Paul Magnette is a Belgian politician for the PS, the current mayor of Charleroi and former political science professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. He was Minister-President of the French-speaking region of Wallonia from 2014 to 2017, he studied political sciences at the ULB, obtained a PhD in 1999 with a dissertation Citoyenneté et construction européenne. His research interest is on institutional policies, the European Union, theories of democracy. In 2000, together with Eric Remacle, he was awarded the Exceptional Francqui Prize for European Research. On 20 July 2007, Magnette became minister for Health, Social Action and Equal Opportunity of the Walloon government. On 21 December 2007 Magnette became minister for Climate and Energy in the Verhofstadt III federal government, he held the post in the Leterme I Government and held the same post of minister for Climate and Energy in the Van Rompuy I Government, which took office on 30 December 2008, in the Leterme II Government. In the Di Rupo Government, which took office on 6 December 2011, Magnette was Minister for Public Enterprises, Scientific Policy and Development Cooperation until 17 January 2013, when he formally resigned to become mayor of Charleroi and Chairman of the PS.
Belgium: Commandor of the Order of Leopold, Royal decree of 2010. Denmark: Knight Grand cross in the Order of the Dannebrog. Japan: Imperial Order of the Rising Sun, 3rd Class. Imperial Decree of 2016. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Paul Magnette Spiegel.de
Minister-President of Wallonia
The Minister-President of Wallonia is the head of the Walloon government, the executive power of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. He has his official residence, known in Namur, along the Meuse River; the Minister-President should not be confused with the Minister-President of the French Community of Belgium, led by Rudy Demotte, the preceding minister-president of Wallonia. Prime Minister of Belgium Minister-President of the Brussels-Capital Region Minister-President of Flanders Minister-President of the French Community Minister-President of the German-speaking Community
Somme-Leuze is a Walloon municipality and village in the Belgian province of Namur. On 1 January 2006 the municipality had 4,656 inhabitants; the total area is 95.09 km², giving a population density of 49 inhabitants per km². Apart from Somme-Leuze itself, the municipality comprises the villages of: Baillonville Bonsin Chardeneux Heure Hogne Nettinne Noiseux Sinsin Waillet List of protected heritage sites in Somme-Leuze Media related to Somme-Leuze at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Michel I Government
The Michel I Government was the Federal Government of Belgium formed following the 2014 Belgian government formation and sworn in on 11 October 2014. The administration is a centre-right coalition of the New Flemish Alliance, the Christian Democratic and Flemish, the Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats and the Reformist Movement; the prime minister is Charles Michel. The government had an agenda of socio-economic reforms through austerity measures, with its priorities being improving Belgium's economic competitiveness and reducing unemployment, it fell in December 2018 over the Global Compact for Migration. The government was sworn in on 11 October 2014, taking the oath of office before King Filip of Belgium; the four parties had a majority in the Chamber of Representatives with 85 members out of 150. On 16 October 2014, the motion of confidence from the Chamber of Representatives was approved by a vote of 84 in favour, 58 against and one abstention; the government's number of seats was reduced to 83 when two N-VA members, Hendrik Vuye and Veerle Wouters, left the party in September 2016.
The government consists of a centre-right coalition of the New Flemish Alliance, Christian Democratic and Flemish, the Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats and the Reformist Movement. It is nicknamed "Swedish coalition" inasmuch as the party colours yellow and blue and the cross are combined on the Swedish flag; the government was called a "kamikaze coalition", inasmuch as the MR is the only French-speaking party in the coalition. For the first time in 25 years, the French-speaking Socialist Party did not become a part of the federal government, whereas the Flemish nationalist N-VA helped form a government for the first time. No French-speaking party wanted to partner with the N-VA, but in negotiations MR agreed to do so on the condition that the government's focus would be on socio-economic issues and that no "community-related" issues or constitutional reform plans would be part of the cabinet programme. Despite three parties having been part of the preceding Di Rupo Government as well, the programme of this coalition differs from the previous one.
The emphasis is on socio-economic reforms through austerity measures. Important goals for the parties include helping businesses become more competitive, increasing job growth; the announced measures were met by protests from the labour unions, which argued that the measures favour employers and disproportionately burden employees and families. The unions, ACV/CSC, ABVV/FGTB and ACLVB/CGSLB, which play an important and institutionalised role in Belgium's political process, did not accept the government's offer for dialogue, maintaining that the government was not inclined to reconsider any of the measures. Instead, the unions organised several regional and national strikes in November and December 2014, culminating in a one-day general strike on 15 December. An recurring subject was whether or not a capital gains tax should be introduced, together with a general tax reform. In the summer of 2017, the corporate gains tax was announced to be reduced from 33.99% to 29% starting 2018 and further down to 25% from 2020 whereas a capital gains tax of 0.15% on gains on financial securities was introduced for wealthier citizens holding accounts of at least 0.5 million Eur in value.
Meanwhile the first 627 Eur of income through dividends became tax exempt. The government presided over the arrest of suspects who were accused of playing a role in the Paris attacks of November 2015, as well as a terrorist attack in Brussels in March 2016. In December 2018, a political crisis emerged over. On December 4, the Prime Minister of Belgium, Charles Michel, announced that the issue would be taken to parliament for a vote. On 5 December, parliament voted 106 to 36 in favor of backing the agreement. Michel stated that he would endorse the pact on behalf of the parliament, not on behalf of the divided government. N-VA quit the government. On 18 December 2018, Michel submitted the cabinet's resignation to the King, who accepted it on 21 December; the Constitution requires an equal number of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers. Since MR is the only French-speaking party, it has more ministers than it would otherwise get with its electoral weight. On May 21, 2015 the portfolios Urban Policy and fighting Fiscal Fraud were re-allocated between three N-VA members.
Urban Policy moved from Jan Jambon to Elke Sleurs, while Sleurs handed over Fiscal Fraud to Johan Van Overtveldt. On September 21, 2015 it was announced that minister of Budget Hervé Jamar would resign to become governor of Liège, he was succeeded by Sophie Wilmès. On March 25, 2016, in the aftermath of the March 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels, Interior Minister Jan Jambon and Justice Minister Koen Geens both offered their resignation over their failure to detain one of the suspects, Ibrahim el-Bakraoui, despite warnings from Turkey's government in 2015. Michel rejected the government's composition remained unchanged. On April 15, 2016, in the aftermath of the March 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels, minister of mobility Jacqueline Galant resigned, after it became known that prior to the attacks she had received a summary of a damning Eu
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
The Reformist Movement is a liberal and conservative-liberal French-speaking political party in Belgium. The party is in coalition as part of the Michel Government since October 2014, providing the current Prime Minister of Belgium Charles Michel. After the 2007 general election the MR was the largest Francophone political formation in Belgium, a position, regained by the Socialist Party in the 2010 general election; the MR is an alliance between one German-speaking liberal party. The Liberal Reformist Party and the Francophone Democratic Federalists started the alliance in 1993, were joined in 1998 by the Citizens' Movement for Change; the alliance was known as the PRL-FDF-MCC federation. The alliance became the MR during a congress in 2002, where the German-speaking liberal party, the Party for Freedom and Progress joined as well; the label PRL is no longer used, the three other parties still use their own names. The MR is member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party.
However, on 25 September 2011, the FDF decided to leave the coalition. They did not agree with the manner in which president Charles Michel defended the rights of the French-speaking people in the agreement concerning the splitting of the Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde district, during the 2010–2011 Belgian government formation. Though the MR's original ideology emphasised classical liberalism and free market economics, it has of late joined the general trend of Belgian liberals to accept elements of social liberalism under the influence of Dirk Verhofstadt, whose brother Guy Verhofstadt led the MR's Flemish counterpart, the Open VLD. 2002 - 2003: Daniel Ducarme 2003 - 2004: Antoine Duquesne 2004 - 2011: Didier Reynders 2011 - 2014: Charles Michel 2014 - 2019: Olivier Chastel 2019 -: Charles Michel Willy Borsus Christine Defraigne Alain Destexhe Daniel Ducarme Antoine Duquesne Jean Gol Sabine Laruelle Charles Michel Louis Michel Didier Reynders Jacques Simonet Liberalism Liberalism in Belgium Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide Liberal Archive Mouvement Reformateur