Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people horse-drawn. The carriage is designed for private passenger use, though some are used to transport goods. A public passenger vehicle would not be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach and omnibus, it may be light and fast or heavy and comfortable or luxurious. Carriages have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. Working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot; the word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage. The word car meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century. A carriage is sometimes called a team, as in "horse and team". A carriage with its horse is a rig. An elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout. A procession of carriages is a cavalcade. X Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints.
Four-wheeled wagons were used in the Bronze Age Europe, their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then. Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as harappa, mohenjo daro and chanhu daro; the earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC. Used for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses; the chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness. First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys, it is that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. During the Zhou dynasty of China, the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation.
With the decline of these city-states and kingdoms, these techniques disappeared. The medieval carriage was a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it likely employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were used by royalty and could be elaborately decorated and gilded; these carriages were on four wheels and were pulled by two to four horses depending on how they were decorated. Wood and iron were the primary requirements needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the size of pageant wagons; the pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or 3 wheels.
Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages. Pivotal axles were used on the middle set of wheels; this allowed the horse to move and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path. One of the great innovations of the carriage was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant. The'chariot branlant' of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed. Chains provided a smoother ride in the chariot branlant because the compartment no longer rested on the turning axles. In the 15th century, carriages were needed only one horse to haul the carriage; this carriage innovated in Hungary. Both innovations appeared around the same time and historians believe that people began comparing the chariot branlant and the Hungarian light coach.
However, the earliest illustrations of the Hungarian'Kochi-wagon' do not indicate any suspension, the use of three horses in harness. Under King Mathias Corvinus, who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks
Gloria May Josephine Swanson was an American actress and producer. She achieved widespread critical acclaim and recognition for her role as Norma Desmond, a reclusive silent film star, in the critically acclaimed 1950 film Sunset Boulevard; the film earned her an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Globe Award win. Swanson was a star in the silent film era as both an actress and a fashion icon under the direction of Cecil B. DeMille. Throughout the 1920s, Swanson was one of Hollywood's top box office draws. Swanson starred in dozens of silent films, was nominated for the first Academy Award for Best Actress, she produced her own films during this period, including The Love of Sunya and Sadie Thompson. In 1929, Swanson transitioned into talkies with her performance in The Trespasser. Personal problems and changing tastes saw her popularity wane during the 1930s and she subsequently ventured into theater and television. Gloria May Josephine Swanson was born in a small house in Chicago in 1899 to Adelaide and Joseph Theodore Swanson, a soldier.
She attended Hawthorne Scholastic Academy. Her father was from a strict Lutheran Swedish American family, her mother was of German and Polish ancestry; because of her father's attachment to the U. S. Army, the family moved and Swanson ended up spending most of her childhood in Puerto Rico, where she learned Spanish, she spent time in Key West, Florida. It was not her intention to enter show business, but on a whim one of her aunts took her to a small film company in Chicago called Essanay Studios for a visit and Swanson was asked to come back to work as an extra. After a few months as an extra working with others like Charlie Chaplin, making $13.50 a week, Swanson left school to work full-time at the studio. Her parents soon separated and she and her mother moved to California. Swanson made her film debut in 1914 as an extra in The Song of Soul for Essanay, she subsequently moved to California in 1916 to appear in Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios comedies opposite Bobby Vernon. With their great screen chemistry, the pair became popular.
Director Charley Chase recalled that she was "frightened to death" of Vernon's dangerous stunts. Conquering her fears, she cooperated with Vernon. Surviving films in which they appear together include The Danger Girl, The Sultan's Wife, Teddy at the Throttle. In 1919 she signed with Paramount Pictures and worked with Cecil B. DeMille, who turned her into a romantic lead in such films as Don't Change Your Husband and Female with the famous scene posing as "the Lion's Bride" with a real lion, Why Change Your Wife?, Something to Think About, The Affairs of Anatol. In the space of two years, Swanson rocketed to stardom and was one of the most sought-after actresses in Hollywood, she appeared in a series of films directed by Sam Wood. She starred in Beyond the Rocks with her longtime friend Rudolph Valentino. Swanson continued to make costume drama films for the next few years. So successful were her films for Paramount that the studio was afraid of losing her and gave in to many of her whims and wishes.
During Swanson's heyday, audiences went to her films not only for her performances, but to see her wardrobe. She was ornamented with beads, jewels and ostrich feathers and other extravagant pieces of haute couture, her fashion, hair styles, jewels were copied around the world. She was the screen's first clothes horse and was becoming one of the most famous and photographed women in the world. In 1925, Swanson starred in the French-American Madame Sans-Gêne, directed by Léonce Perret. Filming was allowed for the first time at many of the historic sites relating to Napoleon. While it was well received at the time, no prints are known to exist, it is considered to be a lost film. During the production of Madame Sans-Gêne, Swanson met her third husband Henri, Marquis de la Falaise, hired to be her translator during the film's production. After a four-month residency in France she returned to the United States as European nobility, now known as the Marquise, she got a huge welcome home with parades in both New York and Los Angeles.
Swanson appeared in a 1925 short produced by Lee DeForest in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process. She made a number of films for Paramount, among them The Coast of Folly, Stage Struck and Fine Manners. In 1927, she decided to turn down a million dollar a year contract with Paramount to join the newly created United Artists, where she was her own boss and could make the films she wanted, with whom she wanted, when, her first independent film, The Love of Sunya, was directed by Albert Parker, based on the play The Eyes of Youth, by Max Marcin and Charles Guernon. Produced by and starring Swanson, it co-starred John Boles and Pauline Garon, it is the story of a young woman granted the ability to see into her future, including her future with different men. The story had been filmed as Eyes of Youth starring Clara Kimball Young; the production was marred by several problems a suitable cameraman to deal with the film's intricate double exposures, as Swanson was not used to taking charge, filming took place in New York.
The film premiered at the grand opening of the Roxy Theatre in New York City on March 11, 1927. (Swanson was pictured in the ruins of the Roxy on October 14, 1960, during the demolition of the theater
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Lady Bird Johnson
Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Johnson was an American socialite and the First Lady of the United States as the wife of the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, she served as the Second Lady of the United States from 1961 until President John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Notably well-educated for a woman of her era, she proved a shrewd investor. After marrying Lyndon B. Johnson in 1934 when he was a political hopeful in Austin, she used a modest inheritance to bankroll his congressional campaign, ran his office while he served in the Navy, she bought a radio station, a television station which generated revenues that made the Johnsons into millionaires. As First Lady, she broke new ground by interacting directly with Congress, employing her own press secretary, making a solo electioneering tour. Johnson was an advocate for beautifying highways; the Highway Beautification Act was informally known as "Lady Bird's Bill." She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest honors bestowed upon a US civilian.
Claudia Alta Taylor was born on December 22, 1912, in Karnack, Texas, a town in Harrison County, near the eastern state line with Louisiana. Her birthplace was "The Brick House," an antebellum plantation house on the outskirts of town, which her father had purchased shortly before her birth, she is a descendant of English Protestant martyr Rowland Taylor through his grandson Captain Thomas J. Taylor, II, she was named for her mother's brother Claud. During her infancy, her nursemaid, Alice Tittle, said that she was as "purty as a ladybird". Opinions differ about whether the name refers to a bird or a ladybird beetle, the latter of, referred to as a "ladybug" in North America; the nickname replaced her first name for the rest of her life. Her father and siblings called her Lady, her husband called her Bird—the name she used on her marriage license. During her teenage years, some classmates would call her Bird to provoke her, since she was not fond of the name. Nearly all of her maternal and paternal immigrant ancestors arrived in the Virginia Colony during the late 17th and early 18th centuries as indentured servants, as were most early settlers in the colony.
A native of Alabama, her father had English ancestry, some Welsh and Danish. Her mother was a native of Alabama, of English and Scottish descent, her father, Thomas Jefferson Taylor, was a sharecropper's son. He became a wealthy businessman, owned 15,000 acres of cotton and two general stores. "My father was a strong character, to put it mildly," his daughter once said. "He lived by his own rules. It was a whole feudal way of life, really."Born Minnie Lee Pattillo, her mother loved opera and felt out of place in Karnack. When Lady Bird was five years old, Minnie fell down a flight of stairs while pregnant and died of complications of miscarriage. In a profile of Lady Bird Johnson, Time magazine described Lady Bird's mother as "a tall, eccentric woman from an old and aristocratic Alabama family, liked to wear long white dresses and heavy veils scandalized people for miles around by entertaining Negroes in her home, once started to write a book about Negro religious practices, called Bio Baptism."
Her husband, tended to see blacks as "hewers of wood and drawers of water," according to his younger son. Lady Bird had two elder brothers, Thomas Jefferson Jr. and Antonio known as Tony. Her widowed father married twice more, his second wife was a bookkeeper at a general store. His third wife was Ruth Scroggins, whom he married in 1937. Lady Bird was raised by her maternal aunt Effie Pattillo, who moved to Karnack after her sister's death, she visited her Pattillo relatives in Autauga County, every summer until she was a young woman. As she explained, "Until I was about 20, summertime always meant Alabama to me. With Aunt Effie we would board the train in Marshall and ride to the part of the world that meant watermelon cuttings, picnics at the creek, a lot of company every Sunday." According to Lady Bird, her Aunt Effie "opened my spirit to beauty, but she neglected to give me any insight into the practical matters a girl should know about, such as how to dress or choose one's friends or learning to dance."Lady Bird was a shy and quiet girl who spent much of her youth alone outdoors.
"People always look back at it now and assume it was lonely," she once said about her childhood. "To me it was not.... I spent a lot of time just walking and fishing and swimming." She developed her lifelong love of the outdoors as a child growing up in the tall pines and bayous of East Texas, where she watched the wildflowers bloom each spring. When it came time to enter high school, Lady Bird had to move away and live with another family during weekdays in the town of Jefferson, since there was no high school in the Karnack area.. She graduated third in her class at the age of 15 from Marshall Senior High School in the nearby county seat. Despite her young age, her father gave her a car so that she could drive herself to school, a distance of 15 miles each way, she said of that time, "t was an awful chore for my daddy to delegate some person from his business to take me in and out." During her senior year, when she realized that she had the highest grades in her class, she "purposely allowed her grades to slip" so that she would not have to gi