, the northern part of the Barnegat Bay, where Cattus Island is located, was fresh water. After the Point Pleasant Canal was constructed and the Manasquan Inlet improved, saltwater from the ocean infiltrated into the Northern portion of the bay; as a result, the Atlantic white cedar, an obligate freshwater species, was killed. Another ecosystem that thrives within the park is a vast track of salt marsh, which contains several species of Spartina grasses, it is from these salt marshes.
Several times a year, the marshes flood, as a result of snowmelt and summer storms, or high tides. During the floods, the second bit of upland is inaccessible; the Cooper Environmental Center is an educational facility and resource for conservation and education, featuring a 5,000 square foot building with an eighty-seat meeting room, interactive exhibit area, live native reptiles and fish. Cattus Island History - NY/NJ/CT Botany Website Cattus Island Park Photo Gallery http://facebook.com/Cattus. Island. County. Park
Middlesex County, New Jersey
Middlesex County is a county located in north- central New Jersey, United States. In 2017 the Census Bureau estimated the county's population at 842,798, making it the state's second-most populous county, an increase of 4.1% from 809,858 in the 2010 census. Middlesex is part of the New York metropolitan area, its county seat is New Brunswick; the center of population of the state of New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in East Brunswick Township, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. The 2000 Census showed that the county ranked 63rd in the United States among the highest-income counties by median household; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 143rd-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Middlesex County holds the nickname, "The Greatest County in the Land"; the county was settled due to its ideal location near the Raritan River and was established as of March 7, 1683, as part of the Province of East Jersey and was partitioned as of October 31, 1693, into the townships of Piscataway, Perth Amboy and Woodbridge.
Somerset County was established on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. The county's first court met in June 1683 in Piscataway, held session at alternating sites over the next century in Perth Amboy and Woodbridge before relocating permanently to New Brunswick in 1778. Middlesex County hosts an extensive park system totaling more than 6,300 acres. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 322.83 square miles, including 308.91 square miles of land and 13.91 square miles of water. The county is named after the historic English county of Middlesex. Bisected by the Raritan River, the county is topographically typical of Central Jersey in that it is flat; the elevation ranges from sea level to 300 feet above sea level on a hill scaled by Major Road/ Sand Hill Road near Route 1 in South Brunswick Township. Union County, New Jersey – north Monmouth County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – southwest Somerset County, New Jersey – northwest Richmond County, New York – northeast As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 809,858 people, 281,186 households, 203,016.292 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,621.6 per square mile. There were 294,800 housing units at an average density of 954.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.60% White, 9.69% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 21.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.99% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.40% of the population. There were 281,186 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94 males; as of the 2010 Census, there were 170,070 people of Asian descent in Middlesex County accounting for 21% of the county's total population. At 61.57% of the population of Asian descent, Indian Americans accounted for a majority of the county's Asian population or 12.93% of the county's total population in 2010, increasing to 119,579 by 2015, more than that of the other sub-groups combined. Middlesex County had the largest population of Asian Indians of all counties in New Jersey. In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Gujarati and Punjabi. Middlesex County has the largest and fastest growing population of Chinese Americans of all counties in New Jersey, in places such as East Brunswick. Edison is developing a sprawling suburban Chinatown, with other Chinese communities spread out over the county; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 750,162 people, 265,815 households, 190,855 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,422 people per square mile. There were 273,637 housing units at an average density of 884 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.42% White, 9.13% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 13.89% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.71% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 13.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among residents listing their ancestry, 16.1% were of Italian, 13.8% Irish, 10.2% German and 9.8% Polish ancestry according to the 2000 Census. There were 265,815 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age wa
Gloucester County, New Jersey
Gloucester County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 292,206, making it the state's 14th-most populous county, an increase of 1.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 288,288, in turn an increase of 33,615 from the 254,673 counted in the 2000 U. S. Census; the percentage increase in the county's population between 2000 and 2010 was the largest in New Jersey triple the statewide increase of 4.5%, the absolute increase in residents was the third highest. Its county seat is Woodbury. Gloucester County is located south of northwest of Atlantic City, it is part of the Camden, New Jersey Metropolitan Division of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 337.18 square miles, including 322.00 square miles of land and 15.17 square miles of water. Gloucester County is composed of low-lying rivers and coastal plains.
The highest elevation in the county is a slight rise along County Route 654 southeast of Cross Keys that reaches 180 feet above sea level. Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania – north Camden County, New Jersey – northeast Atlantic County, New Jersey – southeast Cumberland County, New Jersey – south Salem County, New Jersey – southwest New Castle County, Delaware – west Delaware County, Pennsylvania – northwest Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River Swedesboro and Bridgeport were among the earliest European settlements in New Jersey as a part of the 17th century New Sweden colony. Gloucester dates back to May 26, 1686, when courts were established separate from those of Burlington, it was formed and its boundaries defined as part of West Jersey on May 17, 1694. Portions of Gloucester County were set off on February 7, 1837, to create Atlantic County, on March 13, 1844 to create Camden County; the county was named for the city of Gloucester / county of Gloucestershire in England. Woodbury, founded in 1683 by Henry Wood, is the oldest municipality in the county.
The municipality of National Park hosts the site of the Revolutionary War Battle of Red Bank where Fort Mercer once stood. It is now the site of Red Bank Battlefield Park and the remains of HMS Augusta laid there until they were moved and subsequently re-sunk in Gloucester City on their way to Philadelphia. During the colonial era, Gloucester County's main economic activity was agriculture. Woodbury was the site of the county courthouse, the county jail, a Quaker meeting house, an inn; because of the county's many creeks leading to the Delaware River and the Atlantic Ocean, smuggling was common. In 2014, the county heroin death rate was 17.3 deaths per 100,000 people, the fourth-highest rate in New Jersey nearly seven times the national average. The Gloucester County Historical Society, founded in 1903, maintains a collection of materials and artifacts related to the history of South Jersey; the Hunter-Lawrence-Jessup House Museum, in Woodbury, displays many of these artifacts. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 288,288 people, 104,271 households, 75,805.017 families residing in the county.
The population density was 895.3 per square mile. There were 109,796 housing units at an average density of 341 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.56% White, 10.06% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 2.64% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.41% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.76% of the population. There were 104,271 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.2. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.7 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.1 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 254,673 people, 90,717 households, 67,221 families residing in the county; the population density was 784 people per square mile. There were 95,054 housing units at an average density of 293 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.07% White, 9.06% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. 2.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 26.9% were of Italian, 24.4% Irish, 22.9% German and 11.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 90,717 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough. Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea; the natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, some species in South America.
As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle; the fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, the embryo development is of the Polygonum type; the name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera of Charles Plumier, for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique. English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia, he was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina and the Bahama Islands. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America; the species that Plumier named Magnolia was described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.
Carl Linnaeus, familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant, described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina, he placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae, he merged grisea with glauca, raised the four remaining varieties to species status. By the end of the 18th century and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan.
The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at the same time Magnolia kobus was first collected. With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, of horticultural importance in the southeastern United States, M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is the American deciduous M. acuminata, which has attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time; because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events, its distribution has become scattered.
Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task. By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia; these phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for
Chester Township, New Jersey
Chester Township is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 7,838, reflecting an increase of 556 from the 7,282 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,324 from the 5,958 counted in the 1990 Census. Chester Township is located about 40 miles west of New York City and features Victorian style homes and palatial estates. Throughout the year there are craft fairs, Victorian house tours during the holiday season, jazz concerts in downtown park, other community events, it was established by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 1, 1799, from portions of both Roxbury Township and Washington Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day. Additional territories were acquired from Washington Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 3, 1930, to form Chester Borough, a separate municipality surrounded by Chester Township; the township's name is derived from Chestershire in England.
The earliest records of individuals settling in the area date back to deeds dated in 1713, for properties located near a point where two Lenape Native American trails crossed at an area called Black River. With the arrival of the Rogerenes in 1730, the area developed as an agricultural community, producing applejack and wool, as well as raising cattle, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the Township Act of 1798, enacted by the New Jersey Legislature, as one of the initial group of 104 townships incorporated in New Jersey. A burst of economic activity occurred starting in 1875 with the discovery of iron ore in the area, which led to the construction of dozens of mines, a blast furnace and many of the commercial and residential structures in the township date to that era; the discovery of far more abundant and productive mining sites in Minnesota's Mesabi Range ended that boom after nearly 15 years. Chester returned to its farming roots in the 20th Century. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 29.462 square miles, including 29.377 square miles of land and 0.085 square miles of water.
Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Hacklebarney, Milldale, Mount Paul, Pleasant Hill and Upper Ironia. The township surrounds Chester Borough, making it part of 21 pairs of "doughnut towns" in the state, where one municipality surrounds another; the township borders Mendham Township to the east and Roxbury to the northeast, Mount Olive to the northwest, Washington Township to the west, all of which are located in Morris County, while the Somerset County municipalities of Bedminster and Peapack-Gladstone lie to the south. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,838 people, 2,592 households, 2,200.608 families residing in the township. The population density was 266.8 per square mile. There were 2,697 housing units at an average density of 91.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 93.31% White, 1.05% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 3.50% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.35% of the population. There were 2,592 households out of which 43.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.5% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.1% were non-families. 11.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.27. In the township, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 16.3% from 25 to 44, 35.6% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.4 years. For every 100 females there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $162,188 and the median family income was $168,942. Males had a median income of $147,109 versus $67,647 for females; the per capita income for the township was $77,787.
About 3.1% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.0% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 7,282 people, 2,323 households, 2,014 families residing in the township; the population density was 248.3 people per square mile. There were 2,377 housing units at an average density of 81.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 95.12% white, 1.15% African American, 0.01% Native American, 2.39% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.58% of the population. Of the 2,323 households, 46.0% feature children under the age of 18, 79.6% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.3% were non-families. 10.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.05 and the average family size was 3.29.
In the township the population was spread out with 30.5% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For eve
Essex County, New Jersey
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 808,285, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 3.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County, was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,030, the eighth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 153rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county is named after a county in the East of England. Based on data from the 2010 census, Essex County is the 14th-most densely populated county in the United States, was ranked second in the state after Hudson County.
Newark, with a population density of 11,458.3 people/square mile, is the largest municipality in the county both in terms of land area and population, while Caldwell is the smallest in terms of land area and Essex Fells has the smallest population. Many of the county's smallest municipalities have population densities that are comparable to those of many big cities, are well above the state's average which in turn is the highest in the nation. Like many of the counties of Northern New Jersey near New York City—which tend to have sharp divides between rich suburban neighborhoods and less wealthy, more densely populated cities nearby—the eastern region of Essex County tends to be poorer and more urbanized, while the western parts tend to be more affluent and suburban; the wide area of Eastern Essex has significant pockets of high population, high building density, high poverty, high crime rates. Within this general area however are many stable and middle-income areas of diverse populations. For example and west sides of Newark have well-kept suburban areas such as Vailsburg and Forest Hill.
The east side of Newark is a working-class Brazilian and Portuguese community. East Orange has the Presidential Estate neighborhood full of large one family homes. Belleville and Bloomfield are suburbs with historic Italian communities that, in spite of retaining a core Italian-American population, now have many immigrants from Latin America and Asia; as of the 2000 Census, 36% of Nutley residents indicated that they were of Italian ancestry, the 12th-highest of any municipality in the nation and third-highest in New Jersey. Beginning at about the turn of the century, this region led the state in the rebuilding and rehab of its housing stock. In the 2000s, Newark led the state in the issuance of building permits. Many reasons were cited: citywide incentives to encourage construction development, an improving local economy, the rising demand of low-cost housing so close to Manhattan. Newark has since become one of the fastest growing cities in the entire Northeast, reported a gain in median income and drop in poverty rate.
This is a turnaround from the deterioration and abandonment experienced in the post-riot 1970s, 1980s and early part of the 1990s. Crime in this part of the county has traditionally been among the highest in the state and the country as well, but has seen significant declines, mirroring its large neighbor to the east, New York City. By 2006, crime in Newark had fallen 60% over the previous decade to its lowest levels in 40 years. Neighboring East Orange has experienced a decline in crimes, dropping 50% in the three years. While crime rates have fallen in these cities in recent years, they nonetheless remain high here compared to national crime statistics, as well as Irvington, Orange. In 2008, Newark had 67 homicides, down from 105 in 2007 and the record of 161 murders set in 1981. In contrast, Western Essex tends to be more affluent. Within this region are some of the most diverse and racially integrated municipalities in the state and nation, including Montclair, West Orange, South Orange and Maplewood.
Many neighborhoods are well-known magnets for people moving from New York City, such as Glen Ridge, Verona, Cedar Grove, South Orange and West Orange. The communities of Livingston, West Caldwell, South Orange, Millburn, North Caldwell, Essex Fells are some of the wealthiest towns in the county. Short Hills, South Orange and Livingston have large Jewish communities. Short Hills has a popular upscale shopping mall, The Mall at Short Hills located near affluent communities in Morris and Union counties; as the poorest place in the county, Newark has a median household income of $33,025 and a per capita income of $17,198. Essex County was the first county in the country to create a county park system, to ensure that it did not lose all its land to development; some of the county's municipalities Newark, The Oranges, The Caldwells were seen on episodes of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos, set in North Caldwell. There are various attractions in Essex County, such as the Newark Museum, Montclair Art Mus
Atlantic County, New Jersey
Atlantic County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county had a population of 274,549, having increased by 21,997 from the 252,552 counted at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 269,918, making it the 15th-largest of the state's 21 counties, its county seat is the Mays Landing section of Hamilton Township. The most populous place was Egg Harbor Township, with 43,323 residents at the time of the 2010 Census; this county forms the Atlantic City–Hammonton Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. Since the 6th millennium BC, Indigenous people have inhabited New Jersey. By the 17th century, the Absegami tribe of the Unalachtigo Lenape tribe – "people near the ocean" – stayed along the streams and back bays of what is now Atlantic County; the group referred to the broader area as Scheyichbi – "land bordering the ocean". European settlement by the Dutch and England contributed to the demise of the indigenous people.
In 1674, West Jersey was established, its provincial government designated the court of Burlington County in 1681, splitting off Gloucester County five years from the southern portion. This county was bounded by the Mullica River to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Great Egg Harbor River and Tuckahoe River to the south. Great Egg Harbour Township called New Weymouth and just Egg Harbor, was designated in 1693 from the eastern portions of Gloucester County; the region's early settlers, many of them Quakers, lived along the area's waterways. In 1695, John Somers purchased 300 acres of land on the northern shore of the Great Egg Harbor Bay in 1695, the same year he began ferry service across the bay to Cape May County, his son, built Somers Mansion between 1720 and 1726, the oldest home in existence in the county. Daniel Leeds first surveyed the coastal waters of Egg Harbor in 1698 finding Leeds Point. In 1735 according to folklore, Mother Leeds gave birth and cursed her 13th child in Leeds Point, which became known as the Jersey Devil.
In the early 18th century, George May founded Mays Landing. In 1774, the northern portion of Egg Harbor Township became Galloway Township. In 1785, residents in what is now Atlantic County requested to split from Gloucester County to the New Jersey legislature, wanting a local court. Mays Landing – the region's largest community at the time, had more saloons than churches. Criminals could escape custody before reaching Gloucester City on a four-day wagon ride. In 1798, the western portion split off to become Weymouth Township, in 1813, the northwestern portion partitioned to become Hamilton Township. On February 7, 1837, the New Jersey legislature designated Atlantic County from Galloway, Hamilton and Egg Harbor townships, choosing Mays Landing as the county seat. In the same year, the Board of Freeholders was established as the county government; as of the 1830 census, the townships making up Atlantic County only had a population of 8,164, making it the least populated New Jersey county. By that time, a continuous line of houses extended from Somers Point to Absecon.
Mullica Township was established from Galloway Township in 1837. In 1852, Dr. Jonathan Pitney recommended Absecon Island as a health resort, formed the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company to construct the line from Camden to the coast; the company purchased land from Atlantic and Galloway Townships in 1853 promoted and sold the lots. Atlantic City formed on May 1854, in advance of the rail line opening on July 4 of that year. In 1858, Egg Harbor City was formed from portions of Mullica townships. In 1866, Hammonton was founded from Mullica townships. A year portions of Hamilton Township split off to become Buena Vista Township. In 1872, Absecon was split from portions of Egg Galloway townships. By 1885, more than half of the county's population lived in Atlantic City, by 1910 this more than two-thirds of the county lived there. With more people moving to the area in the late 1800s into the early 1900s, several municipalities were created in short succession – Margate in 1885, Somers Point in 1886, Pleasantville and Linwood in 1889, Brigantine in 1890, Longport in 1898, Ventnor in 1903, Northfield and Port Republic in 1905, Folsom in 1906.
On May 17, 1906, the eastern coastal boundary of Atlantic County was established. The final municipalities in the county to be created were Corbin City from Weymouth Township in 1922, Estell Manor from Weymouth Township in 1925, Buena from Buena Township in 1948. In 1938, the county's western border was clarified with Camden and Burlington counties using geographic coordinates. After a peak in prominence in the 1920s during the prohibition era, Atlantic City began declining in population in the 1950s as tourism declined; the county's growth shifted to the mainland. In 1973, the New Jersey Coastal Area Facilities Review Act required additional state permitting for construction in the eastern half of the county. In the same ballot as the 1976 presidential election, 56.8% of New Jersey voters approved an initiative to allow legalized gambling in Atlantic City. Two years Resorts Atlantic City opened as the first casino in the city, there were 15 by 1990. Since five have closed, including four in 2014, while two casinos – the Borgata and Ocean Resort Casino – have opened.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Atlantic City opened in 2018, refurbishing the