Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting. This is because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598 (Philadelphia Phillies/New York Gia
The Philadelphia Keystones were a professional baseball franchise. In 1884, they were a member of the short-lived Union Association; the team was owned by former player Tom Pratt. The Keystones were managed by catcher Fergy Malone and finished in eighth place in the 12 team league with a 21-46 record, their top-hitting regular was left fielder/infielder Buster Hoover, who batted.364 with a slugging percentage of.495, their best pitcher was Jersey Bakely, 14-25 with an ERA of 4.47. Their home games were played at Keystone Park. Jack Clements, who played for 17 seasons and was the last left-handed catcher in major-league history, made his big-league debut with the Keystones. Like several other teams in the Union Association, the Keystones did not make it through the entire season, folding after the game of August 7; the entire league ceased operations after its first and only season. Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average.
St. Louis Maroons/Indianapolis Hoosiers
The St. Louis Maroons were a professional baseball club based in St. Louis, from 1884–1886; the club, established by Henry Lucas, were the one near-major league quality entry in the Union Association, a league that lasted only one season, due in large part to the dominance of the Maroons. When the UA folded after playing just one season, the Maroons joined the National League. In 1887 the Maroons relocated to Indianapolis and became the Indianapolis Hoosiers, playing three more seasons before folding; the St. Louis Maroons debuted on April 20, 1884, at the Union Base Ball Park, defeating the UA Chicago club, 7-2. Henry Van Noye Lucas, the founder of the Union Association and owner of the Maroons, stocked his team with most of the league's best talent, they started the season 20-0, a mark that would not be topped in major American professional sports until the Golden State Warriors of the NBA surpassed it 131 years in the 2015–16 season. The Maroons went 94-19 in that season; those figures indicate something of the quality of the remainder of the organization, which many derided as the "Onion League".
One of the Maroons' major stars was pitcher Charlie Sweeney, best known today as the pitcher who left Old Hoss Radbourn to shoulder the pitching burden alone with the Providence Grays of the National League. Radbourn went on to pitch most of the rest of the Providence club's games, winning a total of 60. Sweeney won 24 with the Maroons after having won 17 with the Grays, so he had a fair year as well. After the Union Association collapsed, the National League was persuaded to bring the St. Louis Union entry into the established league, to try to provide some competition for the St. Louis Browns of the American Association. For the Maroons, the Browns were at the peak of their game, winning pennants four straight years. Meanwhile, the Maroons, facing much better competition in the National League, finished well off the National League pace in 1885 and 1886. Fred Dunlap hit for the cycle for the Maroons on May 24, 1886. Following the 1886 season, the team was sold to the league, he moved the team to Indianapolis.
Brush owned the stadium in Indianapolis, used by the previous Hoosier team. This was the second major league team to bear the name Indianapolis Hoosiers, though they bore no relationship to the earlier team that played in 1884; the Hoosiers three seasons in the National League from 1887 to 1889 and posted records of 37-89, 50-85 and 59-75, respectively. The team played its weekday home games at Athletic Park. Due to blue laws, the club staged Sunday games outside the city limits, at Bruce Grounds in 1887 and at Indianapolis Park during 1888-89; when the team folded, Brush became part-owner of the New York Giants. Baseball Hall of Fame member Amos Rusie made his big league debut with the 1889 Hoosiers. Jack Glasscock hit for the cycle for the Hoosiers on August 8, 1889. St. Louis Maroons/Indianapolis Hoosiers all-time roster 1884 St. Louis Maroons season 1885 St. Louis Maroons season 1886 St. Louis Maroons season 1887 Indianapolis Hoosiers season 1888 Indianapolis Hoosiers season 1889 Indianapolis Hoosiers season St. Louis Maroons team index page at Baseball Reference 1887-89 NL Hoosiers at Baseball Reference
Wilmington is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Delaware. The city was built on the site of the first Swedish settlement in North America, it is at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine River, near where the Christina flows into the Delaware River. It is the county seat of New Castle County and one of the major cities in the Delaware Valley metropolitan area. Wilmington was named by Proprietor Thomas Penn after his friend Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, prime minister in the reign of George II of Great Britain; as of the 2017 United States Census estimate, the city's population is 72,846. It is the fifth least populous city in the U. S. to be the most populous in its state. The Wilmington Metropolitan Division, comprising New Castle County, DE, Cecil County, MD and Salem County, NJ, had an estimated 2016 population of 719,876; the Delaware Valley metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey, had a 2016 population of 6,070,500, a combined statistical area of 7,179,357.
Wilmington is built on the site of Fort Christina and the settlement Kristinehamn, the first Swedish settlement in North America. The area now known as Wilmington was settled by the Lenape band led by Sachem Mattahorn just before Henry Hudson sailed up the Len-api Hanna in 1609; the area was called "Maax-waas Unk" or "Bear Place" after the Maax-waas Hanna. It was called the Bear River because it flowed west to the "Bear People", who are now known as the People of Conestoga or the Susquehannocks; the Dutch heard and spelled the river and the place as "Minguannan." When settlers and traders from the Swedish South Company under Peter Minuit arrived in March 1638 on the Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel, they purchased Maax-waas Unk from Chief Mattahorn and built Fort Christina at the mouth of the Maax-waas Hanna. The area was known as "The Rocks", is located near the foot of present-day Seventh Street. Fort Christina served as the headquarters for the colony of New Sweden which consisted of, for the most part, the lower Delaware River region, but few colonists settled there.
Dr. Timothy Stidham was a prominent doctor in Wilmington, he was born in 1610 in Hammel and raised in Gothenburg, Sweden. He is recorded as the first physician in Delaware; the most important Swedish governor was Colonel Johan Printz, who ruled the colony under Swedish law from 1643 to 1653. He was succeeded by Johan Rising, who upon his arrival in 1654, seized the Dutch post Fort Casimir, located at the site of the present town of New Castle, built by the Dutch in 1651. Rising governed New Sweden until the autumn of 1655, when a Dutch fleet under the command of Peter Stuyvesant subjugated the Swedish forts and established the authority of the Colony of New Netherland throughout the area controlled by the Swedes; this marked the end of Swedish rule in North America. Beginning in 1664 British colonization began. A borough charter was granted in 1739 by King George II, which changed the name of the settlement from Willington, after Thomas Willing, to Wilmington after Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington.
Although during the American Revolutionary War only one small battle was fought in Delaware, British troops occupied Wilmington shortly after the nearby Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. The British remained in the town until they vacated Philadelphia in 1778. In 1800, Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, a French Huguenot, emigrated to the United States. Knowledgeable in the manufacture of gunpowder, by 1802 DuPont had begun making the explosive in a mill on the Brandywine River north of Brandywine Village and just outside the town of Wilmington; the DuPont company became a major supplier to the U. S. military. Located on the banks of the Brandywine River, the village was annexed by Wilmington city; the greatest growth in the city occurred during the Civil War. Delaware, though remaining a member of the Union, was a border state and divided in its support of both the Confederate and the Union causes; the war created enormous demand for goods and materials supplied by Wilmington including ships, railroad cars, gunpowder and other war-related goods.
By 1868, Wilmington was producing more iron ships than the rest of the country combined and it rated first in the production of gunpowder and second in carriages and leather. Due to the prosperity Wilmington enjoyed during the war, city merchants and manufacturers expanded Wilmington's residential boundaries westward in the form of large homes along tree-lined streets; this movement was spurred by the first horsecar line, initiated in 1864 along Delaware Avenue. The late 19th century saw the development of the city's first comprehensive park system. William Poole Bancroft, a successful Wilmington businessman influenced by the work of Frederick Law Olmsted, led the effort to establish open parkland in Wilmington. Rockford Park and Brandywine Park were created due to Bancroft's efforts. Both World Wars stimulated the city's industries. Industries vital to the war effort – shipyards, steel foundries, machinery, a
Fred Tenney (outfielder)
Fred Clay Tenney was a professional baseball player whose career spanned two seasons, one of, spent with the Union Association Washington Nationals, Boston Reds, Wilmington Quicksteps. He played one season of minor league baseball for the Hartford Babies. Tenney spent the majority of his professional career as an outfielder, but served as a first baseman and as a pitcher, he played collegiate ball at Brown University. After retiring from baseball, Tenney became a lawyer and the superintendent of schools for Holliston, before his death on June 15, 1919. Tenney was born on July 9, 1859, in Marlborough, New Hampshire, to Henry Clay and Julia C. Tenney. Henry served as the principle to the Peterborough, New Hampshire school. Growing up, Tenney had one sibling, Lockhart S.. Tenney served as a pitcher during his senior year. Tenney lost in his college debut to Harvard, 5–3, he completed his college career with a 4–2 record. He graduated the university with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1880, was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity.
In 1884, Tenney began his professional career for the Nationals, where he spent the majority of his 38-game career. Over 32 games with the team, Tenney batted.235 with a triple and 32 runs scored, while playing 27 games in the outfield and six games at first base for the club. He appeared in four games as a pitcher for the Reds, allowing nine earned runs over 35.0 innings pitched. In his only game played for the Quicksteps, Tenney allowed, he finished. The following season, Tenney played for the Hartford Babies of the Southern New England League, appearing in three games for the team. After retiring from baseball, Tenney became a lawyer, publishing agent principal and superintendent of schools in Holliston, Massachusetts. Tenney died on June 15, 1919, in Fall River and was interred at Lake Grove Cemetery in Holliston. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference
Andrew J. Cusick was a catcher in Major League Baseball from 1884 to 1887, he played for the Wilmington Quicksteps and Philadelphia Quakers. Cusick weighed 190 pounds. Cusick was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 1857, he started his professional baseball career in 1883 with the Interstate League's Wilmington Quicksteps. The following season, he played for the Quicksteps of the Eastern League and Union Association and made his major league debut in August; that month, Cusick jumped to the National League's Philadelphia Quakers. He had a batting average of.143 in 20 MLB games that season. Cusick was a back-up catcher for the Quakers for the next few years. In 1885, he played in 39 games and led the NL's catchers in errors, with 57, while batting.177. His final MLB appearance was in June 1887, he signed with the Western Association's Milwaukee Brewers for 1888, as a first baseman. The Sporting Life reported that " comes to Milwaukee recommended by Fogarty and Mulvey, of the Philadelphias, who say he is a good batsman, a No. 1 baseman, and, if necessary, can go behind the bat and hold up that position with the best of them."
After batting.260 in 48 games, Cusick was released in July, his playing career ended. In 95 career major league games, he batted.193 with 15 runs batted in. In May 1889, Cusick got a job as an umpire in the Western Association. According to the Sporting Life that month, " umpired the Omaha series, gave fair satisfaction, his decisions were not in favor of one club more than another but his base decisions were decidedly off color." After he umpired a game in June, the Milwaukee Journal reported that he "gave some doubtful decisions on both sides and was incorrect on calling balls and strikes and of course brought down the anathemas of the vigorous-lunged'bleachers' upon himself in consequence."Cusick continued to umpire games during the 1890 season. By January 1891, he had become a deputy constable in St. Louis, he was buried in Mt. Olivet Cemetery. List of players from Ireland in Major League Baseball Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Retrosheet
In most North American sports, the phrase games behind or games back is a common way to reflect the gap between a leading team and another team in a sports league, conference, or division. In the below standings from the 1994 Major League Baseball season, the Atlanta Braves are six games behind the Montreal Expos. Atlanta would have to win six games, Montreal would have to lose six games, to tie for first; the leading team is always zero games behind itself, this is indicated in standings by a dash rather than a zero. Games behind is calculated by using either of the following formulas, in which Team A is a leading team, Team B is a trailing team. Example math in this section uses the above standings, with Montreal as Team A and Atlanta as Team B. Games Behind = − 2 Games Behind = − 2 = 34 – 22 2 = 12 2 = 6 Alternately: Games Behind = + 2 Games Behind = + 2 = 6 + 6 2 = 12 2 = 6 Notes: It can alternately be said that Montreal is six games ahead of Atlanta. A games behind situation can change when two teams contesting for the lead play each other.
For example, Atlanta could cut Montreal's lead in half by sweeping a three-game head-to-head series. The leading team, in terms of games behind, is the team with the best won–loss difference; this is not always the team with the most wins. For example, a team with an 80–70 record would be one game behind a team with a 79–67 record; the formulas implicitly treat any difference in the number of games played by the two teams as each unplayed game being "worth" 0.5 wins and 0.5 losses. This can lead to anomalies when teams have played an unequal number of games during the early portion of a season. Two teams with different winning percentages may be tied in terms of games behind. For example, Team A at 6–4 would be tied with Team B at 4–2, in terms of games behind. However, Team B has the better winning percentage, at.667 compared to.600 for Team A. A team with a lower winning percentage may lead a team with a higher winning percentage. For example, Team A at 6 -- 4 would lead Team B at 2 -- 1 by a half-game.
However, Team B has the better winning percentage at.667, compared to.600 for Team A. An example of this occurred in May 2018, when the New York Yankees were 28–13 and the Boston Red Sox were 30–14; the games behind calculation had New York a half-game behind Boston. On December 28, 2018, in the National Basketball Association, the 24–10 Milwaukee Bucks were a half-game behind the 26–11 Toronto Raptors, yet the Bucks were ranked first in the Eastern Conference, their.706 win percentage superior to the Raptors’.703. Leagues use winning percentage to order teams, so in both of the above examples Team B would be considered to be in first place; the games behind calculation is used in professional baseball and basketball, where tie games are not permitted. Standings for these sports appearing in print or online during a season will have teams ordered by winning percentages, with a "GB" column provided as a convenience to the reader. Games behind is used less in American football, where ties are possible but uncommon.
Games behind is used in ice hockey and soccer, where ties are common and standings points are used. Major League Baseball defines games behind as "the average of the differences between the leading team wins and the trailing team wins, the leading teams losses and the trailing team losses." A games behind column always appears in MLB standings for each five-team division. In the 1994 MLB season, the American League and National League each split into three divisions, each added a wild card team to the playoffs. Following this change, it became common for the media to publish an additional set of standings for the wild card race, it included all teams from a league, with the exception of the division leaders, games behind was calculated with respect to the team with the highest standing in the wild card race. In the 2012 MLB season, both leagues add a second wild card team. Now, games behind in the wild card race is calculated with respect to the team with second highest standing in the wild card race.
MLB's website distinguishes this statistic as wild card gam