Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio
Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre
The Pellissier Building and adjoining Wiltern Theatre is a 12-story, 155-foot Art Deco landmark at the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue in Los Angeles, California. The entire complex is referred to as the Wiltern Center. Clad in a blue-green glazed architectural terra-cotta tile and situated diagonal to the street corner, the complex is considered one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the United States; the Wiltern building is owned and the Wiltern Theatre is operated by Live Nation's Los Angeles division. The Wiltern Theatre is located at the western edge of the Los Angeles neighborhood of Koreatown, at the southeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue; the Koreatown district is served by Metro Rail. Named after the family that owned the land upon which it was developed, the Pellissier Building is a 12-story steel-reinforced concrete office tower. Set upon a two-story pedestal that contains ground floor retail and the theater entrance, the tower has narrow vertical windows that sweep the eye upward and create the illusion of a much taller building.
The tower is an example of French Zig-Zag Moderne styling. The entrance to the Wiltern Theatre is flanked by large vertical neon signs while patrons approach the ticket booth set back among colorful terrazzo paving; the Wiltern's interior was designed by G. Albert Lansburgh and is renowned for its Art Deco design containing decorative plaster and tile work along with colorful murals painted by Anthony Heinsbergen; the most dramatic element of the design is the sunburst on the ceiling of the auditorium, with each ray its own Art Deco skyscraper—Lansburgh's vision of the future of Wilshire Boulevard. When the Wiltern first opened, it housed the largest theater pipe organ in the western United States. Both the Wiltern Theatre and the Pellissier Building have been named to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the City of Los Angeles. Built in 1931, the Wiltern was designed by architect Stiles O. Clements of Morgan, Walls & Clements, the city's oldest architectural firm.
The Wiltern Theatre was designed as a vaudeville theater and opened as the Warner Brothers Western Theater, the flagship for the theater chain. Closing a year the theater reopened in the mid-1930s and was renamed the Wiltern Theatre for the major intersection which it faces. In 1956, the building and theater were sold to the Franklin Life Insurance Company of Springfield, Illinois; the Los Angeles chapter of the American Theater Organ Enthusiasts worked to restore the theater's 37-rank Kimball pipe organ—reputed to be the largest one in Los Angeles at the time—and held recitals there through the late 1960s and into the mid-1970s. However, the owners ignored the landmark building, by the late 1970s, the Wiltern had fallen into disrepair. Only the intervention of a group of local preservationists saved the complex from being demolished on two occasions in the late 1970s, when the owners filed for demolition permits. In 1981, the Wiltern was purchased by developer Wayne Ratkovich, who worked with architect Brenda Levin to restore both the theater and the office building to their former glory.
Previous successes with the Fine Arts Building and the Oviatt Building renovations in downtown Los Angeles and the refurbishing of the nearby Chapman Market complex on Sixth Street convinced many in the city that they were the right people for the job. The renovation of the office building was complete by 1983, but the Wiltern Theatre presented a much more difficult problem and took another two years to complete; the theater had been poorly maintained—many of the murals and plasterwork were damaged, many of the fixtures had been sold off or pillaged, portions of the ceiling had crashed onto the ground floor seats. It had been used as the primary location for the film Get Crazy, which caused further damage. To restore the theater to its original state required expert craftsmanship by A. T. Heinsbergen, son of the original painter, some creativity to replace what had been lost; this included salvaging vintage Art Deco seats from the soon-to-be-renovated Paramount Theater in Portland, Oregon. Furthermore, while it was designed and run as a movie theater, Ratkovich wanted to convert the Wiltern into a performing arts center that could host live concerts and Broadway-level stage performances—which entailed opening up the rear wall and extending the stage and stage house of the theater back 15 feet.
After a four-year renovation the Wiltern Theatre opened again to the public on May 1, 1985, with performances by the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater company. Bill Graham Presents was retained to provide the oversight of operations; the Wiltern was operated as a producing theater, hosted its own live performances and those sponsored by Avalon Attractions, Concerts West, Universal Concerts, Timeless Entertainment, many others, was used for many televised events, commercial filming and feature film locations. On August 7, 1985, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers played a show at the theater, most of the live show was subsequently used for Petty's first official live release Pack Up the Plantation: Live! The concert was filmed; the Wiltern seated 2,344. Subsequent modifications in 2002 removed the 1,200 p
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
MacArthur Park is a park dating back to the late nineteenth century in the Westlake neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. In the early 1940s, it was renamed after General Douglas MacArthur, designated City of Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument #100; the park is divided in two by Wilshire Boulevard. The southern portion consists of a lake, while the northern half includes an amphitheatre, soccer fields, children's playground, along with a recreation center operated by the City of Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks; the bandshell was once home to many events, such as Jugaremos en Familia. MacArthur Park's bandshell has been renovated as the Levitt Pavilion and is once again the host of jazz, big band, salsa music, beat music, world music concerts. Since reopening, it hosts at least 50 free concerts each summer between September; the lake in MacArthur Park is fed by natural springs. In the past, a fountain with a reflecting pool on the northern end was fed by the springs; the Westlake/MacArthur Park Red Line station sits across the street.
The park named Westlake Park, was built in the 1880s, along with a similar Eastlake Park, whose lake is artificial, in Los Angeles. Westlake Park was renamed May 7, 1942. Both Westlake and Eastlake were built as drinking water reservoirs connected to the city's system, Zanja Madre; when the city abandoned the non-pressurized zanja system for a pressurized pipe system, these smaller, shallow reservoirs located at low points no longer provided much benefit and were converted into parks. The park was named for Henricus Wallace Westlake, a Canadian physician who had moved to Los Angeles around 1888, settled in the area and donated a portion of his property to the city for a park. In the mid-19th century the area was a swampland. In the early part of the 20th century, the Westlake neighborhood became known as the Champs-Élysées of Los Angeles. Wilshire Boulevard ended at the lake, but in 1934 a berm was built for it to cross and link up with the existing Orange Street into downtown Los Angeles. Orange Street was extended east of Figueroa Street to Grand Avenue.
This divided the lake into two halves. From the 1940s, the lake featured the rental of electric boats, with the names of comic book animal characters. According to a Los Angeles Times news story from 1956, two swans, named Rudie and Susie, hatched their five new cygnets on the island in MacArthur Park Lake, according to the park superintendent, these were the first swans born in the park in over a decade. For many years, Filipino World War II veterans protested in the park named after their former commander regarding promises made when they enlisted that the United States had reneged on. In 2009 as part of the stimulus package, Congress awarded lump-sum payments of $15,000 to Filipino veterans who are American citizens and $9,000 to those who are noncitizens. Despite the rather poetic homage paid to it in the 1968 song, MacArthur Park became known for violence after 1985 when prostitution, drug dealing, shoot-outs, the occasional rumored drowning became commonplace, with as many as 30 murders in 1990.
The Westlake area has become notable for the sale of false identification cards those allowing non-US citizens to work in the United States. When the lake was drained in 1973 and 1978, hundreds of handguns and other firearms were found to have been disposed of in the lake. Gang-on-gang violence still occurs in and around the park, as in the following cases: In 1995, a small, local gang in the Westlake and Downtown area, the Burlington Street Locos, got into an argument with a man, believed to be in a rival gang, called the Crazy Town Locos. A few days before, a member of the Crazy Town Locos had struck a man from Burlington Street Locos across the face. Seeking revenge, members of the Burlington Street Locos went looking for members of the rival gang and thought that a man who looked like the target was him. Mistakenly, they fired a couple of rounds into his chest, they threw it in the lake. In 2002, members of the 18th Street gang saw a member of a rival gang and beat the victim until he was in critical condition.
A day members of the victim's gang approached members of the 18th Street gang and started firing with semi-automatic pistols. This event led to the death of an injury to an innocent bystander. In 2008, a shooting occurred. Members of the 18th Street gang started firing toward a crowd filled with rival gang members; this led to the death of three people: a rival gang member and a mother and child. On May Day, May 1, 2007, a rally calling for US citizenship for undocumented immigrants took place in MacArthur Park; the incident has been dubbed the May Day Mêlée. That evening, police commanders declared the gathering an unlawful assembly and gave the order to disperse; the police violently cleared the park, using what some thought was excessive force against families and news reporters. Sanjukta Paul, an observer with the National Lawyer's Guild, was beaten by a Los Angeles Police officer, including a blow to the kidneys, as she attempted to impede the police's progress. Another police officer
Gloria May Josephine Swanson was an American actress and producer. She achieved widespread critical acclaim and recognition for her role as Norma Desmond, a reclusive silent film star, in the critically acclaimed 1950 film Sunset Boulevard; the film earned her an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Globe Award win. Swanson was a star in the silent film era as both an actress and a fashion icon under the direction of Cecil B. DeMille. Throughout the 1920s, Swanson was one of Hollywood's top box office draws. Swanson starred in dozens of silent films, was nominated for the first Academy Award for Best Actress, she produced her own films during this period, including The Love of Sunya and Sadie Thompson. In 1929, Swanson transitioned into talkies with her performance in The Trespasser. Personal problems and changing tastes saw her popularity wane during the 1930s and she subsequently ventured into theater and television. Gloria May Josephine Swanson was born in a small house in Chicago in 1899 to Adelaide and Joseph Theodore Swanson, a soldier.
She attended Hawthorne Scholastic Academy. Her father was from a strict Lutheran Swedish American family, her mother was of German and Polish ancestry; because of her father's attachment to the U. S. Army, the family moved and Swanson ended up spending most of her childhood in Puerto Rico, where she learned Spanish, she spent time in Key West, Florida. It was not her intention to enter show business, but on a whim one of her aunts took her to a small film company in Chicago called Essanay Studios for a visit and Swanson was asked to come back to work as an extra. After a few months as an extra working with others like Charlie Chaplin, making $13.50 a week, Swanson left school to work full-time at the studio. Her parents soon separated and she and her mother moved to California. Swanson made her film debut in 1914 as an extra in The Song of Soul for Essanay, she subsequently moved to California in 1916 to appear in Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios comedies opposite Bobby Vernon. With their great screen chemistry, the pair became popular.
Director Charley Chase recalled that she was "frightened to death" of Vernon's dangerous stunts. Conquering her fears, she cooperated with Vernon. Surviving films in which they appear together include The Danger Girl, The Sultan's Wife, Teddy at the Throttle. In 1919 she signed with Paramount Pictures and worked with Cecil B. DeMille, who turned her into a romantic lead in such films as Don't Change Your Husband and Female with the famous scene posing as "the Lion's Bride" with a real lion, Why Change Your Wife?, Something to Think About, The Affairs of Anatol. In the space of two years, Swanson rocketed to stardom and was one of the most sought-after actresses in Hollywood, she appeared in a series of films directed by Sam Wood. She starred in Beyond the Rocks with her longtime friend Rudolph Valentino. Swanson continued to make costume drama films for the next few years. So successful were her films for Paramount that the studio was afraid of losing her and gave in to many of her whims and wishes.
During Swanson's heyday, audiences went to her films not only for her performances, but to see her wardrobe. She was ornamented with beads, jewels and ostrich feathers and other extravagant pieces of haute couture, her fashion, hair styles, jewels were copied around the world. She was the screen's first clothes horse and was becoming one of the most famous and photographed women in the world. In 1925, Swanson starred in the French-American Madame Sans-Gêne, directed by Léonce Perret. Filming was allowed for the first time at many of the historic sites relating to Napoleon. While it was well received at the time, no prints are known to exist, it is considered to be a lost film. During the production of Madame Sans-Gêne, Swanson met her third husband Henri, Marquis de la Falaise, hired to be her translator during the film's production. After a four-month residency in France she returned to the United States as European nobility, now known as the Marquise, she got a huge welcome home with parades in both New York and Los Angeles.
Swanson appeared in a 1925 short produced by Lee DeForest in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process. She made a number of films for Paramount, among them The Coast of Folly, Stage Struck and Fine Manners. In 1927, she decided to turn down a million dollar a year contract with Paramount to join the newly created United Artists, where she was her own boss and could make the films she wanted, with whom she wanted, when, her first independent film, The Love of Sunya, was directed by Albert Parker, based on the play The Eyes of Youth, by Max Marcin and Charles Guernon. Produced by and starring Swanson, it co-starred John Boles and Pauline Garon, it is the story of a young woman granted the ability to see into her future, including her future with different men. The story had been filmed as Eyes of Youth starring Clara Kimball Young; the production was marred by several problems a suitable cameraman to deal with the film's intricate double exposures, as Swanson was not used to taking charge, filming took place in New York.
The film premiered at the grand opening of the Roxy Theatre in New York City on March 11, 1927. (Swanson was pictured in the ruins of the Roxy on October 14, 1960, during the demolition of the theater
A steam car is a car propelled by a steam engine. A steam engine is an external combustion engine in which the fuel is combusted outside of the engine, unlike an internal combustion engine in which fuel is combusted inside the engine. ECEs have a lower thermal efficiency, but carbon monoxide production is more regulated; the first steam-powered vehicle was built in 1672 by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish Jesuit in China. The vehicle was a toy for the Chinese Emperor. While not intended to carry passengers, therefore not a "car", Verbiest's device is to be the first engine-powered vehicle; the first experimental steam-powered cars were built in the late 18th and 19th centuries, not until after Richard Trevithick had developed the use of high-pressure steam around 1800, that mobile steam engines became a practical proposition. By the 1850s it was viable to produce them commercially: steam road vehicles were used for many applications. Development was hampered by adverse legislation from the 1830s and the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology in the 1900s, leading to their commercial demise.
Few steam-powered vehicles remained in use after the Second World War. Many of these vehicles were acquired by enthusiasts for preservation; the search for renewable energy sources has led to an occasional resurgence of interest in using steam power for road vehicles. A steam engine is an external combustion engine, as opposed to an internal combustion engine. While gasoline-powered ICE cars have an operational thermal efficiency of 15% to 30%, early automotive steam units were capable of only about half this efficiency. A significant benefit of the ECE is that the fuel burner can be configured for low emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburned carbon in the exhaust, thus avoiding pollution; the greatest technical challenges to the steam car have focused on its boiler. This represents much of the total mass of the vehicle, making the car heavy, requires careful attention from the driver, although the cars of 1900 had considerable automation to manage this; the single largest restriction is the need to supply feedwater to the boiler.
This must either be carried and replenished, or the car must be fitted with a condenser, a further weight and inconvenience. Steam-powered and electric cars outsold gasoline-powered cars in the US prior to the invention of the electric starter, since internal combustion cars relied on a hand crank to start the engine, difficult and dangerous to use, as improper cranking could cause a backfire capable of breaking the arm of the operator. Electric cars were popular to some extent, but had a short range, could not be charged on the road if the batteries ran low. Once working pressure was attained, early steam cars could be driven off with high acceleration. To overcome this, development has been directed toward flash boilers, which heat a much smaller quantity of water to get the vehicle started, in the case of Doble cars, spark ignition diesel burners; the steam car does have advantages over internal combustion-powered cars, although most of these are now less important than in the early 20th century.
The engine is lighter than an internal combustion engine. It is better-suited to the speed and torque characteristics of the axle, thus avoiding the need for the heavy and complex transmission required for an internal combustion engine; the steam car is quieter without a silencer. A French inventor, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, built the first working self-propelled land-based mechanical vehicle. There is an unsubstantiated story that a pair of Yorkshiremen, engineer Robert Fourness and his cousin, physician James Ashworth had a steam carriage running in 1788, after being granted a British Patent, No.1674 of December 1788. An illustration of it appeared in Hergé's book Tintin raconte l'Histoire de l'Automobile; the first substantiated steam carriage for personal use was that of Josef Božek in 1815. He was followed by Thomas Blanchard of Massachusetts in 1825. Over thirty years passed before there was a flurry of steam cars from 1857 onwards with Dugeon and Spenser from the United States, Thomes Rickett, Austin and Ayres from England, Innocenzo Manzetti from Italy, Elijah Leonard of London, Canada being the earliest.
Others followed with Amédée Bollée and Louis Lejeune of France in 1878, Rene Thury of Switzerland in 1879. The 1880s saw the rise of the first larger scale manufacturers in France, the first being Bollée followed by De Dion-Bouton, Whitney of East Boston, Ransom E. Olds and Peugeot; this early period saw the first repossession of an automobile in 1867 and the first getaway car the same year - both by Francis Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts. The 1890s were dominated by the formation of numerous car manufacturing companies; the internal combustion engine was in its infancy. Electric powered cars were becoming available but suffered from their inability to travel longer distances; the majority of steam powered car manufacturers from this period were from the United States. The more notable of these were Clark from 1895 to 1909, Locomobile from 1899 to 1903 when it switched to gasoline engines, Stanley from 1897 to 1924; as well as England and France, other countries made attempts to manufacture steam cars
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks