Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough. Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea; the natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, some species in South America.
As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle; the fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, the embryo development is of the Polygonum type; the name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera of Charles Plumier, for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique. English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia, he was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina and the Bahama Islands. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America; the species that Plumier named Magnolia was described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.
Carl Linnaeus, familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant, described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina, he placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae, he merged grisea with glauca, raised the four remaining varieties to species status. By the end of the 18th century and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan.
The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at the same time Magnolia kobus was first collected. With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, of horticultural importance in the southeastern United States, M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is the American deciduous M. acuminata, which has attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time; because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events, its distribution has become scattered.
Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task. By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia; these phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for
Olympic Boulevard (Los Angeles)
Olympic Boulevard is a major arterial road in Los Angeles, California. It stretches from Ocean Avenue on the western end of Santa Monica to East Los Angeles—farther than Wilshire Boulevard and most other streets, its path runs parallel to and north of Pico Boulevard from Santa Monica to Downtown Los Angeles, parallel to and south of Santa Monica Boulevard on its western end and Wilshire Boulevard past Beverly Hills. Like other major Los Angeles streets, Olympic is at least four lanes in width. Unlike other east-west arterial roads such as Wilshire Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard, Sunset Boulevard, it does not cross major attractions and sites and therefore contains far less traffic. While Wilshire crosses through the heart of Los Angeles, Olympic runs through the southern end of principal areas such as West Los Angeles, Century City, Beverly Hills, Hancock Park, Koreatown and Downtown Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is east of Fairfax Olympic. Proceeding east on Olympic, it breaks off in Downtown LA's Fashion District but continues on from there, passing the southern areas of Boyle Heights, East Los Angeles and Montebello with an eastern terminus in Montebello as a small neighborhood street.
Olympic Boulevard is a commercial, urban street. There is a grass divider with trees in the Santa Monica portion. Around Carthay, Olympic passes through residential neighborhoods. A number of schools are located on Olympic as well. Crossroads School is located at Olympic and 20th in Santa Monica, New Roads Middle School is located at the Franklin/Berkeley St. area in Santa Monica. and Wildwood School is located in between Bundy and Barrington. Los Angeles High School is located to the east of Olympic and Highland Avenue. Olympic expands to six lanes starting east of Santa Monica and maintains a speed limit of 45 miles per hour. So, due to Los Angeles traffic, Olympic becomes congested, it was named 10th Street, but was renamed Olympic Boulevard for the 1932 Summer Olympics, as, the occasion of the tenth modern event. Tenth Street School, at Olympic and Grattan, has kept the original name. Parts of the old 10th Street exist as smaller streets near Hancock Park, in Westlake, in the Central City East area southeast of Downtown.
Bus service throughout Olympic Boulevard is served between Santa Monica and Century City by Santa Monica Transit line 5, between Century City and Downtown LA by Metro Local line 28 and Metro Rapid line 728, from The Fashion District east by Metro Local lines 62 and 66. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Los Angeles Branch The Grammy Museum LA Live Loyola Law School Sammy Lee Square, at the corner of Normandie Avenue Los Angeles High School National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences headquarters Byron B. Brainard, Los Angeles City Council member who accessed state money for the widening of the boulevard
Crenshaw, Los Angeles
Crenshaw, or the Crenshaw District, is a neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The name derives from one of the city's major thoroughfares; the Crenshaw commercial business corridor along this street has had many different cultural backgrounds throughout the years but still has a positive African American commerce with many other ethnic groups in recent years. According to Google Maps, the Crenshaw neighborhood is centered on Crenshaw Boulevard and Buckingham Road; the neighborhood of Baldwin Hills is to the south, Baldwin Village is to the west, Leimert Park is to the east. In the post-World War II era, a Japanese-American community was established in Crenshaw. There was an area Japanese school called Dai-Ichi Gakuen. Due to a shared sense of being discriminated against, many of the Japanese-Americans had close relationships with the African-American community. At its peak, it was one of the largest Japanese-American settlements in California, with about 8,000 residents around 1970, Dai-Ichi Gakuen had a peak of 700 students.
Beginning in the 1970s the Japanese American community began decreasing in size and Japanese-American businesses began leaving. Scott Shibya Brown stated that "some say" the effect was a "belated response" to the 1965 Watts riots and that "several residents say a wave of anti-Japanese-American sentiment began cropping up in the area, prompting further departures." Eighty-two-year-old Jimmy Jike was quoted in the Los Angeles Times in 1993, stating that it was because the residents' children, after attending universities, moved away. By 1980, there were half of the previous size. By 1990 there were 2,500 Japanese-Americans older residents. By 1993, the community was diminishing in size, with older Japanese Americans staying but with younger ones moving away; that year, Dai-Ichi Gakuen had 15 students. There has been a shift in a new generation of Japanese Americans moving back into the neighborhood; the Los Angeles Police Department is responsible for law enforcement in the area. The Southwest Community police station is at 1546 W. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.
The Los Angeles Fire Department operates one main fire station, Station 94 - in the area. The United States Postal Service operates the Crenshaw Post Office, the Julian Dixon Post Office and the North Torrance Post Office. Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District. Crenshaw High School, south of Martin Luther King Boulevard and east of Crenshaw Boulevard, is the local public high school; the district's charter schools in the area include the KIPP network. KIPP Academy of Opportunity Celerity Nascent Charter School the New Design Charter School View Park Preparatory High School, View Park Preparatory Middle School. Crenshaw is a residential neighborhood of single-story houses and low-rise condominiums and apartments. There are commercial buildings with an industrial corridor along Jefferson Boulevard. There are several other commercial districts throughout the neighborhood. After courts ruled segregation covenants to be unconstitutional, the area opened up to other races.
A large Japanese American settlement ensued, which can still be found along Coliseum Street and west of Crenshaw Boulevard. African Americans started migrating to the district in the mid 1960s, by the early 1970s were the majority. In the 1970s, Leimert Park and neighboring areas together had formed one of the largest African-American communities in the western United States. Crenshaw had suffered significant damage from both the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the 1994 Northridge earthquake but was able to rebound in the late 2000s with the help of redevelopment and gentrification. In 2006, the population of Crenshaw was around 27,600. There is a huge demographic shift increased in where many middle and lower-class blacks and Latinos are migrating to cities in the Inland Empire as well as cities in the Antelope Valley sections of Southern California as a form of gentrification; the Metro Crenshaw LAX Line is an 8.5-mile light rail line that will "add eight new stations serving the Crenshaw neighborhood, Leimert Park, Inglewood and surrounding areas".
The line will run between the Expo/Crenshaw station and Aviation/96 Street station, transiting north-south along Crenshaw Boulevard. Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza shopping mall is a landmark, it was home to a tri-level Wal-Mart and Macy's. Additional retail stores were purchased by the mall such as Victoria's Secret, Forever 21, Ashley Stewart, as well as office supply stores such as Staples. Marlton Square, was a shopping center; the center was a failed redevelopment project. Local city business developers and Kaiser Permanente purchased the land and demolished the old retail stores in 2011. A new Kaiser Permanente medical office building was built on the site; the Crenshaw Square Shopping Centre and sign, a local landmark, had been in some disrepair throughout the years. In 2007, the sign was replaced by a modern illuminated red-and-green sign; the Crenshaw Square outdoor shopping center was sold in 2015 and underwent a significant renovation in 2016. The West Angeles Church of God in Christ, a Pentecostal church near the intersection of Crenshaw and Exposition boulevards, is home to Bishop Charles E. Blake.
Village Green is a neighborhood near Baldwin Hills. It is Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #174; the Holiday Bowl was a bowling alley and café known for being a center of ethnic diversity during the 1960s and 1970s. It featured a sushi bar known as the Sakiba Lounge with li
The American Craftsman style, or the American Arts and Crafts movement, is an American domestic architectural, interior design, landscape design, applied arts, decorative arts style and lifestyle philosophy that began in the last years of the 19th century. As a comprehensive design and art movement, it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in decorative arts and architectural design, it has continued with numerous revivals and restoration projects through present times; the American Craftsman style was developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement, which began as early as the 1860s. The British movement was reacting against the Industrial Revolution's perceived devaluation of the individual worker and resulting degradation of the dignity of human labor; the movement emphasized handwork over mass production, with the problem that expensive materials and costly skilled labor restricted acquisition of Arts and Crafts productions to a wealthy clientele ironically derided as "champagne socialists".
While the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian "over-decorated" aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts style's American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. The American Arts and Crafts movement shared the British movement's reform philosophy, encouraging originality, simplicity of form, local natural materials, the visibility of handicraft, but distinguished itself in the Craftsman Bungalow style, with a goal of ennobling modest homes for a expanding American middle class. In the 1890s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and educators were determined to bring the design reforms of the British Arts and Crafts movement to America, its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Present at this meeting were local museum trustees, including General Charles Loring, William Sturgis Bigelow, Denman Ross, they succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 400 objects made by over 100 designers and craftspeople, half of whom were women.
Some of the exhibit's supporters included: the founder of Harvard’s School of Architecture, Langford Warren. The exhibition's success led to the formation of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897 with Charles Eliot Norton as president; the society aimed to "develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts." The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was soon expanded into a credo which read: This Society was incorporated for the purpose of promoting artistic work in all branches of handicraft, it hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, to encourage workmen to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in workmen an appreciation of the value of good design, it will insist upon the necessity of sobriety and restraint, of ordered arrangement, of due regard for the relation between the form of an object and its use, of harmony and fitness in the decoration put upon it.
The society held its first exhibition in 1899 at Copley Hall. In China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. In architecture, reacting to both Victorian architectural opulence and common mass-produced housing, the style incorporated a visible sturdy structure, of clean lines and natural materials; the movement's name American Craftsman came from the popular magazine, The Craftsman, founded in October 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker, editor Gustav Stickley. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, others; the designs, while influenced by the ideals of the British movement, found inspiration in American antecedents such as Shaker furniture and the Mission Revival Style, the Anglo-Japanese style. Emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are traceable not only to changes in taste and style but to the shift from the upper- to middle-class patronage.
The American Victorian took the form of a two-story square house with a hip roof disguised behind a variety of two-storied bays, with an assortment of gables as well as octagonal or round turrets and wraparound porches presenting a complex facade. The basic square house was complemented by a back wing complete with its own entrances, a stairwell, that housed the kitchen and scullery on the first floor and the servants' quarters on the second. Fitted with inferior-quality woodwork and hardware, noticeably smaller bedrooms and lower ceiling heights, the Victorian kitchen-servants' wing embodied the aristocratic class distinctions of the Old World. With the large bays and rear wing removed, the front porch simplified, the ceilings lowered somewhat, it is not difficult to see how the American Foursquare developed from the common American Queen Anne; the middle-class housewife of t
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Hancock Park is a city park in the Miracle Mile section of the Mid-Wilshire district, Los Angeles, California. The park's destinations include: the La Brea Tar Pits. Page Museum of La Brea Discoveries, which displays the fossils of Ice Age prehistoric mammals from the tar pits, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art−LACMA complex, they are among the most popular tourist attractions in Los Angeles. The park has urban open spaces and landscaped areas for walking and other recreation. Located on Wilshire Boulevard just east of Fairfax Avenue, it extends across a large city block and around two museums; the landmark Park La Brea complex is across 6th Street on the north. The park is not within the Hancock Park neighborhood, 1 mile to the northeast. Hancock Park is the location of the La Brea Tar Pits, the George C. Page Museum of La Brea Discoveries overseen by the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art campus of buildings and sculpture gardens; the 1952 Mid-century modern style Observation Pit in the park, a repository for large Ice Age fossils from throughout the tar pit area, reopened in 2014 after being closed since the mid-1990s.
It is part of the Page Museum’s new Excavator Tour. The Pit 91 fossil excavation reopened in 2014 for excavations and public viewing, had closed in 2006 to focus on fossils newly uncovered during excavation for LACMA's new subterranean parking garage in the park's western area; the skeleton of a near-complete Columbian mammoth was among the excavated discoveries there. The Pleistocene Garden recreates the original prehistoric landscape habitats in the Hancock Park area, representing the native vegetation of the Los Angeles Basin 10,000 to 40,000 years ago; the plant list was created from 35 years of research in the Pit 91 fossil excavation. It represents four ecoregions, Coastal sage scrub, Deep Canyon California oak woodlands, California montane chaparral. Hancock Park was created in 1924 when George Allan Hancock donated 23 acres of the Hancock Ranch to the County of Los Angeles with the stipulation that the park be preserved and the fossils properly exhibited; the park is named for its benefactor, George Hancock, a California petroleum industry pioneer, who recognized the scientific importance of the fossils found in the asphaltic deposits.
He inherited the 3,000-acre Rancho La Brea in 1883 that included the La Brea tar pits, found animal bones when digging for oil at them. Until 1875, bones found in the asphalt deposits were considered remains of domestic stock and native mammals of the region. In that year scientist William Denton published the first mention of the occurrence of extinct fauna at Rancho La Brea, it was not until 1901 that the bones on the Hancock Ranch were studied by William Warren Orcutt, a prominent Los Angeles geologist and petroleum pioneer. Who examined bones he collected. Orcutt collected bones of saber-toothed cat, dire wolf, ground sloth and other fossils from the site, bringing the attention of the scientific community to the value of the La Brea Tarpits in understanding the late Pleistocene fauna and flora of North America. Orcutt donated his fossil collection to John Campbell Merriam of the University of California; the park is registered as California Historical Landmark #170. The La Brea Tar Pits are a designated U.
S. National Natural Landmark. List of fossil species in the La Brea Tar Pits California Historical Landmarks in Los Angeles County, California Lagerstätte – fossil formations. Ranchos of Los Angeles County, California – Spanish & Mexican land grant ranchos. Official George C. Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits in Hancock Park website Arcadia Publishing: Historical Photos & Images of Los Angeles's La Brea Tar Pits and Hancock Park